JoVE Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary section devoted to investigations of the structure, function, physiology, and pathophysiology of the brain and nervous system. Included methodologies range from molecular and cellular level studies to full central and peripheral neural systems. Potential treatment platforms and surgical techniques for neurological diseases and disorders are also presented in this section.
1VA Palo Alto Health Care System, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3Department of Physical Therapy, Arkansas State University
We describe two methods for visualization and quantification of dendritic arborization in the hippocampus of mouse models: real-time and extended depth of field imaging. While the former method allows sophisticated topographical tracing and quantification of the extent of branching, the latter allows speedy visualization of the dendritic tree.
Published March 31, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Dendritic arborization, Doublecortin, Golgi-Cox, High resolution imaging, Image analysis, Extended Depth of Field Imaging
1Neural Engineering Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University
We have developed an in vitro unfolded hippocampus which preserves CA1-CA3 array of neurons. Combined with the penetrating micro-electrode array, neural activity can be monitored in both the longitudinal and transverse orientations. This method provides advantages over hippocampal slice preparations as the propagation in the entire hippocampus can be recorded simultaneously.
Published March 27, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Penetrating micro-electrode array (PMEA), unfolded intact hippocampus, neural activity propagation, neural signal mapping, flat pyramidal cell sheet, unfolded hippocampus placement
1Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Hotchkiss Brain Institute at University of Calgary, 2Department of Oncology, Hotchkiss Brain Institute at University of Calgary
Demyelinating diseases can be modeled in animals by focal application of lysolecithin into the CNS. A single injection of lysolecithin into mouse spinal cord produces a lesion that spontaneously repairs over time. The goal is to study factors involved in de- and remyelination, and to test agents for enhancing repair.
Published March 26, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, demyelination, remyelination, lysolecithin, spinal cord, oligodendrocyte, myelin, multiple sclerosis
1MSTP, Neuroscience Program, Washington University in St. Louis, 2Washington University Pain Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University in St. Louis
The Cold Plantar Assay (CPA) measures cold responsiveness between 30 °C and 5 °C, and can also measure cold adaptation. This protocol describes how to use the CPA to measure cold hypersensitivity, analgesia, and adaptation in mice.
Published March 17, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neuroscience, mouse, behavior, reflex, cold, thermosensation, adaptation, acetone, cold plate
1Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University
We present a method for the electroretinographic (ERG) analysis of zebrafish larvae utilizing micromanipulation and electroretinography techniques. This is a simple and straightforward method for assaying visual function of zebrafish larvae in vivo.
Published March 16, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, zebrafish, Danio rerio, retina, electrophysiology, electroretinogram, ERG, vision, larvae
1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, San Francisco
The described post-auricular surgical approach allows rapid and direct delivery into the mouse cochlear scala tympani while minimizing blood loss and animal mortality. This method can be used for cochlear therapy using molecular, pharmacologic and viral delivery to postnatal mice through the round window membrane.
Published March 16, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Gene therapy, Transfection, Adeno-associated virus (AAV), Mouse, Cochlea, Inner hair cells (IHC), Vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3).
1Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Division of Brain Sciences, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London
The mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery needs investigation. The methods presented in this manuscript describe an experimental approach to examine the cellular events triggered by DBS by analyzing the gene expression profile of candidate genes that can facilitate neurogenesis post DBS surgery.
Published March 8, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, anterior thalamic nucleus, deep brain stimulation, dentate gyrus, hippocampus, epilepsy, gene expression, high-frequency stimulation, quantitative RT-PCR
1Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
In this paper, an experimental framework to perform closed-loop experiments is presented, in which information processing (i.e., coding and decoding) and learning of neuronal assemblies are studied during the continuous interaction with a robotic body.
Published March 2, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Micro Electrode Arrays (MEA), in vitro cultures, coding, decoding, tetanic stimulation, spike, burst
1Center for Preclinical Imaging, Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Turin, 2Molecular Imaging Center, Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Turin, 3Bracco Research Center, Bracco Imaging SpA
The present work describes a new protocol to perform non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound and photoacoustic based imaging on rat brain, to efficiently visualize deep subcortical regions and their vascular patterns by directing signals on skull foramina naturally present on animal cranium.
Published March 2, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Photoacoustics, High-frequency ultrasounds, Brain imaging, Cerebral hemodynamics, Non-invasive imaging, Small animal, Neuroimaging
1Centre for Neuroprosthesis, EPFL | STI | IMT/IBI | LSBI, 2Blond McIndoe Research Laboratories, Institute of Inflammation & Repair, The University of Manchester, 3University Hospital of South Manchester
Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are structures containing the sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system. When dissociated, they can be co-cultured with SC-like adipose-derived stem cells (ASC), providing a valuable model to study in vitro nerve regeneration and myelination, mimicking the in vivo environment at the injury site.
Published February 26, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Co-culture, neurons, stem cells, neurite outgrowth, peripheral nerve repair, cell-cell interaction