JoVE Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary section devoted to investigations of the structure, function, physiology, and pathophysiology of the brain and nervous system. Included methodologies range from molecular and cellular level studies to full central and peripheral neural systems. Potential treatment platforms and surgical techniques for neurological diseases and disorders are also presented in this section.
1Biotactical Engineering, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology
This protocol outlines how to use the transient heating associated with the optical absorption of gold nanorods to stimulate differentiation and intracellular calcium activity in neuronal cells. These results potentially open up new applications in neural prostheses and fundamental studies in neuroscience.
Published April 27, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, gold nanorods, external absorber, neural stimulation, laser excitation, optical stimulation, neuronal cells, in vitro models.
1Department of Physics 0374, University of California, San Diego, 2Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Centre de Recherche de l’Université Laval Robert-Giffard
This protocol describes the design and surgical implantation of a head-restraining mechanism to monitor neuronal activity in sub-cortical brain structures in alert rats. It delineates procedures to isolate single neurons in the juxtacellular configuration and to efficiently identify their anatomical locations.
Published April 27, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, electrophysiology, juxtacellular, iontophoresis, stereotaxic surgery, thalamus, vibrissa
1Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool
This protocol describes a simple, cost effective way to individually identify Drosophila or other insects. Demonstration data investigating mating success across three species of Drosophila show that this method is comparable or better than the use of CO2 anaesthesia.
Published April 22, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Anesthesia, courtship, fruit fly, individual marking, individual tagging, male-male competition, mate choice, mate competition, mating latency, wing clipping
1Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital
This video article illustrates a comprehensive protocol to detect and quantify all stages of adult hippocampal neurogenesis within the same tissue section. We elaborated a method to overcome the limitations of indirect multiple immunofluorescence that arise when suitable antibodies from different host species are unavailable.
Published April 22, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, antibodies, epitope retrieval, thymidine analogs, 5-Chloro-2′-deoxyuridine (CldU), 5-Iodo-2′-deoxyuridine (IdU), 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU), dentate gyrus, adult neurogenesis, free-floating, hippocampal progenitor cells
1Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 3Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 4School of Medicine, King's College London
Stereotactic Electroencephalography (SEEG) is an operative technique used in epilepsy surgery to help localize seizure foci. It also affords a unique opportunity to investigate brain function. Here we describe how SEEG can be used to investigate cognitive processes in human subjects.
Published April 15, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, epilepsy, stereotactic electroencephalography, anterior cingulate cortex, local field potential, electrode placement
1Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2VCU Alcohol Research Center, Virginia Commonwealth University
Straightforward assays for measuring ethanol sensitivity and rapid tolerance in Drosophila facilitate the use of this model organism for investigating these important ethanol-related behaviors. Here, a relatively simple, scalable assay for measuring ethanol sensitivity and rapid tolerance in flies is described.
Published April 15, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, ethanol, alcohol, behavior, sensitivity, Drosophila, fruit fly, assay
1Department of Neurobiology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 3School of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, 4School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, 5Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and System Engineering, University of Genova
This manuscript describes a protocol to grow in vitro modular networks consisting of spatially confined, functionally inter-connected neuronal circuits. A polymeric mask is used to pattern a protein layer to promote cellular adhesion over the culturing substrate. Plated neurons grow on coated areas establishing spontaneous connections and exhibiting electrophysiological activity.
Published April 15, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, In vitro, patterning, PDMS stencils, SU8-2075, silicon wafer, calcium imaging, Micro Electrode Array
1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2VCU Alcohol Research Center, Virginia Commonwealth University
C. elegans is a useful model for studying the effects of ethanol on behavior. We present a behavioral assay that quantifies the effects of ethanol on the locomotion speed of crawling worms; both initial sensitivity and the development of acute functional tolerance to ethanol can be measured with this assay.
Published April 9, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, ethanol, alcohol, behavior, sensitivity, acute functional tolerance, Caenorhabditis elegans, worm, locomotion, computer tracking, assay
1Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University
The goal of this protocol is to obtain high-quality diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) of the rat spinal cord for noninvasive characterization of tissue microstructure. This protocol describes optimizations of the MRI sequence, radiofrequency coil, and analysis methods to enable DWI images free from artifacts.
Published April 7, 2015. Keywords: Neurobiology, spinal cord, magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, respiratory gating, diffusion kurtosis imaging, rat, spine
1VA Palo Alto Health Care System, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3Department of Physical Therapy, Arkansas State University
We describe two methods for visualization and quantification of dendritic arborization in the hippocampus of mouse models: real-time and extended depth of field imaging. While the former method allows sophisticated topographical tracing and quantification of the extent of branching, the latter allows speedy visualization of the dendritic tree.
Published March 31, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Dendritic arborization, Doublecortin, Golgi-Cox, High resolution imaging, Image analysis, Extended Depth of Field Imaging