JoVE Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary section devoted to investigations of the structure, function, physiology, and pathophysiology of the brain and nervous system. Included methodologies range from molecular and cellular level studies to full central and peripheral neural systems. Potential treatment platforms and surgical techniques for neurological diseases and disorders are also presented in this section.
1The Shraga Segal Department of Immunology, Microbiology & Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Telomerase is expressed in the neonatal brain and also in distinct regions of the adult brain. We present a non-toxic time saving TRAP assay for the analysis of telomerase activity in various regions of the mouse brain and detection of differences in telomerase activity between male and female mouse brains.
Published September 2, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, telomerase, telomeres, TRAP assay, PCR, gel electrophoresis, frontal lobe, cerebellum, brain stem
1Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, 2Stem Cell Institute, University of Connecticut, 3Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine
A technique to study NG2 cells and oligodendrocytes using a slice culture system of the forebrain and cerebellum is described. This method allows examination of the dynamics of proliferation and differentiation of cells within the oligodendrocyte lineage where the extracellular environment can be easily manipulated while maintaining tissue cytoarchitecture.
Published August 25, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, NG2, CSPG4, polydendrocyte, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell, oligodendrocyte, myelin, organotypic slice culture, time-lapse
1Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, 2Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, 3Department of Neuroscience, Cell Biology, and Physiology, Wright State University
Impairment in olfactory function is a common feature in many neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson, Alzheimer, and Huntington diseases. In the present article, we describe a set of tests for assessing olfaction discrimination and detection in mice that can be used to measure olfactory abilities in mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases.
Published August 25, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, olfaction, mouse, Parkinson’s disease, detection, discrimination, sniffing
1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki
The protocol for dynamic longitudinal imaging and selective laser lesion of nerve endings in reporter transgenic mice is presented.
Published August 24, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, multiphoton microscopy, nerve endings, lesion, thy-1 promoter, in vivo imaging
1Division of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, 2Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria
This protocol introduces lateralized early odor preference learning in rats using acute single naris occlusion. Lateralized learning permits the examination of behavioral outcomes and underpinning biological mechanisms within the same animals, reducing variance induced by between-animal designs. This protocol can be used to investigate molecular mechanisms underpinning early odor learning.
Published August 18, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, lateralized odor learning, rats, memory, nose plug, olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, phosphorylated CREB
1NYU Neuroscience Institute, New York University School of Medicine, 2Brain and Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College
This procedure shows how to target interneurons in the developing mouse forebrain by means of in utero electroporation. This technique was particularly efficient to achieve selective gene expression in interneuron subtypes destined to the superficial layers of the cortex.
Published August 18, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, development, mouse, cortex, interneurons, electroporation, morphology
1Department of Biology, Colby College
Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system, causing locomotion defects. Rotenone models Parkinson’s disease in Drosophila. This paper outlines two assays that characterize both spontaneous and startle-induced locomotion deficiencies caused by rotenone.
Published August 17, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Locomotion, Parkinson’s disease, rotenone, Drosophila, activity monitoring, neurobiology, behavior
1Vascular Biology Program, Boston Children's Hospital, 2Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School
The protocol describes the corneal micropocket assay as developed in mice.
Published August 16, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Angiogensis, neovasculatization, in vivo assay, model, fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor
1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 3Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 4Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 5Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 6Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, 7Department of Neurology, Neurosciences Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Phenotypically wild-type astrocytes and neural stem cells harvested from mice engineered with floxed, conditional oncogenic alleles and transformed via viral Cre-mediated recombination can be used to model astrocytoma pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo by orthotopic injection of transformed cells into brains of syngeneic, immune-competent littermates.
Published August 12, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, astrocytoma, cortical astrocytes, genetically engineered mice, glioblastoma, neural stem cells, orthotopic allograft
1RG Neuroplasticity, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, 2Department of Cell Biology, Utrecht University
We provide a detailed protocol for induction of long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and the subsequent isolation of nuclear enriched fractions from the tetanized area of the slice. This approach can be used to determine activity dependent nuclear protein import in cellular models of learning and memory.
Published August 10, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Hippocampal slices, long-term potentiation LTP, nucleus, NMDA receptors, NLS, immunoblotting, Jacob, nuclear enriched protein preparations