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Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Insertion

Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Insertion



The placement of a peripheral intravenous catheter is a frequently performed nursing procedure. Peripheral venous access is necessary for many aspects of patient care, including the infusion of medications, fluids, dyes, and radioactive tracers.

In this video, we will demonstrate the aseptic "no-touch" technique for insertion of a peripheral intravenous, or PIV, catheter, with the attachment of an IV extension set.

The most common sites for the placement of a PIV catheter are the arms and hands in adults, and the feet in children. The feet should be avoided in adults because of the risk of thrombophlebitis. Also, the median cubital vein and cephalic vein in the wrist should be avoided when possible due to the risk of nerve damage. Always use the most distal site possible, so that more proximal sites are still available in the case of infiltration or extravasation. Other considerations when choosing a site include pain, presence of wounds, decreased circulation, previous cerebrovascular accident, dialysis fistulas, or mastectomy.

The first step, upon entering the patient's room, is to wash your hands with soap and warm water for 20 seconds, or use sanitizer with vigorous friction if the hands are not visibly soiled.

Next, at the bedside computer, review the patient's electronic health record and the order for PIV insertion. Also review the patient's history for the risk of bleeding complications, such as bleeding disorders, anticoagulant therapy, and low platelet count. Then, explain the procedure to the patient, emphasizing that only the soft, flexible catheter will remain in their vein after the venipuncture, allowing them to move the limb freely, and obtain their consent for the procedure.

It is important to verify the patient's identity using two independent identifiers, such as the patient's name and medical record number. Do not utilize the patient's room or bed number as identifiers. Next, place the patient in a comfortable position and adjust the bed height to maintain an ergonomic nursing position and decrease back strain. Also, ensure that the lighting is adequate and that a bedside stand or over-the-bed table is clear for use.

For supply preparation, exit the patient's room and wash your hands again, as previously described. Now gather the necessary supplies, which might be available as an IV insertion kit. The list of needed supplies includes a tourniquet, absorbent pad, chlorhexidine swabs, 2 pairs of latex-free gloves, appropriate size over-the-needle catheter, IV needleless connector, prefilled saline flush syringe, IV extension tubing, barrier solution, IV adhesive securement device, transparent occlusive dressing, transpore tape, 2 x 2 sterile gauze, and adhesive bandage.

Choose the smallest size over-the-needle catheter suitable for the intravenous therapy being delivered and the expected length of therapy, in accordance with the policies of the institution. Duplicate supplies, for repeated IV attempts, may be needed.

Return to the patient's room. Place all of the supplies on the bedside stand, and wash your hands again. Now, open the prefilled syringe and hold it between your non-dominant middle and ring fingers. Next, using aseptic technique, open the extension tubing. Hold the tubing in your dominant hand and remove the cap from the male end using your non-dominant thumb and forefinger. Then, attach the female end of the extension tubing to the male end of the syringe.

Subsequently, hold the extension tubing with the capped male end pointing towards the ceiling. Now push the syringe plunger to prime the needleless connector and extension tubing until all air has been removed and a few drops of saline have been expressed from the end. Then place the primed needleless connector with extension tubing and attached syringe down on the table, within reach.

Now, remove the backing from the transparent occlusive dressing and place it sticky-side-up, within reach. Next, remove four strips of tape from the transpore tape roll and open the gauze, chlorhexidine packaging, IV adhesive securement device, and adhesive bandage packaging.

The next step is to choose an insertion site. Visibly inspect both arms for suitable veins. The cephalic, basilic, median cubital, and dorsal hand veins are preferred. Apply a tourniquet around the arm, 10-15 cm proximal to the chosen insertion site. The tourniquet should not be so tight as to obliterate the distal pulses. Assess the chosen vein with the tourniquet in place. If it is soft and free of complications such as sclerosis, bruising, phlebitis, or infiltrates, temporarily remove the tourniquet and place an absorbent pad under the arm. Before proceeding, perform hand hygiene again.

Now, take the over-the-needle catheter from the packaging, remove the cap, and place it between the ring and middle fingers of the non-dominant hand. Check the catheter and needle for irregularities, such as bends, nicks, or hooks. Move the catheter hub clockwise, and then back to the original position to break any suction tension remaining from the sterilization process. This will allow for smooth advancement of the catheter. Replace the catheter cap and set the over-the-needle catheter within easy reach. Now you are ready to proceed with catheter insertion

Wash your hands again and don clean gloves. Re-apply the tourniquet to the patient's arm and tap the chosen insertion site several times to vasodilate the vein. Use the chlorhexidine swab to scrub the insertion site back and forth for 30 seconds, ensuring that the anti-microbial penetrates any cracks and fissures in the skin. Then allow the chlorhexidine to dry completely-this will enable complete microbicidal activity.

Next, remove the cap from the over-the-needle catheter and hold the catheter in your dominant hand. Then, using your non-dominant hand, stretch the skin taught and stabilize the vein 4-5 cm below the insertion site, taking care not to contaminate the point of insertion.

Now, hold the over-the-needle catheter between the dominant thumb and middle finger, with the bevel up, and pierce the skin at a 15-20° angle, directly over the vein. Advance until a flashback of blood is visible. Then, drop the angle of the catheter a few degrees and advance it with the needle a few millimeters to ensure that the tip has passed into the vein. Next, using the dominant index finger, advance the hub of the catheter fully into the vein while holding the needle steady. Then release the tourniquet with your non-dominant hand and occlude the vein to help reduce bleeding after needle removal.

Remove the stylet needle from the catheter, engaging the needle safety device, if available, and place the needle down on the bedside table. Quickly remove the cap and insert the male end of the pre-primed IV extension set into the catheter hub. Now, while stabilizing the IV extension set, depress the plunger of the syringe and flush the IV with normal saline to ensure patency. Observe for swelling, redness, or leaking at the IV site and ask the patient if they feel any discomfort during this process. It is not unusual for the patient to notice a cold sensation or a salty taste in the mouth.

If there are no adverse reactions, then flush the PIV again slowly, while engaging the clamp located on the IV extension set to prevent the blood from backing up into the tubing. Then remove the syringe and place it on the bedside table.

The next step is to apply the dressings. First open the barrier solution packaging and spread a light film of barrier solution 1 cm away from and around the insertion site. Now, place a twice-folded 2 x 2 gauze under the hub of the PIV to prevent pressure on the underlying skin. Subsequently, place the semi-permeable occlusive transparent dressing over the insertion site and catheter and squeeze to anchor the hub in place. Then remove the backing from the adhesive IV securement device and place the sticky side against the skin directly under the catheter hub to secure the catheter hub to this device.

Now, loop the IV extension tubing in a U-shape, pointing up past the insertion site and secure it with tape to the skin and the occlusive dressing. Also, attach a label to the occlusive dressing with the time and date of insertion, your initials, and any other information required by the institution. Ensure that the insertion site remains visible for future evaluation. Next, discard all packaging and the prefilled syringe in a trash receptacle and dispose of the over-the-needle stylet in a sharps container. Finally, document the PIV insertion on the patient's electronic health record before leaving the patient's room.

"Placement of a peripheral intravenous catheter using an over-the-needle catheter for infusion therapy is an aseptic no-touch procedure."

"A common mistake in PIV placement includes touching the venipuncture site after cleaning with antiseptic solution, thereby contaminating the insertion site. Another common mistake is not allowing the chlorhexidine enough time to dry, which can cause a decrease in antimicrobial action and inadequate adhesive action."

"Removing and reinserting the needle from the catheter during insertion should be avoided. As this may increase the possibility of puncturing the catheter with the needle or even causing the catheter to break into the vein. The Infusion Nursing Society regularly researches and revises intravenous catheter placement procedures. Every nurse should refer to it on a regular basis."

You've just watched JoVE's video on the insertion of a peripheral intravenous catheter with an IV extension set. You should understand the supplies needed and the aseptic no-touch technique of this commonly performed procedure. As always, thanks for watching!

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