JoVE Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary section devoted to investigations of the structure, function, physiology, and pathophysiology of the brain and nervous system. Included methodologies range from molecular and cellular level studies to full central and peripheral neural systems. Potential treatment platforms and surgical techniques for neurological diseases and disorders are also presented in this section.
1Division of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, 2Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria
This protocol introduces lateralized early odor preference learning in rats using acute single naris occlusion. Lateralized learning permits the examination of behavioral outcomes and underpinning biological mechanisms within the same animals, reducing variance induced by between-animal designs. This protocol can be used to investigate molecular mechanisms underpinning early odor learning.
Published August 18, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, lateralized odor learning, rats, memory, nose plug, olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, phosphorylated CREB
1NYU Neuroscience Institute, New York University School of Medicine, 2Brain and Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College
This procedure shows how to target interneurons in the developing mouse forebrain by means of in utero electroporation. This technique was particularly efficient to achieve selective gene expression in interneuron subtypes destined to the superficial layers of the cortex.
Published August 18, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, development, mouse, cortex, interneurons, electroporation, morphology
1Department of Biology, Colby College
Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system, causing locomotion defects. Rotenone models Parkinson’s disease in Drosophila. This paper outlines two assays that characterize both spontaneous and startle-induced locomotion deficiencies caused by rotenone.
Published August 17, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Locomotion, Parkinson’s disease, rotenone, Drosophila, activity monitoring, neurobiology, behavior
1Vascular Biology Program, Boston Children's Hospital, 2Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School
The protocol describes the corneal micropocket assay as developed in mice.
Published August 16, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Angiogensis, neovasculatization, in vivo assay, model, fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor
1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 3Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 4Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 5Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 6Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, 7Department of Neurology, Neurosciences Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Phenotypically wild-type astrocytes and neural stem cells harvested from mice engineered with floxed, conditional oncogenic alleles and transformed via viral Cre-mediated recombination can be used to model astrocytoma pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo by orthotopic injection of transformed cells into brains of syngeneic, immune-competent littermates.
Published August 12, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, astrocytoma, cortical astrocytes, genetically engineered mice, glioblastoma, neural stem cells, orthotopic allograft
1RG Neuroplasticity, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, 2Department of Cell Biology, Utrecht University
We provide a detailed protocol for induction of long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and the subsequent isolation of nuclear enriched fractions from the tetanized area of the slice. This approach can be used to determine activity dependent nuclear protein import in cellular models of learning and memory.
Published August 10, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Hippocampal slices, long-term potentiation LTP, nucleus, NMDA receptors, NLS, immunoblotting, Jacob, nuclear enriched protein preparations
1University Clinics for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zürich
Improved in vitro neurotoxicity assays would aid the identification of new neuroprotective compounds. The utility of a real-time impedance-based cell analyzer to determine cytotoxicity and cytoprotection in neuronal cell lines and to delineate the involvement of second messenger pathways, thus gaining insight in the mechanism of neuroprotection is presented.
Published August 9, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, neuroscience, neuronal cell line, neurotoxicity, neuroprotection, real-time impedance-based cell analyzer, second messenger pathways, serotonin
1Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Bristol
The method to measure adult Drosophila associative memory is described. The assay is based on the ability of the fly to associate an odor presented with a negative reinforcer (electric shock) and then recall this information at a later time, allowing memory to be measured.
Published August 7, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Drosophila, Pavlovian learning, classical conditioning, learning, memory, olfactory, electric shock, associative memory
1Department of Neuroscience, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 2Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University in St. Louis
The mouse accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) has been difficult to study in the context of sensory coding. Here, we demonstrate a dissection that produces an ex vivo preparation in which AOB neurons remain functionally connected to their peripheral inputs, facilitating research into information processing of mouse pheromones and kairomones.
Published August 4, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, vomeronasal organ, accessory olfactory bulb, ex vivo, mouse, olfaction
1Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
To shed light on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of zebrafish adult neurogenesis and regeneration, we developed a protocol for invasive surgery causing mechanical injuries in the zebrafish adult telencephalon and subsequent monitoring of changes in the stabbed hemisphere by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization.
Published August 4, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, zebrafish, adult neurogenesis, telencephalon regeneration, stab wound, central nervous system, adult neural stem cell