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In JoVE (3)
- Het toepassen van Microfluidics naar Elektrofysiologie
- Brain Stimulation Snijd met behulp van een Microfluïdische Netwerk en Standard Perfusie Kamer
- Een Multi-parametrische Islet Perifusion System binnen een Microfluïdische Perifusion Device
Other Publications (26)
- Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
- Biomedical Microdevices
- Journal of Neuroscience Methods
- Lab on a Chip
- Lab on a Chip
- PLoS Computational Biology
- PloS One
- Journal of Biological Engineering
- Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference
- Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
- Biomedical Microdevices
- Biomedical Microdevices
- Biomedical Microdevices
- Lab on a Chip
- Lab on a Chip
- Lab on a Chip
- Lab on a Chip
- Analytical Chemistry
- Biomedical Microdevices
- Biomedical Microdevices
- Biomedical Microdevices
- Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. in English)
- Biomedical Microdevices
- Analytical Chemistry
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Articles by David T. Eddington in JoVE
Het toepassen van Microfluidics naar Elektrofysiologie
David T. Eddington
Dept. of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Chicago
Brain Stimulation Snijd met behulp van een Microfluïdische Netwerk en Standard Perfusie Kamer
Javeed Shaikh Mohammed1, Hugo Caicedo1, Christopher P. Fall2, David T. Eddington1
1Dept. of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Chicago, 2Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois, Chicago
Demonstreren we de fabricage van een eenvoudige microfluïdische apparaat dat kan worden geïntegreerd met standaard elektrofysiologie opstellingen om microschaal oppervlakken van een brein slice bloot in een goed gecontroleerde manier aan verschillende neurotransmitters.
Een Multi-parametrische Islet Perifusion System binnen een Microfluïdische Perifusion Device
Adeola F. Adewola1, Yong Wang1, Tricia Harvat1, David T. Eddington2, Dongyoung Lee1, Jose Oberholzer1,2
1Department of Surgery, University of Illinois, Chicago, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Chicago
Een microfluïdische eilandje perifusion apparaat werd ontwikkeld voor de beoordeling van dynamische insuline secretie van verschillende eilandjes en gelijktijdige fluorescentie beeldvorming van calcium influx en mitochondriale potentiële veranderingen.
Other articles by David T. Eddington on PubMed
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14741116
With the advent of the genomic revolution and the sequencing of the human genome complete, the majority of pharmaceuticals under development are proteins. Consequently, new techniques to more effectively administer these new protein therapeutics need to be developed. One method that is gaining popularity in the research community involves the use of responsive hydrogel actuators for flow control in drug delivery devices. Responsive hydrogels are materials able to undergo a volume change in response to a stimulus from their local environment. The following paper overviews recent advances made using hydrogel actuators for flow control such as resistance based valves, hydrogel jacket valves, hybrid hydrogel membrane valve, electrically triggered valves, and biomimetic valves. Also reviewed are several hydrogel flow control systems such as a flow sorter and pH-regulation system. The chemistry of the hydrogel actuators can be tweaked to allow physiological variables to trigger the volume expansion of the hydrogel actuators as demonstrated by several glucose sensitive hydrogel valves reviewed below. Therefore, the door to physiological feedback controlling the infusion rate in a drug delivery device is opened and has the potential to revolutionize protein pharmaceutical drug delivery.
Microfluidic Tectonics Platform: A Colorimetric, Disposable Botulinum Toxin Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay System
Electrophoresis. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15188260
A fabrication platform for realizing integrated microfluidic devices is discussed. The platform allows for creating specific microsystems for multistep assays in an ad hoc manner as the components that perform the assay steps can be created at any location inside the device via in situ fabrication. The platform was utilized to create a prototype microsystem for detecting botulinum neurotoxin directly from whole blood. Process steps such as sample preparation by filtration, mixing and incubation with reagents was carried out on the device. Various microfluidic components such as channel network, valves and porous filter were fabricated from prepolymer mixture consisting of monomer, cross-linker and a photoinitiator. For detection of the toxoid, biotinylated antibodies were immobilized on streptavidin-functionalized agarose gel beads. The gel beads were introduced into the device and were used as readouts. Enzymatic reaction between alkaline phosphatase (on secondary antibody) and substrate produced an insoluble, colored precipitate that coated the beads thus making the readout visible to the naked eye. Clinically relevant amounts of the toxin can be detected from whole blood using the portable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system. Multiple layers can be realized for effective space utilization and creating a three-dimensional (3-D) chaotic mixer. In addition, external materials such as membranes can be incorporated into the device as components. Individual components that were necessary to perform these steps were characterized, and their mutual compatibility is also discussed.
Biomedical Microdevices. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16133810
This paper describes the development and optimization of a low flow open-loop infusion device for continuous delivery of protein therapeutics. Specifically, a non-electronic polymer device is actuated with responsive hydrogels to infuse at 2 microL/hr for 12 hours. Hydrogel actuators transduce a chemical signal (change in pH of the local environment) into a mechanical response (swelling) generating the pressure to drive the infusion. The hydrogel actuators are separated from the drug reservoir by an elastomeric impermeable membrane. As the hydrogel actuators expand, the expansion deflects the flexible membrane down and reduces the volume of the drug reservoir causing the infusion of drug through the needle that is the only outlet for the reservoir.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18565590
Rapid prototyping (RP) is a useful method for designing and fabricating a wide variety of devices used for neuroscience research. The present study confirms the utility of using fused deposition modeling, a specific form of RP, to produce three devices commonly used for basic science experimentation. The accuracy and precision of the RP method varies according to the type and quality of the printer as well as the thermoplastic substrate. The printer was capable of creating device channels with a minimum diameter of 0.4 or 0.6mm depending on the orientation of fabrication. RP enabled the computer-aided design and fabrication of three custom devices including a cortical recording/stroke induction platform capable of monitoring electrophysiological function during ischemic challenge. In addition to the recording platform, two perfusion chambers and a cranial window device were replicated with sub-millimeter precision. The ability to repeatedly modify the design of each device with minimal effort and low turn-around time is helpful for oft-unpredictable experimental conditions. Results obtained from validation studies using both the cortical recording platform and perfusion chamber did not vary from previous results using traditional hand-fabricated or commercially available devices. Combined with computer-aided design, rapid prototyping is an excellent alternative for developing and fabricating custom devices for neuroscience research.
Lab on a Chip. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18584078
We have developed a microfluidic brain slice device (microBSD) that marries an off-the shelf brain slice perfusion chamber with an array of microfluidic channels set into the bottom surface of the chamber substrate. As this device is created through rapid prototyping, once optimized, it is trivial to replicate and share the devices with other investigators. The device integrates seamlessly into standard physiology and imaging chambers and it is immediately available to the whole slice physiology community. With this technology we can address the flow of neurochemicals and any other soluble factors to precise locations in the brain slice with the temporal profile we choose. Dopamine (DA) was chosen as a model neurotransmitter and we have quantified delivery in brain tissue using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and fluorescence imaging.
Lab on a Chip. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19209341
A microfluidic device to perfuse pancreatic islets while simultaneously characterizing their functionality through fluorescence imaging of the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in addition to enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) quantification of secreted insulin was developed and characterized. This multimodal characterization of islet function will facilitate rapid assessment of tissue quality immediately following isolation from donor pancreas and allow more informed transplantation decisions to be made which may improve transplantation outcomes. The microfluidic perfusion chamber allows flow rates of up to 1 mL min(-1), without any noticeable perturbation or shear of islets. This multimodal quantification was done on both mouse and human islets. The ability of this simple microfluidic device to detect subtle variations in islet responses in different functional assays performed in short time-periods demonstrates that the microfluidic perfusion chamber device can be used as a new gold standard to perform comprehensive islet analysis and obtain a more meaningful predictive value for islet functionality prior to transplantation into recipients, which is currently difficult to predict using a single functional assay.
PLoS Computational Biology. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19214200
Blood is a dense suspension of soft non-Brownian cells of unique importance. Physiological blood flow involves complex interactions of blood cells with each other and with the environment due to the combined effects of varying cell concentration, cell morphology, cell rheology, and confinement. We analyze these interactions using computational morphological image analysis and machine learning algorithms to quantify the non-equilibrium fluctuations of cellular velocities in a minimal, quasi-two-dimensional microfluidic setting that enables high-resolution spatio-temporal measurements of blood cell flow. In particular, we measure the effective hydrodynamic diffusivity of blood cells and analyze its relationship to macroscopic properties such as bulk flow velocity and density. We also use the effective suspension temperature to distinguish the flow of normal red blood cells and pathological sickled red blood cells and suggest that this temperature may help to characterize the propensity for stasis in Virchow's Triad of blood clotting and thrombosis.
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19727397
Oxygen is a key modulator of many cellular pathways, but current devices permitting in vitro oxygen modulation fail to meet the needs of biomedical research. A microfabricated insert for multiwell plates has been developed to more effectively control the temporal and spatial oxygen concentration to better model physiological phenomena found in vivo. The platform consists of a polydimethylsiloxane insert that nests into a standard multiwell plate and serves as a passive microfluidic gas network with a gas-permeable membrane aimed to modulate oxygen delivery to adherent cells. Equilibration time is on the order of minutes and a wide variety of oxygen profiles can be attained based on the device design, such as the cyclic profile achieved in this study, and even oxygen gradients to mimic those found in vivo. The proper biological consequences of the device's oxygen delivery were confirmed in cellular models via a proliferation assay and western analysis of the upregulation of hypoxia inducible transcription factor-1alpha. These experiments serve as a demonstration for the platform as a viable tool to increase experimental throughput and permit novel experimental possibilities in any biomedical research lab.
Journal of Biological Engineering. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19785761
Cnidocysts isolated from cnidarian organisms are attractive as a drug-delivery platform due to their fast, efficient delivery of toxins. The cnidocyst could be utilized as the means to deliver therapeutics in a wearable drug-delivery patch. Cnidocysts have been previously shown to discharge upon stimulation via electrical, mechanical, and chemical pathways. Cnidocysts isolated from the Portuguese Man O' War jellyfish (Physalia physalis) are attractive for this purpose because they possess relatively long threads, are capable of puncturing through hard fish scales, and are stable for years.
Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19963531
Oxygen is a key modulator of many cellular pathways but current devices permitting in vitro oxygen modulation fail to meet the needs of many researchers. In this study, a microfabricated insert for multiwell formats has been developed to control the gas concentration of each well independent of the global incubator's condition. The platform consists of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) insert that nests into a standard multiwell plate and serves as a passive network with a gas permeable membrane aimed to deliver gas to adherent cell cultures. Preliminary data demonstrate that the insert is effective in controlling the oxygen concentration at the cell surface inside a well with equilibration times in minutes rather than hours for conventional technologies. A wide variety of oxygen profiles can be attained based on the device design, such as the cyclic profile achieved in this study, and even gradients in local oxygen concentration to mimic those found in vivo for more biomimetic cellular models.
Enhanced Tumor Cell Isolation by a Biomimetic Combination of E-selectin and Anti-EpCAM: Implications for the Effective Separation of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs)
Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20155985
The selective detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is of significant clinical importance for the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of cancer metastasis. However, largely because of the extremely low number of CTCs (as low as 1 in 10(9) hematologic cells) in the blood of patients, effective detection and separation of the rare cells remain a tremendous challenge. Cell rolling is known to play a key role in physiological processes such as the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation and selectin-mediated CTC metastasis. Furthermore, because CTCs typically express the epithelial-cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) on the surface whereas normal hematologic cells do not, substrates with immobilized antibody against EpCAM may specifically interact with CTCs. In this article, we created biomimetic surfaces functionalized with P- and E-selectin and anti-EpCAM that induce different responses in HL-60 (used as a model of leukocytes in this study) and MCF-7 (a model of CTCs) cells. HL-60 and MCF-7 cells showed different degrees of interaction with P-/E-selectin and anti-EpCAM at a shear stress of 0.32 dyn/cm(2). HL-60 cells exhibited rolling on P-selectin-immobilized substrates at a velocity of 2.26 +/- 0.28 microm/s whereas MCF-7 cells had no interaction with the surface. Both cell lines, however, had interactions with E-selectin, and the rolling velocity of MCF-7 cells (4.24 +/- 0.31 microm/s) was faster than that of HL-60 cells (2.12 +/- 0.15 microm/s). However, only MCF-7 cells interacted with anti-EpCAM-coated surfaces, forming stationary binding under flow. More importantly, the combination of the rolling (E-selectin) and stationary binding (anti-EpCAM) resulted in substantially enhanced separation capacity and capture efficiency (more than 3-fold enhancement), as compared to a surface functionalized solely with anti-EpCAM that has been commonly used for CTC capture. Our results indicate that cell-specific detection and separation may be achieved through mimicking the biological processes of combined dynamic cell rolling and stationary binding, which will likely lead to a CTC detection device with significantly enhanced specificity and sensitivity without a complex fabrication process.
Biomedical Microdevices. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20300858
A microfluidic islet perifusion device was developed for the assessment of dynamic insulin secretion of multiple pancreatic islets and simultaneous fluorescence imaging of calcium influx and mitochondrial potential changes. The fanned out design of the second generation device optimized the efficient mixing and uniform distribution of rapid alternating solutions in the perifusion chamber and allowed for the generation of reproducible glucose gradients. Simultaneous imaging of calcium influx and mitochondrial potential changes in response to glucose stimulation showed high signal-noise ratio and spatial-temporal resolution. These results suggest that this system can be used for detailed study of the endocrine function of pancreatic islets with simultaneous imaging of intracellular ion fluxes and mitochondrial membrane potential changes. This tool can be used for quality assessment of islets preparation before transplantation and for in vitro studies of islet function.
Biomedical Microdevices. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20464499
Understanding and optimizing fluid flows through in vitro microfluidic perfusion systems is essential in mimicking in vivo conditions for biological research. In a previous study a microfluidic brain slice device (microBSD) was developed for microscale electrophysiology investigations. The device consisted of a standard perfusion chamber bonded to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel substrate. Our objective in this study is to characterize the flows through the microBSD by using multiphysics simulations of injections into a pourous matrix to identify optimal spacing of ports. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are performed with CFD-ACE + software to model, simulate, and assess the transport of soluble factors through the perfusion bath, the microchannels, and a material that mimics the porosity, permeability and tortuosity of brain tissue. Additionally, experimental soluble factor transport through a brain slice is predicted by and compared to simulated fluid flow in a volume that represents a porous matrix material. The computational results are validated with fluorescent dye experiments.
Biomedical Microdevices. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20549367
Islet size has recently been demonstrated to be an important factor in determining human islet transplantation outcomes. In this study, a multi-layered microfluidic device was developed and quantified for size-based separation of a heterogeneous population of mouse islets. The device was fabricated using standard soft lithography and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Size-based separation was first demonstrated via injection of a heterogeneous population of glass beads between 50-300 microm in diameter which were separated into five sub-populations based on their diameter. Next, a heterogeneous population of mouse pancreatic islets, between 50-250 microm in diameter was separated into four sub-populations. Throughout this process the islets remained intact without any signs of damage, as indicated by cell viability staining. Islet glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of each sub-population of islets was also evaluated demonstrating that islets smaller than 150 microm have superior stimulation indexes (SI) compared to islets larger than 150 microm. In this study, we found that islets between 100 microm and 150 microm in diameter had the greatest SI value in a heterogeneous population of islets.
Lab on a Chip. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20559583
Controlling oxygen concentration at a microscale level can benefit experimental investigations involving oxidative stress, ischemia, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated cellular pathways. Here, we report the application of microfluidic gradient generation in an open-well culture model, in which a gradient of gas is delivered via diffusion through a gas permeable substrate that separates cells from the gas microchannels below. By using diffusion to localize oxygen delivery, microgradients of oxygen concentrations can be rapidly and controllably applied without exposing cells to mechanical stresses or reducing culture volumes inside microfluidic culture chambers. Furthermore, we demonstrate the modulation of intracellular ROS levels in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells by applying these oxygen microgradients. Increases in ROS levels consistent with both oxidative stress and hypoxic exposures were observed in MDCK cells. The measured ROS increases were comparable to 100 microM hydrogen peroxide exposure in a control comparison, which is within the range of standard ROS induction methods. Incubation with 200 microM vitamin C was able to demodulate the ROS response at both hypoxic and hyperoxic exposures. By providing microfluidic controlled gradients, constant ROS exposure, and a shear-free open well design, the devices introduced here greatly improve upon standard oxygen-based culturing methods.
Lab on a Chip. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20689862
Cell migration is a hallmark of cancer cell metastasis and is highly correlated with hypoxia in tumors. The Boyden chamber is a porous membrane-based migration platform that has seen a great deal of use for both in vitro migration and invasion assays due to its adaptability to common culture vessels and relative ease of use. The hypoxic chamber is a current tool that can be implemented to investigate the cellular response to oxygen paradigms. Unfortunately, this method lacks the spatial and temporal precision to accurately model a number of physiological phenomena. In this article, we present a newly developed microfabricated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device that easily adapts to the Boyden chamber, and provides more control over the oxygenation conditions exposed to cells. The device equilibrates to 1% oxygen in about 20 min, thus demonstrating the capabilities of a system for researchers to establish both short-term continuous and intermittent hypoxia regimes. A Parylene-C thin-film coating was used to prevent ambient air penetration through the bulk PDMS and was found to yield improved equilibration times and end-point concentrations. MDA-MD-231 cells, an invasive breast cancer line, were used as a model cell type to demonstrate the effect of oxygen concentration on cell migration through the Boyden chamber porous membrane. Continuous hypoxia downregulated migration of cells relative to the normoxic control, as did an intermittent hypoxia regime (IH) cycling between 0% and 21% oxygen (0-21% IH). However, cells exposed to 5-21% IH exhibited increased migration compared to the other conditions, as well as relative to the normoxic control. The results presented here show the device can be utilized for experiments implementing the Boyden chamber for in vitro hypoxic studies, allowing experiments to be conducted faster and with more precision than currently possible.
Lab on a Chip. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20938500
Oxygen tension is critical in a number of cell pathways but is often overlooked in cell culture. One reason for this is the difficulty in modulating and assessing oxygen tensions without disturbing the culture conditions. Toward this end, a simple method to generate oxygen-sensitive microwells was developed through embossing polystyrene (PS) and platinum(ii) octaethylporphyrin ketone (PtOEPK) thin films. In addition to monitoring the oxygen tension, microwells were employed in order to isolate uniform clusters of cells in microwells. The depth and width of the microwells can be adapted to different experimental parameters easily by altering the thin film processing or embossing stamp geometries. The thin oxygen sensitive microwell substrate is also compatible with high magnification modalities such as confocal imaging. The incorporation of the oxygen sensor into the microwells produces measurements of the oxygen tension near the cell surface. The oxygen sensitive microwells were calibrated and used to monitor oxygen tensions of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells (MDCKs) cultured at high and low densities as a proof of concept. Wells 500 µm in diameter seeded with an average of 330 cells exhibited an oxygen level of 12.6% whereas wells seeded with an average of 20 cells per well exhibited an oxygen level of 19.5%, a 35.7% difference. This platform represents a new tool for culturing cells in microwells in a format amenable to high magnification imaging while monitoring the oxygen state of the culture media.
Bioanalysis. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21083325
β-cells respond to blood glucose by secreting insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis. Perifusion enables manipulation of biological and chemical cues in elucidating the mechanisms of β-cell physiology. Recently, microfluidic devices made of polydimethylsiloxane and Borofloat glass have been developed as miniaturized perifusion setups and demonstrated distinct advantages over conventional techniques in resolving rapid secretory and metabolic waveforms intrinsic to β-cells. In order to enhance sensing and monitoring capabilities, these devices have been integrated with analytical tools to increase assay throughput. The spatio-temporal resolutions of these analyses have been improved through enhanced flow control, valves and compartmentalization. For the first time, this review provides an overview of current devices used in islet studies and analyzes their strengths and experimental suitability. To realize the potential of microfluidic islet applications, it is essential to bridge the gap in design and application between engineers and biologists through the creation of standardized bioassays and user-friendly interfaces.
Analytical Chemistry. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21207944
Tumor cell rolling on the endothelium plays a key role in the initial steps of cancer metastasis, i.e., extravasation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Identification of the ligands that induce the rolling of cells is thus critical to understanding how cancers metastasize. We have previously demonstrated that MCF-7 cells, human breast cancer cells, exhibit the rolling response selectively on E-selectin-immobilized surfaces. However, the ligand that induces rolling of MCF-7 cells on E-selectin has not yet been identified, as these cells lack commonly known E-selectin ligands. Here we report, for the first time to our knowledge, a set of quantitative and direct evidence demonstrating that CD24 expressed on MCF-7 cell membranes is responsible for rolling of the cells on E-selectin. The binding kinetics between CD24 and E-selectin was directly measured using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), which revealed that CD24 has a binding affinity against E-selectin (K(D) = 3.4 ± 0.7 nM). The involvement of CD24 in MCF-7 cell rolling was confirmed by the rolling behavior that was completely blocked when cells were treated with anti-CD24. A simulated study by flowing microspheres coated with CD24 onto E-selectin-immobilized surfaces further revealed that the binding is Ca(2+)-dependent. Additionally, we have found that actin filaments are involved in the CD24-mediated cell rolling, as observed by the decreased rolling velocities of the MCF-7 cells upon treatment with cytochalasin D (an inhibitor of actin-filament dynamics) and the stationary binding of CD24-coated microspheres (the lack of actins) on the E-selectin-immobilized slides. Given that CD24 is known to be directly related to enhanced invasiveness of cancer cells, our results imply that CD24-based cell rolling on E-selectin mediates, at least partially, cancer cell extravasation, resulting in metastasis.
Biomedical Microdevices. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21409456
Many microfluidic devices operate with cells suspended in buffer solutions. Researchers who work with large cell types in such devices often run into problems with gravitational cell settling in the injection equipment and in the device itself. A method for reducing this problematic settling is discussed in this paper using tumor cell lines as an example. Microfluidic circulating tumor cell (CTC) isolation devices (MCIDs) are benchmarked using buffer solutions spiked with in-vitro tumor cell lines prior to validation with clinical samples (i.e. whole blood). However, buffer solutions have different rheological properties than whole blood. Here we describe the use of alginate in PBS buffer solutions to mimic blood rheology and reduce cell settling during preliminary validation experiments. Because alginate increases the viscosity of a solution, it helps to maintain cells in suspension. We report that vertical equipment configurations are important to further mitigate the effects of cell settling for MDA-MB-468 carcinoma cells. We also report that alginate does not disrupt the specific binding interactions that are the basis of carcinoma cell capture in MCIDs. These results indicate that vertical equipment configurations and the addition of alginates can be used to reduce cell settling in buffer based MCID testing and other applications involving large cells suspended in buffer solution.
Biomedical Microdevices. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21472409
There is a need for a simple method to control fluid flow within microfluidic channels. To meet this need, a simple push pin with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tip has been integrated into microfluidic networks to be placed within the microchannel to obstruct flow. This new valve design can attain on/off control of fluid flow without an external power source using readily-available, low-cost materials. The valve consists of a 14 gauge (1.6 mm) one inch piece of metal tubing with a PDMS pad at the tip to achieve a fluidic seal when pressed against a microfluidic channel's substrate. The metal tubing or pin is then either manually pushed down to block or pulled up to allow fluid flow. The valve was validated using a pressure transducer and fluorescent dye to determine the breakthrough pressure the valve can withstand over multiple cycles. In the first cycle, the median value for pressure withstood by the valve was 8.8 psi with a range of 17.5-2.7 psi. The pressure the valves were able to withstand during each successive trial was lower suggesting they may be most valuable as a method to control the initial introduction of fluids into a microfluidic device. These valves can achieve flow regulation within microfluidic devices, have a small dead volume, and are simple to fabricate and use, making this technique widely suitable for a range of applications.
Biomedical Microdevices. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21850483
This study explores a new class of duplex microfluidic device which utilizes a dual perifusion network to simultaneously perform live-cell optical imaging of physiological activities and study insulin release kinetics on two islet populations. This device also incorporates on-chip staggered herringbone mixers (SHMs) to increase mixing efficiency and facilitate the generation of user-defined chemical gradients. Mouse islets are used to simultaneously measure dynamic insulin release, changes in mitochondrial potentials, and calcium influx in response to insulin secretagogues (glucose and tolbutamide), and show a high signal-to-noise ratio and spatiotemporal resolution of all measured parameters for both perifusion chambers. This system has many potential applications for studying β-cell physiology and pathophysiology, as well as for therapeutic drug screening. This dual perifusion device is not limited to islet studies and could easily be applied to other tissues and cells without major modifications.
Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. in English). Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22012872
Systematic Prevention of Bubble Formation and Accumulation for Long-term Culture of Pancreatic Islet Cells in Microfluidic Device
Biomedical Microdevices. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22252566
Reliable long-term cell culture in microfluidic system is limited by air bubble formation and accumulation. In this study, we developed a bubble removal system capable of both trapping and discharging air bubbles in a consistent and reliable manner. Combined with PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) hydrophilic surface treatment and vacuum filling, a microfluidic perifusion system equipped with the bubble trap was successfully applied for long-term culture of mouse pancreatic islets with no bubble formation and no flow interruption. In addition to demonstrating normal cell viability and islet morphology, post-cultured islets exhibited normal insulin secretion kinetics, intracellular calcium signaling, and changes in mitochondrial potentials in response to glucose challenge. This design could be easily adapted by other microfluidic systems due to its simple design, ease of fabrication, and portability.
Analytical Chemistry. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22296179
Simultaneous stimulation of ex vivo pancreatic islets with dynamic oxygen and glucose is a critical technique for studying how hypoxia alters glucose-stimulated response, especially in transplant environments. Standard techniques using a hypoxic chamber cannot provide both oxygen and glucose modulations, while monitoring stimulus-secretion coupling factors in real-time. Using novel microfluidic device with integrated glucose and oxygen modulations, we quantified hypoxic impairment of islet response by calcium influx, mitochondrial potentials, and insulin secretion. Glucose-induced calcium response magnitude and phase were suppressed by hypoxia, while mitochondrial hyperpolarization and insulin secretion decreased in coordination. More importantly, hypoxic response was improved by preconditioning islets to intermittent hypoxia (IH, 1 min/1 min 5-21% cycling for 1 h), translating to improved insulin secretion. Moreover, blocking mitochondrial K(ATP) channels removed preconditioning benefits of IH, similar to mechanisms in preconditioned cardiomyocytes. Additionally, the multimodal device can be applied to a variety of dynamic oxygen-metabolic studies in other ex vivo tissues.