JoVE Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary section devoted to investigations of the structure, function, physiology, and pathophysiology of the brain and nervous system. Included methodologies range from molecular and cellular level studies to full central and peripheral neural systems. Potential treatment platforms and surgical techniques for neurological diseases and disorders are also presented in this section.
1Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, 3Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado School of Medicine
Primary disassociated embryonic hippocampal neuronal cultures are useful for investigating the signaling mechanisms involved in neuron death. Sexing the embryos before the isolation and dissociation of the hippocampus allows the preparation of separate male and female cultures, which enables the researcher to identify and investigate sex-specific cell signaling.
1Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health & Science University, 2Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University
Procedures are described to perform simultaneous recordings of membrane potential or current and changes of intracellular calcium concentration. Suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons are filled with the calcium indicator bis-fura-2 using a patch clamp electrode in the whole cell patch clamp configuration.
1Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, 2Center for Taste and Feeding Behavior, Universite de Bourgogne
The activity of single neurons from adult-aged mice can be studied by dissociating neurons from specific brain regions and using fluorescent membrane potential dye imaging. By testing responses to changes in glucose, this technique can be used to study the glucose sensitivity of adult ventromedial hypothalamic neurons.
1Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, King's College London, 2David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Neuroblast migration is a fundamental event in postnatal neurogenesis. We describe a protocol for efficient labeling of neuroblasts by in vivo postnatal electroporation and subsequent visualization of their migration using time-lapse imaging of acute brain slices. We include a description for the quantitative analysis of neuroblast dynamics by video tracking.
1Laboratory of Neurobiology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health
This paper describes the application of cryoanalytical electron microscopy to the quantitative measurement of total calcium content and distribution at subcellular resolution in physiologically defined biological specimens.
1Department of Genetics, University of Georgia, 2Department of Cellular Biology, University of Georgia, 3College of Engineering, Architecture and Technology, Oklahoma State University, 4University of Georgia, 5Department of Mathematics, University of California, Davis
This paper describes how an adult zebrafish can be immobilized, intubated, and used for in vivo electrophysiological experiments to allow recordings and manipulation of neural activity in an intact animal.
1Department of Pharmacological and Physiological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine
The feeding circuit in Drosophila melanogaster larvae serves a simple yet powerful model that allows changes in feeding rate to be correlated with alterations in the stomatogastric neural circuitry. This circuit is composed of central serotonergic neurons that send projections to the mouth hooks as well as the foregut.
1Department of Medicine, University of Dresden, 2Center for Regerative Therapies Dresden
Neural stem cells harvested from the adult brain are increasing utilized in applications ranging from the basic research of nervous system development to exploring potential clinical applications in regenerative medicine. This makes rigorous control in the isolation and culturing conditions used to grow these cells critical to sound experimental outcomes.
1Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 2Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, and Ophthalamology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Radiation Oncology & Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, University Of Washington Medical Center, 5Institute for Cell Engineering and High-Throughput Biology Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
The function of adult-born mammalian neurons remains an active area of investigation. Ionizing radiation inhibits the birth of new neurons. Using computer tomography-guided focal irradiation (CFIR), three-dimensional anatomical targeting of specific neural progenitor populations can now be used to assess the functional role of adult neurogenesis.
1Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, King's College London, 2MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King's College London
Neuroblast migration is a crucial step in postnatal neurogenesis. The protocol described here can be used to investigate the role of candidate regulators of neuroblast migration by employing DNA/small hairpin RNA (shRNA) nucleofection and a 3D migration assay with neuroblasts isolated from the rodent postnatal rostral migratory stream.