JoVE Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary section devoted to investigations of the structure, function, physiology, and pathophysiology of the brain and nervous system. Included methodologies range from molecular and cellular level studies to full central and peripheral neural systems. Potential treatment platforms and surgical techniques for neurological diseases and disorders are also presented in this section.
1Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Department of Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3Department of Natural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico-Aguadilla
Here we describe a method to inflict closed head traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Drosophila. This method provides a gateway to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie TBI pathologies using the vast array of experimental tools and techniques available for flies.
Published June 30, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Drosophila melanogaster, High-Impact Trauma device, mortality, traumatic brain injury
1Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry
Imaging behavior and neural activity over long time scales without immobilization of the animal is a prerequisite to understand behavior. Agarose microfluidic chambers imaging (AMI) can be used to image neural activity and behavior for all life stages of Caenorhabditis elegans.
Published June 24, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Caenorhabditis elegans, model organism, neurobiology, microfluidics, calcium imaging, behavior
1Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Stony Brook University, 2Department of Pharmacological Science, Stony Brook University
We developed a gene-chimeric preparation of ventral hippocampal – accumbens circuit in vitro that allows direct live imaging to analyze presynaptic mechanisms of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediated synaptic transmission. This preparation also provides an informative approach to study the pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms of synaptic plasticity.…
Published June 24, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, nicotine, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, calcium imaging, presynaptic axons, neurotransmitter release, synaptic transmission
1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp
Closed-loop protocols are becoming increasingly widespread in modern day electrophysiology. We present a simple, versatile and inexpensive way to perform complex electrophysiological protocols in cortical pyramidal neurons in vitro, using a desktop computer and a digital acquisition board.
Published June 24, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Electrophysiology, cellular neurobiology, dynamic clamp, Active Electrode Compensation, command-line interface, real-time computing, closed-loop, scripted electrophysiology.
1Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2The Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, Columbia University Medical Center, 3Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center
Here, we present a protocol for direct stereotaxic brain infusion of amyloid-beta. This methodology provides an alternative in vivo mouse model to address the short-term effects of amyloid-beta on brain neurons.
Published June 17, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Amyloid-beta, brain, mouse, infusion, surgery, neuroscience
1College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University
RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) enables the visualization of RNAs in cells and tissues. Here we show how combination of RNAscope ISH with immunohistochemistry or histological dyes can be successfully used to detect mRNAs localized to axons in sections of mouse and human brains.
Published June 17, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, mRNA localization, axons, in situ hybridization, RNAscope, in vivo, adult brain
1Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, 2Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University
We present an optimized inexpensive and reliable negative geotaxis assay in Drosophila melanogaster as a model for neurodegenerative disorders. Being more sensitive to mild locomotor defects, this assay will help screen for potential genetic interactions and drug targets.
Published June 13, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Drosophila melanogaster, climbing assay, negative geotaxis, Neurodegenerative disorders, locomotion, mobility dysfunction
1Discipline of Physiology and Bosch Institute, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney
The electroretinogram (ERG) is an electrical potential generated by the retina in response to light. This paper describes how to use the ERG to assess retinal function, in dark-adapted rats, and how it can be can be used to assess a neuroprotective intervention, in the present case remote ischemic preconditioning.
Published June 9, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, remote ischemic preconditioning, ischemic tolerance, ischemic preconditioning, neuroprotection, retinal degeneration, light damage, photoreceptors, retina, electroretinogram, rat, mouse
1Health Sciences Department, Denver Museum of Nature & Science, 2Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver
Here we present a protocol to measure fungiform papilla density from digital photographs. This method builds prioritization and objective characteristic metrics into the original descriptive work on fungiform papillae by Miller & Reedy (1990).
Published June 8, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Fungiform Papillae, Taste, Gustatory, Quantification, Tongue, FP, Dichotomous Key, Nutrition, Method
1Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Toledo, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 3Department of Biomedical & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chapman University, School of Pharmacy, Rinker Health Science campus
Using high-resolution differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, an ex vivo observation of the beating of motile ependymal cilia located within the mouse brain ventricles is demonstrated by live-imaging. The technique allows a recording of the unique ciliary beating frequency and beating angle as well as their intracellular calcium oscillation pacing properties.…
Published June 1, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Motile cilia, lateral ventricle, cerebrospinal fluid, live imaging, hydrocephalus.