JoVE Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary section devoted to investigations of the structure, function, physiology, and pathophysiology of the brain and nervous system. Included methodologies range from molecular and cellular level studies to full central and peripheral neural systems. Potential treatment platforms and surgical techniques for neurological diseases and disorders are also presented in this section.
1Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, 3Centre for Neural Dynamics, University of Ottawa
We describe a set of techniques for studying spontaneous behavior of freely swimming weakly electric fish over an extended period of time, by synchronously measuring the animal's electric organ discharge timing, body position and posture both accurately and reliably in a specially designed aquarium tank inside a sensory isolation chamber.
Published March 6, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, animal tracking, weakly electric fish, electric organ discharge, underwater infrared imaging, automated image tracking, sensory isolation chamber, exploratory behavior
1BioSentinel Inc., Madison, WI
The BoTest Matrix botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) detection assays rapidly purify and quantify BoNT from a range of sample matrices. Here, we present a protocol for the detection and quantification of BoNT from both solid and liquid matrices and demonstrate the assay with BOTOX, tomatoes, and milk.
Published March 3, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Botulinum, food testing, detection, quantification, complex matrices, BoTest Matrix, Clostridium, potency testing
1School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, 2Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, 3ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, 4Health Innovations Research Institute, College of Science, Engineering, and Health, RMIT University
Different electrode coatings affect neural recording performance through changes to electrochemical, chemical and mechanical properties. Comparison of electrodes in vitro is relatively simple, however comparison of in vivo response is typically complicated by variations in electrode/neuron distance and between animals. This article provides a robust method to compare neural recording electrodes.
Published March 3, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Electrochemistry, Electrophysiology, Neural Recording, Neural Implant, Electrode Coating, Bionics
1Biology Department, Skidmore College
Developmental processes such as proliferation, patterning, differentiation, and axon guidance can be readily modeled in the zebrafish spinal cord. In this article, we describe a mounting procedure for zebrafish embryos, which optimizes visualization of these events.
Published February 28, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Spinal Cord, Zebrafish, Microscopy, Confocal, Embryonic Development, Nervous System, dissection and mounting, mounting embryos, dissecting embryos
1MCDB, Yale University
This protocol describes extracellular recording of the action potential responses fired by labellar taste neurons in Drosophila.
Published February 26, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Drosophila, insect, taste, neuron, electrophysiology, labellum, extracellular recording, labellar taste sensilla
1Department of Integrative Neurophysiology, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam
To understand the structure of neuronal networks, functional and morphological characterization of individual neurons is a necessity. Here, we demonstrate juxtasomal biocytin labeling, which allows electrophysiological recordings in the extracellular configuration, yet maintaining the ability to intracellularly label the neuron for post hoc reconstruction of dendritic and axonal architecture.
Published February 25, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, biocytin, juxtasomal, morphology, physiology, action potential, structure-function, histology, reconstruction, neurons, electrophysiological recordings
1Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden, 2German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Dresden
Here we describe a detailed protocol for the simultaneous generation of neural precursor cell cultures, as either adherent monolayers or neurospheres, from the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus of individual adult mice.
Published February 25, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, precursor cell, neurosphere, adherent monolayer, subventricular zone, dentate gyrus, adult mouse
1UPRES EA3830, Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, University of Rouen, 2Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 3Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Rouen University Hospital, 4Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Amiens University Hospital
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are neural crest cells which allow growth of the primary olfactory neurons. This specific property can be used for cellular transplantation. We present here a model of cellular transplantation based on the use of OECs in a laryngeal nerve injury model.
Published February 23, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, olfactory ensheathing cells, spinal cord injury, transplantation, larynx, recurrent laryngeal nerve, peripheral nerve injury, vocal cords
1Department of Biology, Franciscan University of Steubenville, 2Department of Computer Science, Franciscan University of Steubenville
Using a webcam and a combination of free and inexpensive software programs, locomotive patterns in Drosophila melanogaster can be analyzed to detect differences in the speed, distance, and time of various motor activities.
Published February 19, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Drosophila melanogaster, movement tracking, seizures, video analysis, locomotion, metformin, behavior, seizure-like activity
1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, 2Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, 4Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario, 5Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, 6Cerebral Systems Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, 7National Centre for Audiology, University of Western Ontario
Functional studies of the auditory system in mammals have traditionally been conducted using spatially-focused techniques such as electrophysiological recordings. The following protocol describes a method of visualizing large-scale patterns of evoked hemodynamic activity in the cat auditory cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Published February 19, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Central Nervous System, Ear, Animal Experimentation, Models, Animal, Functional Neuroimaging, Brain Mapping, Nervous System, Sense Organs, auditory cortex, BOLD signal change, hemodynamic response, hearing, acoustic stimuli