JoVE Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary section devoted to investigations of the structure, function, physiology, and pathophysiology of the brain and nervous system. Included methodologies range from molecular and cellular level studies to full central and peripheral neural systems. Potential treatment platforms and surgical techniques for neurological diseases and disorders are also presented in this section.
1Emmy Noether-Group for Stem Cell Biology, Department of Molecular Embryology, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Freiburg, 2Spemann Graduate School of Biology and Medicine and Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, 3School of Life Sciences, Keele University, 4Center for Biological Signaling Studies (BIOSS), University of Freiburg
We provide a detailed description of a protocol for flow cytometric analysis of surface antigens and/or intracellular antigens in neural cell types. Critical aspects of experimental planning, step-by-step methodological procedures, and fundamental principles of flow cytometry are explained in order to enable neurobiologists to exploit this powerful technology.
Published December 18, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, CD markers, surface antigens, intracellular antigens, flow cytometry, neurons, glial cells, neural stem cells, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), CD24, CD54, CFSE
1Neurorestoration, Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, King's College London, 2Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine
The corticospinal tract, one of the major sensorimotor tracts, can be lesioned unilaterally in the rodent brainstem in order to test neuroplasticity-inducing therapies for the central nervous system. This surgical procedure (“pyramidotomy”) and postoperative assessments are described in this protocol.
Published December 15, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, central nervous system lesions, pyramids, unilateral spinal cord injury, in vivo, corticospinal tract lesion, forelimb function,
1Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, 2Department of Biology, York College/CUNY, 3Department of Biology, Western Ontario University
Here, we present a protocol to quantify the avoidance of stressed individuals. This paradigm is powerful yet user-friendly and can be used to assess the influence of genes and environment on one kind of social interaction in Drosophila melanogaster.
Published December 13, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, social behavior, social avoidance, Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila, Stress Odorant - dSO, T-maze apparatus, neurogenetics
1Department of Neurology, University of Arizona, 2Department of Immunobiology, University of Arizona, 3Bio5 Institute, University of Arizona
Using this protocol, we were able to image 160 µm thick brain sections from mice infected with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which enables visualization and analysis of the spatial relationship between the encysting parasite and the infected neuron.
Published December 9, 2014. Keywords: Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Confocal microscopy, Mouse, Brain, Clearing, Fluorescent proteins, Toxoplasma gondii, Apicomplexa, Infectious disease
1Brain and Mind Research Institute, Burke Medical Research Institute, Weill Medical College of Cornell University
We present here an optimized protocol to genotype, stain and prepare fetal mice for the imaging of peripheral nociceptor axon projections in the whole animal, as an effective method to assess sensory axon growth phenotypes in developing genetically engineered mice.
Published December 9, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, transgenic, genotyping, whole mount, sensory, peripheral, axon projections, β-galactosidase, dorsal root ganglia, TrkA, nociceptor, tissue clearing, imaging.
1Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Howard University, 3Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, 4Department of Psychiatry, Sheppard Pratt Hospital, 5Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University
In this study, a novel platform to investigate intraneuronal molecular signatures of treatment response in bipolar disorder (BD) was developed and validated. Olfactory epithelium from BD patients was obtained through nasal biopsies. Then laser-capture microdissection was combined with Real Time RT PCR to investigate the molecular signature of lithium response in BD.
Published December 4, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, bipolar disorder, lithium therapy, nasal biopsy, olfactory epithelium, laser-capture microdissection, real-time PCR, GSK-3β
1Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University
In this video, we describe a procedure for implanting a chronic optical imaging chamber over the dorsal spinal cord of a live mouse. The chamber, surgical procedure, and chronic imaging are reviewed and demonstrated.
Published December 3, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, spinal cord, in vivo microscopy, multiphoton microscopy, animal surgery, fluorescence microscopy, biomedical optics
1Center for Narcolepsy, Sleep and Health Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 3Department of Biobehavioral Health Science, University of Illinois at Chicago
Afferent vagal signaling transmits important information to central nervous system from receptors located in organs of the abdomen and thorax. The nodose ganglia of vagus nerves contain many types of receptors that modulate vagal activity. This protocol describes a method of local injections of neurochemicals into the nodose ganglia.
Published November 25, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, neuroscience, nodose ganglia, vagus nerve, EMG, serotonin, apnea, genioglossus, cannabinoids
1KY Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Louisville, 2Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary
We present a protocol utilizing two-photon excitation time-lapse microscopy to simultaneously visualize the dynamics of axon and myelin injuries in real time. This proposed protocol permits studies of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors which can influence central myelinated axon fate after injury and contribute to permanent clinical disability.
Published November 25, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, spinal cord injury, axon, myelin, two-photon excitation microscopy, Nile Red, axonal degeneration, axonal dieback, axonal retraction
1Emmy Noether Group, Institute of Zoology, University of Cologne
Here we describe the dissection of the crayfish abdominal nerve cord. We also demonstrate an electrophysiological technique to record fictive locomotion from swimmeret motor neurons.
Published November 25, 2014. Keywords: Neurobiology, crustacean, dissection, extracellular recording, fictive locomotion, motor neurons, locomotion