JoVE Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary section devoted to investigations of the structure, function, physiology, and pathophysiology of the brain and nervous system. Included methodologies range from molecular and cellular level studies to full central and peripheral neural systems. Potential treatment platforms and surgical techniques for neurological diseases and disorders are also presented in this section.
1Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 2MRC-Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
Recent improvements in organotypic brain slice preparations have permitted their exploitation for biotechnological applications. Organotypic slices maintain local structural characteristics of in vivo biology, including functional synaptic connections. Here we present a regioselective biolistic delivery method to label and genetically manipulate these slices.
Published October 24, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Biolistics, gene gun, organotypic brain slices, Diolistic, gene delivery, staining
1Anatomical Institute, Department of Biomedicine Basel, University of Basel, 2Department of Neonatology, University Children's Hospital (UKBB), University of Basel
A protocol for entorhino-hippocampal organotypic slice cultures, which allows reproducing many aspects of ischemic brain injury, is presented. By studying changes of the neurovasculature in addition to changes in the neurons, this protocol is a versatile tool to study plastic changes in neural tissue after injury.
Published October 23, 2014. Keywords: Neurobiology, blood-brain-barrier, neurovascular remodeling, hippocampus, pyramidal cells, excitotoxic, ischemia
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago
After exocytosis, fused plasma membrane is retrieved through a process known as endocytosis. This mechanism reforms new synaptic vesicles for the next round of release. Individual endocytic events are captured and analyzed through the use of the cell-attached capacitance recordings in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells.
Published October 22, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Cell-attached capacitance measurements, chromaffin cells, single vesicles, endocytosis, exocytosis, clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), patch clamp
1Centre for Neuroregeneration, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, 2Shriners Hospitals Pediatric Research Center (Center for Neural Repair and Rehabilitation), Temple University School of Medicine, 3Department of Neurology, Temple University School of Medicine
Lampreys recover locomotion after a complete spinal cord injury. However, some spinal-projecting neurons are good regenerators and others are not. This paper illustrates the techniques for housing sea lamprey larvae (and recently transformed adults), producing complete spinal cord transections and preparing wholemount brains and spinal cords for in situ hybridization.
Published October 14, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, spinal cord injury, axonal guidance molecules, neurofilaments, regeneration
1Department of Neurobiology, University of California, Los Angeles, 2Veterans Administration Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 3Departments of Physiology & Biophysics and Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Dalhousie University, 4Departments of Neurobiology and Medicine, Jules Stein Eye Institute, CURE-Digestive Diseases Research Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles
Immunohistochemistry protocols are used to study the localization of a specific protein in the retina. Calcium imaging techniques are employed to study calcium dynamics in retinal ganglion cells and their axons.
Published October 13, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, immunohistochemistry, antibody, fluo-4, calcium imaging, ganglion cells, retina, rat
1InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 2Bernstein Focus for Neurotechnology, University of Goettingen, 3Auditory Systems Physiology Group, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 4Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, University of Goettingen, 5Department of Chemical, Electronic, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Guanajuato
Cochlear implants (CIs) enable hearing by direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. However, poor frequency and intensity resolution limits the quality of hearing with CIs. Here we describe optogenetic stimulation of the auditory nerve in mice as an alternative strategy for auditory research and developing future CIs.
Published October 8, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, hearing, cochlear implant, optogenetics, channelrhodopsin, optical stimulation, deafness
1Institute of Neurobiology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
We describe the combination of focal UV-induced photo-activation of neuro-active compounds with whole-cell patch-clamp and multi-photon imaging of intracellular sodium transients in dendrites and spines of hippocampal neurons in acute tissue slices of the mouse brain.
Published October 8, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neurosciences, two-photon microscopy, patch-clamp, UV-flash photolysis, mouse, hippocampus, caged compounds, glutamate, brain slice, dendrite, sodium signals
1Department of Biology, Willamette University
Here we describe a simple and widely accessible microscopy technique to acquire high-quality digital video of Drosophila adult and larval mutant phenotypes from a lateral perspective.
Published October 4, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Drosophila, behavior, coordination, crawling, locomotion, nervous system, neurodegeneration, larva
1Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago
Recording Ca2+ currents at the presynaptic release face membrane is key to a precise understanding of Ca2+ entry and neurotransmitter release. We present an acute dissociation of the lamprey spinal cord that yields functional isolated reticulospinal axons, permitting recording directly from the release face membrane of individual presynaptic terminals.
Published October 1, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, reticulospinal synapse, reticulospinal axons, presynaptic terminal, presynaptic calcium, voltage-gated calcium channels, vesicle fusion, synaptic transmission, neurotransmitter release, spinal cord, lamprey, synaptic vesicles, acute dissociation
1Institute of Integrative Neuroanatomy, NeuroCure Cluster of Excellence, Charité Universitätmedizin
Cortical networks are controlled by a small, but diverse set of inhibitory interneurons. Functional investigation of interneurons therefore requires targeted recording and rigorous identification. Described here is a combined approach involving whole-cell recordings from single or synaptically-coupled pairs of neurons with intracellular labeling, post-hoc morphological and immunocytochemical analysis.
Published September 30, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, electrophysiology, acute slice, whole-cell patch-clamp recording, neuronal morphology, immunocytochemistry, parvalbumin, hippocampus, inhibition, GABAergic interneurons, synaptic transmission, IPSC, GABA-B receptor