JoVE Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary section devoted to investigations of the structure, function, physiology, and pathophysiology of the brain and nervous system. Included methodologies range from molecular and cellular level studies to full central and peripheral neural systems. Potential treatment platforms and surgical techniques for neurological diseases and disorders are also presented in this section.
1Department of Ophthalmology, Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University, 2Save Sight Institute, The University of Sydney
Focal demyelination is induced in the optic nerve using lysolecithin microinjection. Visual evoked potentials are recorded via skull electrodes implanted over the visual cortex to examine the signal conduction along the visual pathway in vivo. This protocol details the surgical procedures underlying electrode implantation and optic nerve microinjection.
Published July 29, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Optic nerve, Visual evoked potential, Optic neuritis, Demyelination, Visual electrophysiology, Remyelination
1Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Würzburg, 2Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, University of Bonn, 3German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg
Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells provides fascinating prospects for the derivation of autologous transplants. However, progression through a pluripotent state and laborious re-differentiation still hinders clinical translation. Here we describe the derivation of adult human fibroblasts and their direct conversion into induced neural progenitor cells and the subsequent differentiation into neural lineages.…
Published July 29, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Direct conversion, lineage reprogramming, transgene-free reprogrammed cells, neural stem cells, transdifferentiation, neuronal differentiation, glial differentiation, stem cell biology, disease modeling, neural cell replacement, stem cell therapy.
1Department of Pharmacology, Goethe University of Frankfurt, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Goethe University of Frankfurt, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Goethe University of Frankfurt
Microdialysis is a commonly used technique in neuroscience research. Therefore commercial probes are in great demand.In this work a probe assembly is explained in detail to build a reliable, concentric, custom-made microdialysis probe for less than $10.
Published July 21, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, custom-made probe, microdialysis probe, neuropeptides, molecular cut-off, passive diffusion, probe assembly, relative in vitro recovery, semi-permeable membrane
1Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Neurosurgery, University of Utah
Here we demonstrate the use of a wireless enabling technology for electroencephalogram (EEG) in neonatal rodent models of human disease. With telemetry, there are no encumbering connections, thus allowing natural behaviors.
Published July 21, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Epilepsy, Seizures, Wireless, Pre-Clinical, Rat, Mouse, Hypoxia, Ischemia, Neonate
1Department of Life Science and Medical Bioscience, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 2Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine & Engineering, University of Yamanashi
In this study, a detailed light microscopic technique was optimized for real-time observation and analysis of the motion of CPEC cilia ex vivo together with an electron microscopic method for ultrastructural analysis.
Published July 13, 2015. Keywords: Neurobiology, motile cilia, fast video microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, choroid plexus epithelial cells, motion tracking, video-enhanced contrast-differential interference contrast
1Translational Neuroscience Facility, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales
The efficacy of intramuscular uptake and retrograde transport of molecules to corresponding motor neurons depends on the location of the injection sites with respect to the motor end plates (MEPs). Here, we describe how to locate MEPs on skeletal muscles to optimise retrograde transport of tracers into motor neurons.
Published July 13, 2015. Keywords: Neurobiology, Motor neurons, motor end plates, retrograde transport, striated muscles, mouse, rat, hindlimb, forelimb
1UMR Centre des Sciences du Goŭt et de l'Alimentation, CNRS, INRA, Université de Bourgogne
Analyzing the physiological properties of olfactory sensory neurons still faces technical limitations. Here we record them through perforated patch-clamp in an intact preparation of the olfactory epithelium in gene-targeted mice. This technique allows the characterization of membrane properties and responses to specific ligands of neurons expressing defined olfactory receptors.…
Published July 13, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neuroscience, electrophysiology, perforated patch-clamp, olfactory sensory neurons, gene-targeted mouse, transduction, pharmacology.
1Department of Neurology, University of Washington, 2Therapeutic Innovation Group, School of Life and Medical Sciences, University College London, 3Department of Neuroinflammation, University College London
Microglia can influence neurons and other glia in culture by various non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Here, we present a protocol to selectively deplete microglia from primary neuronal cultures. This method has the potential to elucidate the role of microglial-neuronal interactions, with implications for neurodegenerative conditions where neuroinflammation is a hallmark feature. …
Published July 7, 2015. Keywords: Neurobiology, Cell biology, microglia, cerebellar granule cells, L-leucine methyl ester, primary cell culture, neuron-glia biology, neuroinflammation
1École d'optométrie, Université de Montréal
Here, we craft a glass pipette with dual functions: inhibition of deep brain structures by microinjections of drugs and real-time monitoring of their effects through simultaneous electrophysiological recordings.
Published July 7, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Extracellular recordings, virtual lesions, reversible inactivation, GABA, lidocaine, microinjection
1Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Department of Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3Department of Natural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico-Aguadilla
Here we describe a method to inflict closed head traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Drosophila. This method provides a gateway to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie TBI pathologies using the vast array of experimental tools and techniques available for flies.
Published June 30, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Drosophila melanogaster, High-Impact Trauma device, mortality, traumatic brain injury