JoVE Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary section devoted to investigations of the structure, function, physiology, and pathophysiology of the brain and nervous system. Included methodologies range from molecular and cellular level studies to full central and peripheral neural systems. Potential treatment platforms and surgical techniques for neurological diseases and disorders are also presented in this section.
1Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, 2School of Biomedical Engineering and Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 4VA San Diego Healthcare System
Axonal transport of BDNF, a neurotrophic factor, is critical for the survival and function of several neuronal populations. Some degenerative disorders are marked by disruption of axonal structure and function. We demonstrated the techniques used to examine live trafficking of QD-BDNF in microfluidic chambers using primary neurons.
Published September 15, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, live imaging, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), quantum dot, trafficking, axonal retrograde transport, microfluidic chamber
1Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Department of Neuroscience, Center for Translational Research in Neurodegenerative Disease, University of Florida, 3Department of Neurology and Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine
Here we demonstrate a technique for widespread neuronal transduction by intraventricular injection of adeno-associated virus into the neonatal mouse brain. This method provides a rapid and easy way to attain lifelong expression of virally-delivered transgenes.
Published September 15, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, AAV, adeno-associated virus, viral transduction, neuronal transduction, intraventricular injection, neonatal injection, brain transgenesis, viral labeling
1Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University School of Medicine
We, based on knowledge from developmental biology and published research, developed an optimized protocol to efficiently generate A9 midbrain dopaminergic neurons from both human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, which would be useful for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy for Parkinson’s disease.
Published September 15, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, dopaminergic neuron, substantia nigra pars compacta, midbrain, Parkinson’s disease, directed differentiation, human pluripotent stem cells, floor plate
1CNRS, UMR-5203, Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, Montpellier, 2Inserm, U661, Montpellier, 3Universités de Montpellier
Dopaminergic neurons play a vital regulatory role in the brain. Their loss is associated with Parkinson's disease. In this video, we show how to generate primary cultures of central dopaminergic neurons from embryonic mouse mesencephalon. Such cultures are useful to study the extreme vulnerability of these neurons to various stresses.
Published September 8, 2014. Keywords: Neurobiology, Mus musculus, mesencephalon, embryonic, tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, Parkinson's disease in vitro model
1The Neuroscience Institute, New York University Langone Medical Center, 2Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Understanding the neural substrates of behavior requires brain circuit ensemble recording. Because of its genetic tractability, the mouse offers a model for circuit dissection and disease mimicry. Here, a method of designing and fabricating miniaturized probes is described that is suitable for targeting deep brain structure in the mouse.
Published September 8, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, multi-electrode, micro-drives, electrophysiology, single units, brain circuit recording, deep brain structure
1School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University
The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol, developed for the honey bee (Apis mellifera), provides an ecologically-relevant and easily quantifiable means for studying several different mechanisms of learning in many insect species.
Published September 8, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, PER, conditioning, honey bee, olfaction, olfactory processing, learning, memory, toxin assay
1Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
Following exposure to specific environmental stressors, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans undergoes extensive phenotypic plasticity to enter into a stress-resistant ‘dauer’ juvenile stage. We present methods for the controlled induction and imaging of neuroplasticity during dauer.
Published September 4, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, C. elegans, dauer, dendrite, arborization, phenotypic plasticity, stress, imaging, pheromone
1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto
This article details the enrichment of proteins associated with the synaptic plasma membrane by ultracentrifugation on a discontinuous sucrose gradient. The subsequent preparation of post-synaptic density proteins is also described. Protein preparations are suitable for western blotting or 2D DIGE analysis.
Published September 3, 2014. Keywords: Neurobiology, brain, synapse, western blot, ultracentrifugation, SPM, PSD
1The Shraga Segal Department of Immunology, Microbiology & Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Telomerase is expressed in the neonatal brain and also in distinct regions of the adult brain. We present a non-toxic time saving TRAP assay for the analysis of telomerase activity in various regions of the mouse brain and detection of differences in telomerase activity between male and female mouse brains.
Published September 2, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, telomerase, telomeres, TRAP assay, PCR, gel electrophoresis, frontal lobe, cerebellum, brain stem
1Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, 2Stem Cell Institute, University of Connecticut, 3Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine
A technique to study NG2 cells and oligodendrocytes using a slice culture system of the forebrain and cerebellum is described. This method allows examination of the dynamics of proliferation and differentiation of cells within the oligodendrocyte lineage where the extracellular environment can be easily manipulated while maintaining tissue cytoarchitecture.
Published August 25, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, NG2, CSPG4, polydendrocyte, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell, oligodendrocyte, myelin, organotypic slice culture, time-lapse