JoVE Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary section devoted to investigations of the structure, function, physiology, and pathophysiology of the brain and nervous system. Included methodologies range from molecular and cellular level studies to full central and peripheral neural systems. Potential treatment platforms and surgical techniques for neurological diseases and disorders are also presented in this section.
1Centre for Neuroprosthesis, EPFL | STI | IMT/IBI | LSBI, 2Blond McIndoe Research Laboratories, Institute of Inflammation & Repair, The University of Manchester, 3University Hospital of South Manchester
Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are structures containing the sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system. When dissociated, they can be co-cultured with SC-like adipose-derived stem cells (ASC), providing a valuable model to study in vitro nerve regeneration and myelination, mimicking the in vivo environment at the injury site.
Published February 26, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Co-culture, neurons, stem cells, neurite outgrowth, peripheral nerve repair, cell-cell interaction
1Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, 2Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, 3Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, 4University of California San Francisco Diabetes Center, University of California, San Francisco, 5Pathology, University of Utah
A new ex vivo preparation for imaging the mouse spinal cord. This protocol allows for two-photon imaging of live cellular interactions throughout the spinal cord.
Published February 22, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, spinal cord, two-photon microscopy, ex vivo, transplantation, cellular dynamics, axons, neural precursor cells, remyelination, neuroinflammation
1Division of Brain Sciences, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Yale University School of Medicine
The causes of degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons during Parkinson’s disease are not fully understood. Cellular culture systems provide an essential tool for study of the neurophysiological properties of these neurons. Here we present an optimized protocol, which can be utilized for in vitro modeling of neurodegeneration.
Published February 19, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Ventral midbrain, Parkinson's disease, Dopaminergic, Primary neuronal culture, Neuronal development, Neurodegeneration
1Anatomy and Cell Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 2Ophthalmology, Wayne State University School of Medicine
We will demonstrate how to prepare retinal slices from the mouse eye and record light responses in retinal neurons. The entire procedure is conducted in dark-adapted conditions.
Published February 11, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Retina, Patch clamp recording, light response, mouse, dark adaptation, infrared
1Department of Basic Sciences, Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine
The isolation of individual dopamine neurons or the ventral tegmental area with direct or indirect immunohistochemistry is demonstrated using laser capture microdissection. Parameters for isolation of tissue from a glass slide using an infrared laser and from membrane slides using the combination of an infrared and ultraviolet laser are discussed.
Published February 6, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Laser capture microdissection, dopamine neuron, Immunohistochemistry, Tyrosine hydroxylase, Ventral tegmental area, PEN membrane glass slide.
1Research Division, Cellular Molecular Biology Branch, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense
A custom protocol is described to differentiate mouse ES cells into defined populations of highly pure neurons exhibiting functioning synapses and emergent network behavior. Electrophysiological analysis demonstrates the loss of synaptic transmission following exposure to botulinum neurotoxin serotypes /A-/G and tetanus neurotoxin.
Published February 5, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, embryonic stem cells, stem cell-derived neurons, botulinum neurotoxin detection, electrophysiology, synapse, neuronal networks, glutamatergic synapse, GABAergic synapse
1Department of Physiology, Michigan State University
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a network of neurons and glia located in the gut wall that controls intestinal reflexes. This protocol describes methods for recording the activity of enteric neurons and glia in live preparations of ENS using Ca2+ imaging.
Published January 29, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, enteric nervous system, enteric glia, gut, intestine, intestinal nervous system, autonomic, calcium (Ca2+) imaging, peripheral glia, fluorescent, live cell
1Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 2San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute University, 3CEND Center of Excellence in Neurodegenerative Diseases, Università degli Studi di Milano
This paper provides a method for investigating neurotransmitter vesicle dynamics in neuroblastoma cells, using a synaptobrevin2-pHluorin construct and Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy. The strategy developed for image processing and data analysis is also reported.
Published January 29, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Synaptic vesicles, neurotransmission, Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy, pHluorin, neuroblastoma cells
1Department of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 3EZ BioResearch LLC
We describe procedures for labeling and genotyping newborn mice and generating primary neuronal cultures from them. The genotyping is rapid, efficient and reliable, and allows for automated nucleic-acid extraction. This is especially useful for neonatally lethal mice and their cultures that require prior completion of genotyping.
Published January 29, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, AP2, genotyping, glial feeder layer, mouse tail, neuronal culture, nucleic-acid extraction, PCR, tattoo, torsinA
1Department of Otology and Laryngology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Worcester State University
The goal of this protocol is to outline a surgical approach to provide direct access to the dorsal cochlear nucleus in a murine model.
Published January 20, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Optogenetics, dorsal cochlear nucleus, virus-mediated gene transfer, auditory system