JoVE Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary section devoted to investigations of the structure, function, physiology, and pathophysiology of the brain and nervous system. Included methodologies range from molecular and cellular level studies to full central and peripheral neural systems. Potential treatment platforms and surgical techniques for neurological diseases and disorders are also presented in this section.
1Institute of Neurophysiology and Cellular Biophysics and Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain (CNMPB), University of Göttingen
We describe a protocol for in vivo labeling of olfactory sensory neurons by electroporation and subsequent confocal laser-scanning or multiphoton microscopy to visualize neuronal morphology and its development over time.
Published October 30, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Xenopus laevis, Anura, electroporation, single cell electroporation, sensory neurons, olfactory system, axon growth, glomerulus, olfactory bulb, olfactory map formation
1Department of Neurobiology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
In this paper we show a method for preparing acute brain slices in physiological temperature, using a conventional physiological solution without special modifications for the cutting (such as adding sucrose) and without intracardial perfusion of the animal before slice preparation.
Published October 30, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Acute brain slicing, electrophysiology, mice, rats, in vitro, cerebellum, adult, vibratome
1Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Dorris Neuroscience Center, The Scripps Research Institute, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, 3Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, 4Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego School of Medicine
Intracellular transport of cargoes, such as vesicles or organelles, is carried out by molecular motor proteins that track on polarized microtubules. This protocol describes the correlation of the directionality of transport of individual cargo particles moving inside neurons, to the relative amount and type of associated motor proteins.
Published October 30, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, kinesin, dynein, single vesicle, axonal transport, microfluidic devices, primary hippocampal neurons, quantitative fluorescence microscopy
1Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 2MRC-Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
Recent improvements in organotypic brain slice preparations have permitted their exploitation for biotechnological applications. Organotypic slices maintain local structural characteristics of in vivo biology, including functional synaptic connections. Here we present a regioselective biolistic delivery method to label and genetically manipulate these slices.
Published October 24, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Biolistics, gene gun, organotypic brain slices, Diolistic, gene delivery, staining
1Anatomical Institute, Department of Biomedicine Basel, University of Basel, 2Department of Neonatology, University Children's Hospital (UKBB), University of Basel
A protocol for entorhino-hippocampal organotypic slice cultures, which allows reproducing many aspects of ischemic brain injury, is presented. By studying changes of the neurovasculature in addition to changes in the neurons, this protocol is a versatile tool to study plastic changes in neural tissue after injury.
Published October 23, 2014. Keywords: Neurobiology, blood-brain-barrier, neurovascular remodeling, hippocampus, pyramidal cells, excitotoxic, ischemia
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago
After exocytosis, fused plasma membrane is retrieved through a process known as endocytosis. This mechanism reforms new synaptic vesicles for the next round of release. Individual endocytic events are captured and analyzed through the use of the cell-attached capacitance recordings in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells.
Published October 22, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Cell-attached capacitance measurements, chromaffin cells, single vesicles, endocytosis, exocytosis, clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), patch clamp
1Department of Neuroscience, University of Connecticut Health Center, 2Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago
Globoid cells are a defining pathological feature of Krabbe disease, a leukodystrophy currently lacking an effective long-term therapy. We have developed a cell culture model to study the innate biology and pathogenic potential of activated microglia and their transformation into globoid cells.
Published October 21, 2014. Keywords: Cellular Biology, globoid cells, psychosine, microglia, multinucleation, leukodystrophy, Krabbe disease, pathogenesis, phagocytic activity
1Centre for Neuroregeneration, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, 2Shriners Hospitals Pediatric Research Center (Center for Neural Repair and Rehabilitation), Temple University School of Medicine, 3Department of Neurology, Temple University School of Medicine
Lampreys recover locomotion after a complete spinal cord injury. However, some spinal-projecting neurons are good regenerators and others are not. This paper illustrates the techniques for housing sea lamprey larvae (and recently transformed adults), producing complete spinal cord transections and preparing wholemount brains and spinal cords for in situ hybridization.
Published October 14, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, spinal cord injury, axonal guidance molecules, neurofilaments, regeneration
1Department of Neurobiology, University of California, Los Angeles, 2Veterans Administration Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 3Departments of Physiology & Biophysics and Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Dalhousie University, 4Departments of Neurobiology and Medicine, Jules Stein Eye Institute, CURE-Digestive Diseases Research Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles
Immunohistochemistry protocols are used to study the localization of a specific protein in the retina. Calcium imaging techniques are employed to study calcium dynamics in retinal ganglion cells and their axons.
Published October 13, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, immunohistochemistry, antibody, fluo-4, calcium imaging, ganglion cells, retina, rat
1InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 2Bernstein Focus for Neurotechnology, University of Goettingen, 3Auditory Systems Physiology Group, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 4Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, University of Goettingen, 5Department of Chemical, Electronic, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Guanajuato
Cochlear implants (CIs) enable hearing by direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. However, poor frequency and intensity resolution limits the quality of hearing with CIs. Here we describe optogenetic stimulation of the auditory nerve in mice as an alternative strategy for auditory research and developing future CIs.
Published October 8, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, hearing, cochlear implant, optogenetics, channelrhodopsin, optical stimulation, deafness