JoVE Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary section devoted to investigations of the structure, function, physiology, and pathophysiology of the brain and nervous system. Included methodologies range from molecular and cellular level studies to full central and peripheral neural systems. Potential treatment platforms and surgical techniques for neurological diseases and disorders are also presented in this section.
1Department of Physiology, University of California Los Angeles, 2Department of Neurobiology, University of California Los Angeles
The properties and functions of astrocyte intracellular Ca2+ signals in the striatum remain incompletely explored. We describe methods to express genetically encoded calcium indicators in striatal astrocytes using adeno-associated viruses of serotype 2/5 (AAV2/5), as well as procedures to reliably image Ca2+ signals within striatal astrocytes in situ.
Published November 19, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, astrocyte, calcium, striatum, GECI, GCaMP3, AAV2/5, stereotaxic injection, brain slice, imaging
1Department of Psychology, University of Montréal, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota
This article aims to describe a basic protocol for combining transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) measurements to investigate the effects of bilateral stimulation on primary motor cortex metabolism.
Published November 19, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, transcranial direct current stimulation, primary motor cortex, GABA, glutamate, stroke
1School of Psychology, University of Ottawa
This video describes Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) and motion-sensitive video recording methods to monitor choice behavior by bumblebees.
Published November 15, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, bumblebee, unlearned behaviors, floral choice, visual perception, Bombus spp, information processing, radio-frequency identification, motion-sensitive video
1Department of Neurology, University of Münster, 2Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research (IZKF) Münster, 3Institute of Physiology I — Neuropathophysiology I, University of Münster
Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) are interconnected by specific junctional proteins forming a highly regulated barrier separating blood and the central nervous system (CNS), the so-called blood-brain-barrier (BBB). The isolation of primary murine brain microvascular endothelial cells, as discussed in this protocol, enables detailed in vitro studies of the BBB.
Published November 14, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Blood brain barrier, central nervous system, endothelial cells, immune cell trafficking, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, neurovascular unit
1UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London
The molecular mechanisms that co-ordinate the formation of inhibitory GABAergic synapses during ontogeny are largely unknown. To study these processes,we have developed a co-culture model system which incorporates embryonic medium spiny GABAergic neurons cultured together with stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells expressing functional GABAA receptors.
Published November 14, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Developmental neuroscience, synaptogenesis, synaptic inhibition, co-culture, stable cell lines, GABAergic, medium spiny neurons, HEK 293 cell line
1Perkin Elmer Inc., 2Henry M. Jackson Foundation, 3The Geneva Foundation, 4ORISE, 5Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, 6Division of Molecular and Translational Sciences, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 7DoD Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute (BHSAI), Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC)
Botulinum neurotoxin is one of the most potent toxins among Category-A biothreat agents, yet a post-exposure therapeutic is not available. The high content imaging approach is a powerful methodology for identifying novel inhibitors as it enables multiparameter screening using biologically relevant motor neurons, the primary target of this toxin.
Published November 14, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, neuroscience, neurobiology, Botulinum neurotoxin, Clostridium botulinum, high content imaging system, neurotoxicity
1Department of Psychology, MacEwan University
A novel method for reducing variability when exposing fish to drugs is explained. Fish exposed to various patterns of ethanol exposure were found to have altered anxiety levels during withdrawal in a light/dark scototaxic assay.
Published November 12, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Zebrafish, Ethanol, Behavior, Anxiety, Pharmacology, Fish, Neuroscience, Drug administration, Scototaxis
1Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon
Here we describe our strategy for obtaining stable, well-isolated single-unit recordings from identified inhibitory interneurons in the anesthetized mouse cortex. Neurons expressing ChR2 are identified by their response to blue light. The method uses standard extracellular recording equipment, and serves as an inexpensive alternative to calcium imaging or visually-guided patching.
Published November 7, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Optogenetics, Channelrhodopsin, ChR2, cortex, in vivo recording, extracellular, Parvalbumin, interneuron, mouse, electrophysiology
1Biological Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Toronto, 3Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto
Live imaging of the embryonic mammalian cochlea is challenging because the developmental processes at hand operate on a temporal gradient over ten days. Here we present a method for culturing and then imaging embryonic cochlear explant tissue taken from a fluorescent reporter mouse over five days.
Published November 2, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Live-imaging, time lapse, cochlea, ear, reporter mouse, development, incubator microscope, Sox2
1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Universidade de São Paulo
This video shows the basic steps for performing whole transcriptome analysis on dissected chick embryonic spinal cord samples after transfection with in ovo electroporation.
Published November 1, 2014. Keywords: Developmental Biology, chicken embryo, in ovo electroporation, spinal cord, RNA-Seq, transcriptome profiling, Galaxy workflow