JoVE Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary section devoted to investigations of the structure, function, physiology, and pathophysiology of the brain and nervous system. Included methodologies range from molecular and cellular level studies to full central and peripheral neural systems. Potential treatment platforms and surgical techniques for neurological diseases and disorders are also presented in this section.
1Center for Narcolepsy, Sleep and Health Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 3Department of Biobehavioral Health Science, University of Illinois at Chicago
Afferent vagal signaling transmits important information to central nervous system from receptors located in organs of the abdomen and thorax. The nodose ganglia of vagus nerves contain many types of receptors that modulate vagal activity. This protocol describes a method of local injections of neurochemicals into the nodose ganglia.
Published November 25, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, neuroscience, nodose ganglia, vagus nerve, EMG, serotonin, apnea, genioglossus, cannabinoids
1KY Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Louisville, 2Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary
We present a protocol utilizing two-photon excitation time-lapse microscopy to simultaneously visualize the dynamics of axon and myelin injuries in real time. This proposed protocol permits studies of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors which can influence central myelinated axon fate after injury and contribute to permanent clinical disability.
Published November 25, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, spinal cord injury, axon, myelin, two-photon excitation microscopy, Nile Red, axonal degeneration, axonal dieback, axonal retraction
1Emmy Noether Group, Institute of Zoology, University of Cologne
Here we describe the dissection of the crayfish abdominal nerve cord. We also demonstrate an electrophysiological technique to record fictive locomotion from swimmeret motor neurons.
Published November 25, 2014. Keywords: Neurobiology, crustacean, dissection, extracellular recording, fictive locomotion, motor neurons, locomotion
1Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University
Two-photon intravital imaging can be used to investigate interactions among different cell types in the spinal cord in their native tissue environment in a bone marrow chimeric animal with a dorsal column traumatic spinal cord crush injury.
Published November 23, 2014. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Intravital, spinal cord crush injury, chimera, microglia, macrophages, dorsal column crush, axonal dieback
1Department of Physiology, University of California Los Angeles, 2Department of Neurobiology, University of California Los Angeles
The properties and functions of astrocyte intracellular Ca2+ signals in the striatum remain incompletely explored. We describe methods to express genetically encoded calcium indicators in striatal astrocytes using adeno-associated viruses of serotype 2/5 (AAV2/5), as well as procedures to reliably image Ca2+ signals within striatal astrocytes in situ.
Published November 19, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, astrocyte, calcium, striatum, GECI, GCaMP3, AAV2/5, stereotaxic injection, brain slice, imaging
1Department of Psychology, University of Montréal, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota
This article aims to describe a basic protocol for combining transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) measurements to investigate the effects of bilateral stimulation on primary motor cortex metabolism.
Published November 19, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, transcranial direct current stimulation, primary motor cortex, GABA, glutamate, stroke
1School of Psychology, University of Ottawa
This video describes Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) and motion-sensitive video recording methods to monitor choice behavior by bumblebees.
Published November 15, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, bumblebee, unlearned behaviors, floral choice, visual perception, Bombus spp, information processing, radio-frequency identification, motion-sensitive video
1Department of Neurology, University of Münster, 2Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research (IZKF) Münster, 3Institute of Physiology I — Neuropathophysiology I, University of Münster
Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) are interconnected by specific junctional proteins forming a highly regulated barrier separating blood and the central nervous system (CNS), the so-called blood-brain-barrier (BBB). The isolation of primary murine brain microvascular endothelial cells, as discussed in this protocol, enables detailed in vitro studies of the BBB.
Published November 14, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Blood brain barrier, central nervous system, endothelial cells, immune cell trafficking, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, neurovascular unit
1UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London
The molecular mechanisms that co-ordinate the formation of inhibitory GABAergic synapses during ontogeny are largely unknown. To study these processes,we have developed a co-culture model system which incorporates embryonic medium spiny GABAergic neurons cultured together with stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells expressing functional GABAA receptors.
Published November 14, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Developmental neuroscience, synaptogenesis, synaptic inhibition, co-culture, stable cell lines, GABAergic, medium spiny neurons, HEK 293 cell line
1Perkin Elmer Inc., 2Henry M. Jackson Foundation, 3The Geneva Foundation, 4ORISE, 5Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, 6Division of Molecular and Translational Sciences, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 7DoD Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute (BHSAI), Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC)
Botulinum neurotoxin is one of the most potent toxins among Category-A biothreat agents, yet a post-exposure therapeutic is not available. The high content imaging approach is a powerful methodology for identifying novel inhibitors as it enables multiparameter screening using biologically relevant motor neurons, the primary target of this toxin.
Published November 14, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, neuroscience, neurobiology, Botulinum neurotoxin, Clostridium botulinum, high content imaging system, neurotoxicity