In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (17)

Articles by Manikandan Paramasivam in JoVE

Other articles by Manikandan Paramasivam on PubMed

Purine Twisted-intercalating Nucleic Acids: a New Class of Anti-gene Molecules Resistant to Potassium-induced Aggregation

Nucleic Acids Research. Jun, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18456705

Sequence-specific targeting of genomic DNA by triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) is a promising strategy to modulate in vivo gene expression. Triplex formation involving G-rich oligonucleotides as third strand is, however, strongly inhibited by potassium-induced TFO self-association into G-quartet structures. We report here that G-rich TFOs with bulge insertions of (R)-1-O-[4-(1-pyrenylethynyl)-phenylmethyl] glycerol (called twisted intercalating nucleic acids, TINA) show a much lower tendency to aggregate in potassium than wild-type analogues do. We designed purine-motif TINA-TFOs for binding to a regulatory polypurine-polypyrimidine (pur/pyr) motif present in the promoter of the KRAS proto-oncogene. The binding of TINA-TFOs to the KRAS target has been analysed by electrophoresis mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting experiments. We discovered that in the presence of potassium the wild-type TFOs did not bind to the KRAS target, differently from the TINA analogues, whose binding was observed up to 140 mM KCl. The designed TINA-TFOs were found to abrogate the formation of a DNA-protein complex at the pur/pyr site and to down-regulate the transcription of CAT driven by the murine KRAS promoter. Molecular modelling of the DNA/TINA-TFO triplexes are also reported. This study provides a new and promising approach to create TFOs to target in vivo the genome.

Structural Polymorphism Within a Regulatory Element of the Human KRAS Promoter: Formation of G4-DNA Recognized by Nuclear Proteins

Nucleic Acids Research. Jun, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18490377

The human KRAS proto-oncogene contains a critical nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) upstream of the major transcription initiation site. In this article, we demonstrate by primer-extension experiments, PAGE, chemical footprinting, CD, UV and FRET experiments that the G-rich strand of NHE (32R) folds into intra-molecular G-quadruplex structures. Fluorescence data show that 32R in 100 mM KCl melts with a biphasic profile, showing the formation of two distinct G-quadruplexes with T(m) of approximately 55 degrees C (Q(1)) and approximately 72 degrees C (Q(2)). DMS-footprinting and CD suggest that Q(1) can be a parallel and Q(2) a mixed parallel/antiparallel G-quadruplex. When dsNHE (32R hybridized to its complementary) is incubated with a nuclear extract from Panc-1 cells, three DNA-protein complexes are observed by EMSA. The complex of slower mobility is competed by quadruplex 32R, but not by mutant oligonucleotides, which cannot form a quadruplex structure. Using paramagnetic beads coupled with 32R, we pulled down from the Panc-1 extract proteins with affinity for quadruplex 32R. One of these is the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, which was previously reported to unfold quadruplex DNA. Our study suggests a role of quadruplex DNA in KRAS transcription and provides the basis for the rationale design of molecular strategies to inhibit the expression of KRAS.

Triplex Glue by Synthesizing Conjugated Flexible Intercalators

Nucleic Acids Symposium Series (2004). 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18776241

Bulge insertions of conjugated intercalators into the DNA triplex structure are found to give a dramatic contribution to the triplex stability. On the other hand insertions of conjugated intercalators are found to diminish quadruplex structures and in this way breaking down the self association of G-rich oligonucleotides under physiologically potassium ion conditions. A large number of intercalators are described here and they all result in dramatic increases of thermal stability of the corresponding triplexes. Another interesting aspect of conjugated intercalators is their use for assembling alternate strand triplexes. Targeting of neighbouring purine sequences on each their strand in the duplex DNA is a challenge for the 5'- 5' connectivity of the TFOs because of a large distance between the 5'-ends. The intercalator approach offers a linkage with the proper combination of flexibility and rigidity to produce alternate strand triplexes with higher stability than a similar wild type triplex of the same total length.

Protein HnRNPA1 Binds to a Critical G-rich Element of KRAS and Unwinds G-quadruplex Structures: Implications in Transcription

Nucleic Acids Symposium Series (2004). 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18776302

The promoter of the KRAS proto-oncogene contains a critical nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) forming G-quadruplex structures that are recognized by nuclear proteins: PARP-1, Ku70 and hnRNPA1. Here we have studied the interaction between hnRNPA1 (and its derivative UP1) and the G-quadruplexes of KRAS by EMSA, FRET and CD experiments. FRET and CD showed that hnRNPA1/UP1 is able to unfold the G-quadruplexes of KRAS and facilitate the quadruplex to duplex transformation. This finding strengthens our previous hypothesis that the transcription regulation of KRAS is mediated by G-quadruplex structures. Against this background we designed G4-decoy oligonucleotides specific for KRAS that exhibit a strong antiproliferative effect in pancreatic cancer cells.

Identification of a New G-quadruplex Motif in the KRAS Promoter and Design of Pyrene-modified G4-decoys with Antiproliferative Activity in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. Jan, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19099510

A new quadruplex motif located in the promoter of the human KRAS gene, within a nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE), has been characterized. Oligonucleotides mimicking this quadruplex are found to compete with a DNA-protein complex between NHE and a nuclear extract from pancreatic cancer cells. When modified with (R)-1-O-[4-1-(1-pyrenylethynyl) phenylmethyl]glycerol insertions (TINA), the quadruplex oligonucleotides showed a dramatic increase of the T(m) (deltaT(m) from 22 to 32 degrees C) and a strong antiproliferative effects in Panc-1 cells.

Protein HnRNP A1 and Its Derivative Up1 Unfold Quadruplex DNA in the Human KRAS Promoter: Implications for Transcription

Nucleic Acids Research. May, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19282454

The promoter of the human KRAS proto-oncogene contains a structurally polymorphic nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) whose purine strand forms a parallel G-quadruplex structure (called 32R). In a previous work we reported that quadruplex 32R is recognized by three nuclear proteins: PARP-1, Ku70 and hnRNP A1. In this study we describe the interaction of recombinant hnRNP A1 (A1) and its derivative Up1 with the KRAS G-quadruplex. Mobility-shift experiments show that A1/Up1 binds specifically, and also with a high affinity, to quadruplex 32R, while CD demonstrates that the proteins strongly reduce the intensity of the 260 nm-ellipticity-the hallmark for parallel G4-DNA-and unfold the G-quadruplex. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer melting experiments reveal that A1/Up1 completely abrogates the cooperative quadruplex-to-ssDNA transition that characterizes the KRAS quadruplex and facilitates the association between quadruplex 32R and its complementary polypyrimidine strand. When quadruplex 32R is stabilized by TMPyP4, A1/Up1 brings about only a partial destabilization of the G4-DNA structure. The possible role played by hnRNP A1 in the mechanism of KRAS transcription is discussed.

Cellular Uptake and Binding of Guanidine-modified Phthalocyanines to KRAS/HRAS G-quadruplexes

Chemical Communications (Cambridge, England). Jan, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20062883

Guanidino-modified phthalocyanines are evaluated in vitro (polymerase-stop assays and FRET) and in cultured cells as G4-DNA ligands and modulators of gene transcription.

The KRAS Promoter Responds to Myc-associated Zinc Finger and Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 Proteins, Which Recognize a Critical Quadruplex-forming GA-element

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jul, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20457603

The murine KRAS promoter contains a G-rich nuclease hypersensitive element (GA-element) upstream of the transcription start site that is essential for transcription. Pulldown and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that this GA-element is bound by the Myc-associated zinc finger (MAZ) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) proteins. These proteins are crucial for transcription, because when they are knocked down by short hairpin RNA, transcription is down-regulated. This is also the case when the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity of PARP-1 is inhibited by 3,4-dihydro-5-[4-(1-piperidinyl) butoxyl]-1(2H) isoquinolinone. We found that MAZ specifically binds to the duplex and quadruplex conformations of the GA-element, whereas PARP-1 shows specificity only for the G-quadruplex. On the basis of fluorescence resonance energy transfer melting and polymerase stop assays we saw that MAZ stabilizes the KRAS quadruplex. When the capacity of folding in the GA-element is abrogated by specific G --> T or G --> A point mutations, KRAS transcription is down-regulated. Conversely, guanidine-modified phthalocyanines, which specifically interact with and stabilize the KRAS G-quadruplex, push the promoter activity up to more than double. Collectively, our data support a transcription mechanism for murine KRAS that involves MAZ, PARP-1 and duplex-quadruplex conformational changes in the promoter GA-element.

Primer Extension Reactions As a Tool to Uncover Folding Motifs Within Complex G-rich Sequences: Analysis of the Human KRAS NHE

Chemical Communications (Cambridge, England). May, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21424008

We employed primer extension reactions to uncover folding motifs in a nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) with a complex guanine pattern, located in the human KRAS promoter. We also identified and characterized a new G-rich motif of 21 nt capable of forming a parallel G-quadruplex that is disrupted by protein UP1.

A Ubiquitin-binding Protein, FAAP20, Links RNF8-mediated Ubiquitination to the Fanconi Anemia DNA Repair Network

Molecular Cell. Jul, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22705371

The Fanconi anemia (FA) protein network is necessary for repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), but its control mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that the network is regulated by a ubiquitin signaling cascade initiated by RNF8 and its partner, UBC13, and mediated by FAAP20, a component of the FA core complex. FAAP20 preferentially binds the ubiquitin product of RNF8-UBC13, and this ubiquitin-binding activity and RNF8-UBC13 are both required for recruitment of FAAP20 to ICLs. Both RNF8 and FAAP20 are required for recruitment of FA core complex and FANCD2 to ICLs, whereas RNF168 can modulate efficiency of the recruitment. RNF8 and FAAP20 are needed for efficient FANCD2 monoubiquitination, a key step of the FA network; RNF8 and the FA core complex work in the same pathway to promote cellular resistance to ICLs. Thus, the RNF8-FAAP20 ubiquitin cascade is critical for recruiting FA core complex to ICLs and for normal function of the FA network.

NEIL1 Responds and Binds to Psoralen-induced DNA Interstrand Crosslinks

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. May, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23508956

Recent evidence suggests a role for base excision repair (BER) proteins in the response to DNA interstrand crosslinks, which block replication and transcription, and lead to cell death and genetic instability. Employing fluorescently tagged fusion proteins and laser microirradiation coupled with confocal microscopy, we observed that the endonuclease VIII-like DNA glycosylase, NEIL1, accumulates at sites of oxidative DNA damage, as well as trioxsalen (psoralen)-induced DNA interstrand crosslinks, but not to angelicin monoadducts. While recruitment to the oxidative DNA lesions was abrogated by the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine, this treatment did not alter the accumulation of NEIL1 at sites of interstrand crosslinks, suggesting distinct recognition mechanisms. Consistent with this conclusion, recruitment of the NEIL1 population variants, G83D, C136R, and E181K, to oxidative DNA damage and psoralen-induced interstrand crosslinks was differentially affected by the mutation. NEIL1 recruitment to psoralen crosslinks was independent of the nucleotide excision repair recognition factor, XPC. Knockdown of NEIL1 in LN428 glioblastoma cells resulted in enhanced recruitment of XPC, a more rapid removal of digoxigenin-tagged psoralen adducts, and decreased cellular sensitivity to trioxsalen plus UVA, implying that NEIL1 and BER may interfere with normal cellular processing of interstrand crosslinks. While exhibiting no enzymatic activity, purified NEIL1 protein bound stably to psoralen interstrand crosslink-containing synthetic oligonucleotide substrates in vitro. Our results indicate that NEIL1 recognizes specifically and distinctly interstrand crosslinks in DNA, and can obstruct the efficient removal of lethal crosslink adducts.

ATR-dependent Phosphorylation of FANCM at Serine 1045 is Essential for FANCM Functions

Cancer Research. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23698467

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genome instability syndrome that has been associated with both cancer predisposition and bone marrow failure. FA proteins are involved in cellular response to replication stress in which they coordinate DNA repair with DNA replication and cell-cycle progression. One regulator of the replication stress response is the ATP-dependent DNA translocase FANCM, which we have shown to be hyperphosphorylated in response to various genotoxic agents. However, the significance of this phosphorylation remained unclear. Here, we show that genotoxic stress-induced FANCM phosphorylation is ATR-dependent and that this modification is highly significant for the cellular response to replication stress. We identified serine (S1045) residue of FANCM that is phosphorylated in response to genotoxic stress and this effect is ATR-dependent. We show that S1045 is required for FANCM functions including its role in FA pathway integrity, recruiting FANCM to the site of interstrand cross links, preventing the cells from entering mitosis prematurely, and efficient activation of the CHK1 and G2-M checkpoints. Overall, our data suggest that an ATR-FANCM feedback loop is present in the FA and replication stress response pathways and that it is required for both efficient ATR/CHK1 checkpoint activation and FANCM function.

Arsenite Binds to the RING Finger Domains of RNF20-RNF40 Histone E3 Ubiquitin Ligase and Inhibits DNA Double-strand Break Repair

Journal of the American Chemical Society. Sep, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25170678

Arsenic is a widespread environmental contaminant. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying the carcinogenic effects of arsenic remain incompletely understood. Core histones can be ubiquitinated by RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligases, among which the RNF20-RNF40 heterodimer catalyzes the ubiquitination of histone H2B at lysine 120. This ubiquitination event is important for the formation of open and biochemically accessible chromatin fiber that is conducive for DNA repair. Herein, we found that arsenite could bind directly to the RING finger domains of RNF20 and RNF40 in vitro and in cells, and treatment with arsenite resulted in substantially impaired H2B ubiquitination in multiple cell lines. Exposure to arsenite also diminished the recruitment of BRCA1 and RAD51 to laser-induced DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites, compromised DNA DSB repair in human cells, and rendered cells sensitive toward a radiomimetic agent, neocarzinostatin. Together, the results from the present study revealed, for the first time, that arsenite may exert its carcinogenic effect by targeting cysteine residues in the RING finger domains of histone E3 ubiquitin ligase, thereby altering histone epigenetic mark and compromising DNA DSB repair. Our results also suggest arsenite as a general inhibitor for RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligases.

Nuclear GIT2 is an ATM Substrate and Promotes DNA Repair

Molecular and Cellular Biology. Apr, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25605334

Insults to nuclear DNA induce multiple response pathways to mitigate the deleterious effects of damage and mediate effective DNA repair. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 2 (GIT2) regulates receptor internalization, focal adhesion dynamics, cell migration, and responses to oxidative stress. Here we demonstrate that GIT2 coordinates the levels of proteins in the DNA damage response (DDR). Cellular sensitivity to irradiation-induced DNA damage was highly associated with GIT2 expression levels. GIT2 is phosphorylated by ATM kinase and forms complexes with multiple DDR-associated factors in response to DNA damage. The targeting of GIT2 to DNA double-strand breaks was rapid and, in part, dependent upon the presence of H2AX, ATM, and MRE11 but was independent of MDC1 and RNF8. GIT2 likely promotes DNA repair through multiple mechanisms, including stabilization of BRCA1 in repair complexes; upregulation of repair proteins, including HMGN1 and RFC1; and regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity. Furthermore, GIT2-knockout mice demonstrated a greater susceptibility to DNA damage than their wild-type littermates. These results suggest that GIT2 plays an important role in MRE11/ATM/H2AX-mediated DNA damage responses.

UHRF1 Contributes to DNA Damage Repair As a Lesion Recognition Factor and Nuclease Scaffold

Cell Reports. Mar, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25818288

We identified ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domain 1 (UHRF1) as a binding factor for DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) lesions through affinity purification of ICL-recognition activities. UHRF1 is recruited to DNA lesions in vivo and binds directly to ICL-containing DNA. UHRF1-deficient cells display increased sensitivity to a variety of DNA damages. We found that loss of UHRF1 led to retarded lesion processing and reduced recruitment of ICL repair nucleases to the site of DNA damage. UHRF1 interacts physically with both ERCC1 and MUS81, two nucleases involved in the repair of ICL lesions. Depletion of both UHRF1 and components of the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway resulted in increased DNA damage sensitivity compared to defect of each mechanism alone. These results suggest that UHRF1 promotes recruitment of lesion-processing activities via its affinity to recognize DNA damage and functions as a nuclease recruitment scaffold in parallel to the FA pathway.

MERIT40 Cooperates with BRCA2 to Resolve DNA Interstrand Cross-links

Genes & Development. Sep, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26338419

MERIT40 is an essential component of the RAP80 ubiquitin recognition complex that targets BRCA1 to DNA damage sites. Although this complex is required for BRCA1 foci formation, its physiologic role in DNA repair has remained enigmatic, as has its relationship to canonical DNA repair mechanisms. Surprisingly, we found that Merit40(-/-) mice displayed marked hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) but not whole-body irradiation. MERIT40 was rapidly recruited to ICL lesions prior to FANCD2, and Merit40-null cells exhibited delayed ICL unhooking coupled with reduced end resection and homologous recombination at ICL damage. Interestingly, Merit40 mutation exacerbated ICL-induced chromosome instability in the context of concomitant Brca2 deficiency but not in conjunction with Fancd2 mutation. These findings implicate MERIT40 in the earliest stages of ICL repair and define specific functional interactions between RAP80 complex-dependent ubiquitin recognition and the Fanconi anemia (FA)-BRCA ICL repair network.

Single Molecule Analysis of Laser Localized Interstrand Crosslinks

Frontiers in Genetics. 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27242893

DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) block unwinding of the double helix, and have always been regarded as major challenges to replication and transcription. Compounds that form these lesions are very toxic and are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. We have developed two strategies, both based on immunofluorescence (IF), for studying cellular responses to ICLs. The basis of each is psoralen, a photoactive (by long wave ultraviolet light, UVA) DNA crosslinking agent, to which we have linked an antigen tag. In the one approach, we have taken advantage of DNA fiber and immuno-quantum dot technologies for visualizing the encounter of replication forks with ICLs induced by exposure to UVA lamps. In the other, psoralen ICLs are introduced into nuclei in live cells in regions of interest defined by a UVA laser. The antigen tag can be displayed by conventional IF, as can the recruitment and accumulation of DNA damage response proteins to the laser localized ICLs. However, substantial difference between the technologies creates considerable uncertainty as to whether conclusions from one approach are applicable to those of the other. In this report, we have employed the fiber/quantum dot methodology to determine lesion density and spacing on individual DNA molecules carrying laser localized ICLs. We have performed the same measurements on DNA fibers with ICLs induced by exposure of psoralen to UVA lamps. Remarkably, we find little difference in the adduct distribution on fibers prepared from cells exposed to the different treatment protocols. Furthermore, there is considerable similarity in patterns of replication in the vicinity of the ICLs introduced by the two techniques.

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