JoVE Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary section devoted to investigations of the structure, function, physiology, and pathophysiology of the brain and nervous system. Included methodologies range from molecular and cellular level studies to full central and peripheral neural systems. Potential treatment platforms and surgical techniques for neurological diseases and disorders are also presented in this section.
1Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, 2Department of Anatomic Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center
Using MRI scans (human), 3D imaging software, and immunohistological analysis, we document changes to the brain’s lateral ventricles. Longitudinal 3D mapping of lateral ventricle volume changes and characterization of periventricular cellular changes that occur in the human brain due to aging or disease are then modeled in mice.
Published May 19, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Aging, ventriculomegaly, lateral ventricles, MRI, ependymal cells, glial scarring
1Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University
Direct injection into the rat optic nerve is useful for regenerative research. We demonstrate a minimally-invasive technique for direct injection into a rat optic nerve that does not involve opening the skull. Using this method, surgical complications are minimized and recovery is more rapid.
Published May 19, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, optic nerve, injection, stem cells, regeneration, optic neuritis, optic neuropathy
1Centre for Integrative Biology (CIBIO), University of Trento, 2CNR Neuroscience Institute, Pisa, Italy
We describe an immunohistochemistry protocol to study the profile of hippocampal neuron activation following exposure to a spatial learning task in a mouse model characterized by cognitive deficits of neurodevelopmental origin. This protocol can be applied to both genetic or pharmacological mouse models characterized by cognitive deficits.
Published May 12, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Immunohistochemistry, Morris water maze, ERK, hippocampus, cognition, memory, autism
1PRIMACEN, Cell Imaging Platform of Normandy, Inserm, IRIB, University of Rouen, 2Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Yale University
During postnatal cerebellum development, immature granule cells originating from the germinal zone exhibit distinct modalities of migration to reach their final destination and to establish neuronal networks. This protocol describes the preparation of cerebellar slices and the confocal macroscopic approach used to investigate the factors that regulate neuronal migration.
Published May 12, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, neuroscience, developmental biology, cerebellum, interneuron migration, cerebellar granule cell, neuropeptide, PACAP, serine protease, tPA
1Department of Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix, 2BARROW Neurological Institute, Phoenix Children's Hospital, 3Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, 4Neuroscience Program, Arizona State University, 5Phoenix VA Healthcare System
This introductory level protocol describes the reagents, equipment, and techniques required to complete immunohistochemical staining of rodent brains, using markers for microglia and neuronal elements as an example.
Published May 12, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Immunohistochemistry, Iba1, Pan-Neuronal, Fluorescence, Double-Labeling, Microglia, Neuron, Rat, Antibody
1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis
Ex vivo ERG can be used to record electrical activity of retinal cells directly from isolated intact retinas of animals or humans. We demonstrate here how common in vivo ERG systems can be adapted for ex vivo ERG recordings in order to dissect the electrical activity of retinal cells.
Published May 6, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Electrophysiology, electroretinogram, ERG, ex vivo ERG, retina, photoreceptor, rod, cone, a-wave, b-wave, drug testing
1Institute for Ophthalmic Research, University of Tübingen, 2Graduate School of Cellular & Molecular Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, 3Bernstein Centre for Computational Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, 4Molecular Genetics Laboratory, University of Tübingen, 5Centre for Ophthalmology, University of Tübingen
We describe a protocol to monitor Ca2+ dynamics in the axon terminals of cone photoreceptors using an ex-vivo slice preparation of the mouse retina. This protocol allows comprehensive studies of cone Ca2+ signaling in an important mammalian model system, the mouse.
Published May 6, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Ca2+ biosensor, two-photon Ca2+ imaging, cell death, retinal slice preparation, retinal degeneration
1Biotactical Engineering, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology
This protocol outlines how to use the transient heating associated with the optical absorption of gold nanorods to stimulate differentiation and intracellular calcium activity in neuronal cells. These results potentially open up new applications in neural prostheses and fundamental studies in neuroscience.
Published April 27, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, gold nanorods, external absorber, neural stimulation, laser excitation, optical stimulation, neuronal cells, in vitro models.
1Department of Physics 0374, University of California, San Diego, 2Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Centre de Recherche de l’Université Laval Robert-Giffard
This protocol describes the design and surgical implantation of a head-restraining mechanism to monitor neuronal activity in sub-cortical brain structures in alert rats. It delineates procedures to isolate single neurons in the juxtacellular configuration and to efficiently identify their anatomical locations.
Published April 27, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, electrophysiology, juxtacellular, iontophoresis, stereotaxic surgery, thalamus, vibrissa
1Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool
This protocol describes a simple, cost effective way to individually identify Drosophila or other insects. Demonstration data investigating mating success across three species of Drosophila show that this method is comparable or better than the use of CO2 anaesthesia.
Published April 22, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Anesthesia, courtship, fruit fly, individual marking, individual tagging, male-male competition, mate choice, mate competition, mating latency, wing clipping