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Reflex, Abnormal: An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.
 JoVE Neuroscience

A Behavioral Assay for Mechanosensation of MARCM-based Clones in Drosophila melanogaster

1Department of Biology, College of the Holy Cross, 2School of Medicine, Georgetown University, 3Department of Biochemistry, Giesel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, 4School of Medicine, Tufts University, 5Transgenomic Inc., 6Department of Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology, UMass Medical School

JoVE 53537

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations II

Male Rectal Exam

JoVE Science Education

Source: Joseph Donroe, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

While its usefulness in cancer screening is debated, the male rectal examination remains an important part of the physical exam. The exam is indicated in selected patients with lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary and/or fecal incontinence or retention, back pain, anorectal symptoms, abdominal complaints, trauma patients, unexplained anemia, weight loss, or bone pain. There are no absolute contraindications to the rectal exam; however, relative contraindications include patient unwillingness to undergo the exam, severe rectal pain, recent anorectal surgery or trauma, and neutropenia. When performing the rectal exam, the examiner should conceptualize the relevant anatomy. The external anal sphincter is the most distal part of the anal canal, which extends three to four centimeters before transitioning into the rectum. The prostate gland lies anterior to the rectum, just beyond the anal canal. The posterior surface of the prostate, including its apex, base, lateral lobes, and median sulcus, can be palpated through the rectal wall (Figure 1). The normal consistency of the prostate is similar to the thenar eminence when the hand is in a tight fist. The thumb knuckle is representativ

 JoVE Neuroscience

Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 3Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 4Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 5Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 6Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, 7Department of Neurology, Neurosciences Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine

JoVE 51763

 JoVE Medicine

Transposon Mediated Integration of Plasmid DNA into the Subventricular Zone of Neonatal Mice to Generate Novel Models of Glioblastoma

1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, 3Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan

JoVE 52443

 JoVE Medicine

Surgical Models of Gastroesophageal Reflux with Mice

1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Ningxia Medical University General Hospital, 2Cancer Research Program, North Carolina Central University, 3Department of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 4Department of Medicine, Center for Esophageal Disease and Swallowing, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

JoVE 53012

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations II

Eye Exam

JoVE Science Education

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA

Proper evaluation of the eyes in a general practice setting involves vision testing, orbit inspection, and ophthalmoscopic examination. Before beginning the exam, it is crucial to be familiar with the anatomy and physiology of the eye. The upper eyelid should be slightly over the iris, but it shouldn't cover the pupil when open; the lower lid lies below the iris. The sclera normally appears white or slightly buff in color. The appearance of conjunctiva, a transparent membrane covering the anterior sclera and the inner eyelids, is a sensitive indicator of ocular disorders, such as infections and inflammation. The tear-producing lacrimal gland lies above and lateral to the eyeball. Tears spread down and across the eye to drain medially into two lacrimal puncta before passing into the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct to the nose. The iris divides the anterior from the posterior chamber. Muscles of the iris control the size of the pupil, and muscles of the ciliary body behind it control the focal length of the lens. The ciliary body also produces aqueous humor, which largely determines intraocular pressure (Figure 1). Cranial nerve

 JoVE Medicine

Fundus Photography as a Convenient Tool to Study Microvascular Responses to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Epidemiological Studies

1Environmental Risk and Health, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), 2Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, 3Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, 4Department of Public Health, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Leuven University

JoVE 51904

 JoVE Behavior

Vision Training Methods for Sports Concussion Mitigation and Management

1Neurology and Rehabilitative Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 2Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Cincinnati, 3Department of Athletics, University of Cincinnati, 4Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cincinnati, 5College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, 6Division of Sports Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

JoVE 52648

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Method for Systematic Electrochemical and Electrophysiological Evaluation of Neural Recording Electrodes

1School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, 2Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, 3ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, 4Health Innovations Research Institute, College of Science, Engineering, and Health, RMIT University

JoVE 51084

 JoVE Medicine

Bile Duct Ligation in Mice: Induction of Inflammatory Liver Injury and Fibrosis by Obstructive Cholestasis

1Institute of Molecular Pathobiochemistry, Experimental Gene Therapy and Clinical Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, 2Institute for Laboratory Animal Science and Experimental Surgery, RWTH Aachen University, 3Department of Medicine III, RWTH Aachen University

JoVE 52438

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