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In JoVE (2)
- Voorbereiding van de Rat Brain Aggregate Cultures for Neuron en Glia Development Studies
- Een Multi-compartimenten CNS Neuron-glia Co-cultuur Microfluïdische Platform
Other Publications (5)
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Articles by Hisami Koito in JoVE
Voorbereiding van de Rat Brain Aggregate Cultures for Neuron en Glia Development Studies
Hisami Koito, Jianrong Li
Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University (TAMU)
Een protocollen voor een embryonale hersenen van de rat totale cultuur-systeem is beschreven. Multipotente voorlopercellen in de aggregaten kunnen ontwikkelen en differentiëren tot neuronen, astrocyten en oligodendrocyten.
Een Multi-compartimenten CNS Neuron-glia Co-cultuur Microfluïdische Platform
Jaewon Park1, Hisami Koito2, Jianrong Li2, Arum Han1
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University (TAMU), 2Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University (TAMU)
We ontwikkelden een nieuw meerdere compartimenten neuron co-cultuur microsysteem platform voor in-vitro CNS axon-glia interactie onderzoek. Het platform is in staat het uitvoeren van maximaal zes onafhankelijke experimenten in parallel en werd vervaardigd met behulp van een nieuw ontwikkelde macro / micro hybrid fabricage methode.
Other articles by Hisami Koito on PubMed
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12569157
Deletions in the DAP12 gene in humans result in Nasu-Hakola disease, characterized by a combination of bone fractures and psychotic symptoms similar to schizophrenia, rapidly progressing to presenile dementia. However, it is not known why these disorders develop upon deficiency in DAP12, an immunoreceptor signal activator protein initially identified in the immune system. Here we show that DAP12-deficient (DAP12(-/-)) mice develop an increased bone mass (osteopetrosis) and a reduction of myelin (hypomyelinosis) accentuated in the thalamus. In vitro osteoclast induction from DAP12(-/-) bone marrow cells yielded immature cells with attenuated bone resorption activity. Moreover, immature oligodendrocytes were arrested in the vicinity of the thalamus, suggesting that the primary defects in DAP12(-/-) mice are the developmental arrest of osteoclasts and oligodendrocytes. In addition, the mutant mice also showed synaptic degeneration, impaired prepulse inhibition, which is commonly observed in several neuropsychiatric diseases in humans including schizophrenia, and aberrant electrophysiological profiles in the thalami. These results provide a molecular basis for a unique combination of skeletal and psychotic characteristics of Nasu-Hakola disease as well as for schizophrenia and presenile dementia.
Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Mediates Lipopolysaccharide-induced Microglial Toxicity to Developing Oligodendrocytes when Astrocytes Are Present
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18480288
Reactive microglia and astrocytes are present in lesions of white matter disorders, such as periventricular leukomalacia and multiple sclerosis. However, it is not clear whether they are actively involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Previous studies demonstrated that microglia, but not astrocytes, are required for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced selective killing of developing oligodendrocytes (preOLs) and that the toxicity is mediated by microglia-derived peroxynitrite. Here we report that, when astrocytes are present, the LPS-induced, microglia-dependent toxicity to preOLs is no longer mediated by peroxynitrite but instead by a mechanism dependent on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) signaling. Blocking peroxynitrite formation with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors or a decomposition catalyst did not prevent LPS-induced loss of preOLs in mixed glial cultures. PreOLs were highly vulnerable to peroxynitrite; however, the presence of astrocytes prevented the toxicity. Whereas LPS failed to kill preOLs in cocultures of microglia and preOLs deficient in inducible NOS (iNOS) or gp91(phox), the catalytic subunit of the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase, LPS caused a similar degree of preOL death in mixed glial cultures of wild-type, iNOS-/-, and gp91(phox-/-) mice. TNFalpha neutralizing antibody inhibited LPS toxicity, and addition of TNFalpha induced selective preOL injury in mixed glial cultures. Furthermore, disrupting the genes encoding TNFalpha or its receptors TNFR1/2 completely abolished the deleterious effect of LPS. Our results reveal that TNFalpha signaling, rather than peroxynitrite, is essential in LPS-triggered preOL death in an environment containing all major glial cell types and underscore the importance of intercellular communication in determining the mechanism underlying inflammatory preOL death.
Biomedical Microdevices. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19554452
This paper presents a circular microfluidic compartmentalized co-culture platform that can be used for central nervous system (CNS) axon myelination research. The microfluidic platform is composed of a soma compartment and an axon/glia compartment connected through arrays of axon-guiding microchannels. Myelin-producing glia, oligodendrocytes (OLs), placed in the axon/glia compartment, interact with only axons but not with neuronal somata confined to the soma compartment, reminiscent to in vivo situation where many axon fibres are myelinated by OLs at distance away from neuronal cell bodies. Primary forebrain neurons from embryonic day 16-18 rats were cultured inside the soma compartment for two weeks to allow them to mature and form extensive axon networks. OL progenitors, isolated from postnatal day 1-2 rat brains, were then added to the axon/glia compartment and co-cultured with neurons for an additional two weeks. The microdevice showed fluidic isolation between the two compartments and successfully isolated neuronal cell bodies and dendrites from axons growing through the arrays of axon-guiding microchannels into the axon/glia compartment. The circular co-culture device developed here showed excellent cell loading characteristics where significant numbers of cells were positioned near the axon-guiding microchannels. This significantly increased the probability of axons crossing these microchannels as demonstrated by the more than 51 % of the area of the axon/glia compartment covered with axons two weeks after cell seeding. OL progenitors co-cultured with axons inside the axon/glia compartment successfully differentiated into mature OLs. These results indicate that this device can be used as an excellent in vitro co-culture platform for studying localized axon-glia interaction and signalling.
The Oligodendrocyte-specific G Protein-coupled Receptor GPR17 is a Cell-intrinsic Timer of Myelination
Nature Neuroscience. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19838178
The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Olig1 promotes oligodendrocyte maturation and is required for myelin repair. We characterized an Olig1-regulated G protein-coupled receptor, GPR17, whose function is to oppose the action of Olig1. Gpr17 was restricted to oligodendrocyte lineage cells, but was downregulated during the peak period of myelination and in adulthood. Transgenic mice with sustained Gpr17 expression in oligodendrocytes exhibited stereotypic features of myelinating disorders in the CNS. Gpr17 overexpression inhibited oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation both in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, Gpr17 knockout mice showed early onset of oligodendrocyte myelination. The opposing action of Gpr17 on oligodendrocyte maturation reflects, at least partially, upregulation and nuclear translocation of the potent oligodendrocyte differentiation inhibitors ID2/4. Collectively, these findings suggest that GPR17 orchestrates the transition between immature and myelinating oligodendrocytes via an ID protein-mediated negative regulation and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for CNS myelin repair.
Journal of Neurochemistry. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21044081
Neuroinflammation and increased production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the CNS have been implicated in many neurological diseases including white matter disorders periventricular leukomalacia and multiple sclerosis. However, the exact role of TNF in these diseases and how it mediates oligodendrocyte injury remain unclear. Previously, we demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) selectively kills oligodendrocyte precursors (preOLs) in a non-cell autonomous fashion through the induction of TNF in mixed glial cultures. Here, we report that activation of oligodendroglial, but not astroglial and microglial, TNFR1 is required for LPS toxicity, and that astrocytes promote TNF-mediated preOL death through a cell contact-dependent mechanism. Microglia were the sole source for TNF production in LPS-treated mixed glial cultures. Ablation of TNFR1 in mixed glia completely prevented LPS-induced death of preOLs. TNFR1-expressing preOLs were similarly susceptible to LPS treatment when seeded into wildtype and TNFR1(-/-) mixed glial cultures, demonstrating a requirement for oligodendroglial TNFR1 in the cell death. Although exogenous TNF failed to cause significant cell death in enriched preOL cultures, it became cytotoxic when preOLs were in contact with astrocytes. Collectively, our results demonstrate oligodendroglial TNFR1 in mediating inflammatory destruction of preOLs and suggest a previously unrecognized role for astrocytes in promoting TNF toxicity to preOLs.