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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (26)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Virology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Molecular Biology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Virology
- Protein Science : a Publication of the Protein Society
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Journal of Virology
- Antiviral Research
- Nano Letters
- Biosensors & Bioelectronics
- Antiviral Research
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- The Journal of Infectious Diseases
- Journal of Virology
- Journal of Virology
- Virology Journal
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Articles by John H. Connor in JoVE
Biyomoleküler Algılama istihdam İnterferometrik Yansıtma Görüntüleme Sensörü (IRIS)
Carlos A. Lopez1, George G. Daaboul2, Sunmin Ahn2, Alexander P. Reddington1, Margo R. Monroe2, Xirui Zhang2, Rostem J. Irani3, Chunxiao Yu4,5, Caroline A. Genco4,5, Marina Cretich6, Marcella Chiari6, Bennett B. Goldberg1, John H. Connor5, M. Selim Ünlü1,2
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 3Center for Advanced Genomics Technology, Boston University, 4Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Boston University School of Medicine, 5Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, 6CNR (National Research Council), Istituto di Chimica del Riconoscimento Molecolare
SiO Kantitatif, yüksek verimli, gerçek zamanlı ve etiket ücretsiz biyomoleküler algılama (DNA, protein, vb.)
Other articles by John H. Connor on PubMed
The Neuronal Actin-binding Proteins, Neurabin I and Neurabin II, Recruit Specific Isoforms of Protein Phosphatase-1 Catalytic Subunits
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12016225
Neurabins are protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) targeting subunits that are highly concentrated in dendritic spines and post-synaptic densities. Immunoprecipitation of neurabin I and neurabin II/spinophilin from rat brain extracts sedimented PP1gamma1 and PP1alpha but not PP1beta. In vitro studies showed that recombinant peptides representing central regions of neurabins also preferentially bound PP1gamma1 and PP1alpha from brain extracts and associated poorly with PP1beta. Analysis of PP1 binding to chimeric neurabins suggested that sequences flanking a conserved PP1-binding motif altered their selectivity for PP1beta and their activity as regulators of PP1 in vitro. Assays using recombinant PP1 catalytic subunits and a chimera of PP1 and protein phosphatase-2A indicated that the C-terminal sequences unique to the PP1 isoforms contributed to their recognition by neurabins. Collectively, the results from several different in vitro assays established the rank order of PP1 isoform selection by neurabins to be PP1gamma1 > PP1alpha > PP1beta. This PP1 isoform selectivity was confirmed by immunoprecipitation of neurabin I and II from brain extracts from wild type and mutant PP1gamma null mice. In the absence of PP1gamma1, both neurabins showed enhanced association with PP1alpha but not PP1beta. These studies identified some of the structural determinants in PP1 and neurabins that together contribute to preferential targeting of PP1gamma1 and PP1alpha to the mammalian synapse.
Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection Alters the EIF4F Translation Initiation Complex and Causes Dephosphorylation of the EIF4E Binding Protein 4E-BP1
Journal of Virology. Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12239292
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) modulates protein synthesis in infected cells in a way that allows the translation of its own 5'-capped mRNA but inhibits the translation of host mRNA. Previous data have shown that inactivation of eIF2alpha is important for VSV-induced inhibition of host protein synthesis. We tested whether there is a role for eIF4F in this inhibition. The multisubunit eIF4F complex is involved in the regulation of protein synthesis via phosphorylation of cap-binding protein eIF4E, a subunit of eIF4F. Translation of host mRNA is significantly reduced under conditions in which eIF4E is dephosphorylated. To determine whether VSV infection alters the eIF4F complex, we analyzed eIF4E phosphorylation and the association of eIF4E with other translation initiation factors, such as eIF4G and the translation inhibitor 4E-BP1. VSV infection of HeLa cells resulted in the dephosphorylation of eIF4E at serine 209 between 3 and 6 h postinfection. This time course corresponded well to that of the inhibition of host protein synthesis induced by VSV infection. Cells infected with a VSV mutant that is delayed in the ability to inhibit host protein synthesis were also delayed in dephosphorylation of eIF4E. In addition to decreasing eIF4E phosphorylation, VSV infection also resulted in the dephosphorylation and activation of eIF4E-binding protein 4E-BP1 between 3 and 6 h postinfection. Analysis of cap-binding complexes showed that VSV infection reduced the association of eIF4E with the eIF4G scaffolding subunit at the same time as its association with 4E-BP1 increased and that these time courses correlated with the dephosphorylation of eIF4E. These changes in the eIF4F complex occurred over the same time period as the onset of viral protein synthesis, suggesting that activation of 4E-BP1 does not inhibit translation of viral mRNAs. In support of this idea, VSV protein synthesis was not affected by the presence of rapamycin, a drug that blocks 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. These data show that VSV infection results in modifications of the eIF4F complex that are correlated with the inhibition of host protein synthesis and that translation of VSV mRNAs occurs despite lowered concentrations of the active cap-binding eIF4F complex. This is the first noted modification of both eIF4E and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation levels among viruses that produce capped mRNA for protein translation.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14670976
Affinity isolation of protein serine/threonine phosphatases on the immobilized phosphatase inhibitor microcystin-LR identified histone deacetylase 1(HDAC1), HDAC6, and HDAC10 as novel components of cellular phosphatase complexes. Other HDACs, specifically HDAC2, -3, -4, and -5, were excluded from such complexes. In vitro biochemical studies showed that recombinant HDAC6, but not HDAC4, bound directly to the protein phosphatase (PP)1 catalytic subunit. No association was observed between HDAC6 and PP2A, another major protein phosphatase. PP1 binding was mapped to the second catalytic domain and adjacent C-terminal sequences in HDAC6, and treatment of cells with trichostatin A (TSA) disrupted endogenous HDAC6.PP1 complexes. Consistent with the inhibition of tubulin deactylase activity of HDAC6, TSA enhanced cellular tubulin acetylation, and acetylated tubulin was present in the PP1 complexes from TSA-treated cells. Trapoxin B, a weak HDAC6 inhibitor, and calyculin A, a cell-permeable phosphatase inhibitor, had no effect on the stability of the HDAC6.PP1 complexes or on tubulin acetylation. Mutations that inactivated HDAC6 prevented its incorporation into cellular PP1 complexes and suggested that when bound together both enzymes were active. Interestingly, TSA disrupted all the cellular HDAC.phosphatase complexes analyzed. This study provided new insight into the mechanism by which HDAC inhibitors elicited coordinate changes in cellular protein phosphorylation and acetylation and suggested that changes in these protein modifications at multiple subcellular sites may contribute to the known ability of HDAC inhibitors to suppress cell growth and transformation.
Replication and Cytopathic Effect of Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in Hypoxic Tumor Cells in Vitro and in Vivo
Journal of Virology. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15308693
Tumor hypoxia presents an obstacle to the effectiveness of most antitumor therapies, including treatment with oncolytic viruses. In particular, an oncolytic virus must be resistant to the inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis that occurs during hypoxic stress. Here we show that vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), an oncolytic RNA virus, is capable of replication under hypoxic conditions. In cells undergoing hypoxic stress, VSV infection produced larger amounts of mRNA than under normoxic conditions. However, translation of these mRNAs was reduced at earlier times postinfection in hypoxia-adapted cells than in normoxic cells. At later times postinfection, VSV overcame a hypoxia-associated increase in alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2alpha) phosphorylation and initial suppression of viral protein synthesis in hypoxic cells to produce large amounts of viral protein. VSV infection caused the dephosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF-4E and inhibited host translation similarly under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. VSV produced progeny virus to similar levels in hypoxic and normoxic cells and showed the ability to expand from an initial infection of 1% of hypoxic cells to spread through an entire population. In all cases, virus infection induced classical cytopathic effects and apoptotic cell death. When VSV was used to treat tumors established in nude mice, we found VSV replication in hypoxic areas of these tumors. This occurred whether the virus was administered intratumorally or intravenously. These results show for the first time that VSV has an inherent capacity for infecting and killing hypoxic cancer cells. This ability could represent a critical advantage over existing therapies in treating established tumors.
The Disintegrin Echistatin Stabilizes Integrin AlphaIIbbeta3's Open Conformation and Promotes Its Oligomerization
Journal of Molecular Biology. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15364586
We have employed echistatin, a 5.4 kDa snake venom disintegrin, as a model protein to investigate the paradox that small ligand-mimetics can bind to the resting alphaIIbbeta3 integrin while adhesive macromolecules cannot. We characterized the interactions between purified human alphaIIbbeta3 and two recombinant echistatin variants: rEch (1-49) M28L, chosen for its selectivity toward beta3-integrins, and rEch (1-40) M28L, a carboxy-terminal truncation mutant. While both contain an RGD integrin targeting sequence, only rEch (1-49) M28L was an effective inhibitor of alphaIIbbeta3 function. Electron microscopy of rotary shadowed specimens yielded a variety of alphaIIbbeta3 conformers ranging from compact, spherical particles (maximum dimension 22 nm) to the classical "head with two tails" forms (32 nm). The population of larger particles (42-56 nm) increased from 17% to 28% in the presence of rEch (1-49) M28L, indicative of ligand-induced oligomerization. Sedimentation velocity measurements demonstrated that both full length and truncated echistatin perturbed alphaIIbbeta3's solution structure, yielding slower-sedimenting open conformers. Dynamic light scattering showed that rEch (1-49) M28L protected alphaIIbbeta3 from thermal aggregation, raising its transition mid-point from 46 degrees C to 69 degrees C; a smaller shift resulted with rEch (1-40) M28L. Sedimentation equilibrium demonstrated that both echistatin ligands induced substantial alphaIIbbeta3 dimerization. van't Hoff analysis revealed a pattern of entropy/enthalpy compensation similar to tirofiban, a small RGD ligand-mimetic that binds tightly to alphaIIbbeta3, but yields smaller conformational perturbations than echistatin. We propose that echistatin may serve as a paradigm for understanding multidomain adhesive macromolecules because its ability to modulate alphaIIbbeta3's structure resides on an RGD loop, while full disintegrin activity requires an auxiliary site that includes the carboxy-terminal nine amino acid residues.
Inhibition of Host and Viral Translation During Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection. EIF2 is Responsible for the Inhibition of Viral but Not Host Translation
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15705563
In cells that allow replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), there are two phases of translation inhibition: an early block of host translation and a later inhibition of viral translation. We investigated the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the eIF2 complex during these two phases of viral infection. In VSV-infected cells, the accumulation of phosphorylated (inactivated) eIF2alpha did not begin until well after host protein synthesis was inhibited, suggesting that it only plays a role in blocking viral translation later after infection. Consistent with this, cells expressing an unphosphorylatable eIF2alpha showed prolonged viral protein synthesis without an effect on host protein synthesis inhibition. Induction of eIF2alpha phosphorylation at early times of viral infection by treatment with thapsigargin showed that virus and host translation are similarly inhibited, demonstrating that viral and host messages are similarly sensitive to eIF2alpha phosphorylation. A recombinant virus that expresses a mutant matrix protein and is defective in the inhibition of host and virus protein synthesis showed an altered phosphorylation of eIF2alpha, demonstrating an involvement of viral protein function in inducing this antiviral response. This analysis of eIF2alpha phosphorylation, coupled with earlier findings that the eIF4F complex is modified earlier during VSV infection, supports a temporal/kinetic model of translation control, where at times soon after infection, changes in the eIF4F complex result in the inhibition of host protein synthesis; at later times, inactivation of the eIF2 complex blocks VSV protein synthesis.
Role of Residues 121 to 124 of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Matrix Protein in Virus Assembly and Virus-host Interaction
Journal of Virology. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16571787
The recent solution of the crystal structure of a fragment of the vesicular stomatitis virus matrix (M) protein suggested that amino acids 121 to 124, located on a solvent-exposed loop of the protein, are important for M protein self-association and association with membranes. These residues were mutated from the hydrophobic AVLA sequence to the polar sequence DKQQ. Expression and purification of this mutant from bacteria showed that it was structurally stable and that the mutant M protein had self-association kinetics similar to those of the wild-type M protein. Analysis of the membrane association of M protein in the context of infection with isogenic recombinant viruses showed that both wild-type and mutant M proteins associated with membranes to the same extent. Virus expressing the mutant M protein did show an approximately threefold-lower binding affinity of M protein for nucleocapsid-M complexes. In contrast to the relatively minor effects of the M protein mutation on virus assembly, the mutant virus exhibited growth restriction in MDBK but not BHK cells, a slower induction of apoptosis, and lower viral-protein synthesis. Despite translating less viral protein, the mutant virus produced more viral mRNA, showing that the mutant virus could not effectively promote viral translation. These results demonstrate that the 121-to-124 region of the VSV M protein plays a minor role in virus assembly but is involved in virus-host interactions and VSV replication by augmenting viral-mRNA translation.
Protein Science : a Publication of the Protein Society. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16877710
This study tested the hypothesis that high-affinity binding of macromolecular ligands to the alphaIIbbeta3 integrin is tightly coupled to binding-site remodeling, an induced-fit process that shifts a conformational equilibrium from a resting toward an open receptor. Interactions between alphaIIbbeta3 and two model ligands-echistatin, a 6-kDa recombinant protein with an RGD integrin-targeting sequence, and fibrinogen's gamma-module, a 30-kDa recombinant protein with a KQAGDV integrin binding site-were measured by sedimentation velocity, fluorescence anisotropy, and a solid-phase binding assay, and modeled by molecular graphics. Studying echistatin variants (R24A, R24K, D26A, D26E, D27W, D27F), we found that electrostatic contacts with charged residues at the alphaIIb/beta3 interface, rather than nonpolar contacts, perturb the conformation of the resting integrin. Aspartate 26, which interacts with the nearby MIDAS cation, was essential for binding, as D26A and D26E were inactive. In contrast, R24K was fully and R24A partly active, indicating that the positively charged arginine 24 contributes to, but is not required for, integrin recognition. Moreover, we demonstrated that priming--i.e., ectodomain conformational changes and oligomerization induced by incubation at 35 degrees C with the ligand-mimetic peptide cHarGD--promotes complex formation with fibrinogen's gamma-module. We also observed that the gamma-module's flexible carboxy terminus was not required for alphaIIbbeta3 integrin binding. Our studies differentiate priming ligands, which bind to the resting receptor and perturb its conformation, from regulated ligands, where binding-site remodeling must first occur. Echistatin's binding energy is sufficient to rearrange the subunit interface, but regulated ligands like fibrinogen must rely on priming to overcome conformational barriers.
Preferential Translation of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus MRNAs is Conferred by Transcription from the Viral Genome
Journal of Virology. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17005665
Host protein synthesis is inhibited in cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). It has been proposed that viral mRNAs are subjected to the same inhibition but are predominantly translated because of their abundance. To compare translation efficiencies of viral and host mRNAs during infection, we used an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter expressed from a recombinant virus or from the host nucleus in stably transfected cells. Translation efficiency of host-derived EGFP mRNA was reduced more than threefold at eight hours postinfection, while viral-derived mRNA was translated around sevenfold more efficiently than host-derived EGFP mRNA in VSV-infected cells. To test whether mRNAs transcribed in the cytoplasm are resistant to shutoff of translation during VSV infection, HeLa cells were infected with a recombinant simian virus 5 (rSV5) that expressed GFP. Cells were then superinfected with VSV or mock superinfected. GFP mRNA transcribed by rSV5 was not resistant to translation inhibition during superinfection with VSV, indicating that transcription in the cytoplasm is not sufficient for preventing translation inhibition. To determine if cis-acting sequences in untranslated regions (UTRs) were involved in preferential translation of VSV mRNAs, we constructed EGFP reporters with VSV or control UTRs and measured the translation efficiency in mock-infected and VSV-infected cells. The presence of VSV UTRs did not affect mRNA translation efficiency in mock- or VSV-infected cells, indicating that VSV mRNAs do not contain cis-acting sequences that influence translation. However, we found that when EGFP mRNAs transcribed by VSV or by the host were translated in vitro, VSV-derived EGFP mRNA was translated 22 times more efficiently than host-derived EGFP mRNA. This indicated that VSV mRNAs do contain cis-acting structural elements (that are not sequence based), which enhance translation efficiency of viral mRNAs.
Antiviral Activity and RNA Polymerase Degradation Following Hsp90 Inhibition in a Range of Negative Strand Viruses
Virology. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17258257
We have analyzed the effectiveness of Hsp90 inhibitors in blocking the replication of negative-strand RNA viruses. In cells infected with the prototype negative strand virus vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), inhibiting Hsp90 activity reduced viral replication in cells infected at both high and low multiplicities of infection. This inhibition was observed using two Hsp90 inhibitors geldanamycin and radicicol. Silencing of Hsp90 expression using siRNA also reduced viral replication. Hsp90 inhibition changed the half-life of newly synthesized L protein (the large subunit of the VSV polymerase) from >1 h to less than 20 min without affecting the stability of other VSV proteins. Both the inhibition of viral replication and the destabilization of the viral L protein were seen when either geldanamycin or radicicol was added to cells infected with paramyxoviruses SV5, HPIV-2, HPIV-3, or SV41, or to cells infected with the La Crosse bunyavirus. Based on these results, we propose that Hsp90 is a host factor that is important for the replication of many negative strand viruses.
Journal of Virology. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18094194
During vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection, host protein synthesis is inhibited, while synthesis of viral proteins increases. VSV infection causes inhibition of host transcription and RNA transport. Therefore, most host mRNAs in the cytoplasm of infected cells were synthesized before infection. However, viral mRNAs are synthesized throughout infection and are newer than preexisting host mRNAs. To determine if the timing of appearance of mRNAs in the cytoplasm affected their translation during VSV infection, we transfected reporter mRNAs into cells at various times relative to the time of infection and measured their rate of translation in mock- and VSV-infected cells. We found that translation of mRNAs transfected during infection was not inhibited but that translation of mRNAs transfected prior to infection was inhibited during VSV infection. Based on these data, we conclude that the timing of viral mRNA appearance in the cytoplasm is responsible, at least in part, for the preferential translation of VSV mRNAs. A time course measuring translation efficiencies of viral and host mRNAs showed that the translation efficiencies of viral mRNAs increased between 4 and 8 h postinfection, while translation efficiencies of host mRNAs decreased. The increased translation efficiency of viral mRNAs occurred in cells infected with an M protein mutant virus that is defective in host shutoff, demonstrating that the enhanced translation of viral mRNA is genetically separable from inhibition of translation of host mRNA.
Capture and Transfer of HIV-1 Particles by Mature Dendritic Cells Converges with the Exosome-dissemination Pathway
Blood. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18945959
Exosomes are secreted cellular vesicles that can be internalized by dendritic cells (DCs), contributing to antigen-specific naive CD4(+) T-cell activation. Here, we demonstrate that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can exploit this exosome antigen-dissemination pathway intrinsic to mature DCs (mDCs) for mediating trans-infection of T lymphocytes. Capture of HIV-1, HIV-1 Gag-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) viral-like particles (VLPs), and exosomes by DCs was up-regulated upon maturation, resulting in localization within a CD81(+) compartment. Uptake of VLPs or exosomes could be inhibited by a challenge with either particle, suggesting that the expression of common determinant(s) on VLP or exosome surface is necessary for internalization by mDCs. Capture by mDCs was insensitive to proteolysis but blocked when virus, VLPs, or exosomes were produced from cells treated with sphingolipid biosynthesis inhibitors that modulate the lipid composition of the budding particles. Finally, VLPs and exosomes captured by mDCs were transmitted to T lymphocytes in an envelope glycoprotein-independent manner, underscoring a new potential viral dissemination pathway.
Journal of Virology. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19004954
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) matrix protein inhibits nuclear-cytoplasmic mRNA transport. The goal of this work is to determine whether VSV inhibits the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport of heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), which are thought to serve as mRNA export factors. Confocal microscopy experiments showed that hnRNPA1, hnRNPK, and hnRNPC1/C2, but not hnRNPB1 or lamin A/C, are relocalized to the cytoplasm during VSV infection. We determined whether protein import is inhibited by VSV by transfecting cells with a plasmid encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) tagged with either the M9 nuclear localization sequence (NLS) or the classical NLS. These experiments revealed that both the M9 NLS and the classical NLS are functional during VSV infection. These data suggest that the inhibition of protein import is not responsible for hnRNP relocalization during VSV infection but that hnRNP export is enhanced. We found that hnRNPA1 relocalization was significantly reduced following the silencing of the mRNA export factor Rae1, indicating that Rae1 is necessary for hnRNP export. In order to determine the role of hnRNPA1 in VSV infection, we silenced hnRNPA1 in HeLa cells and assayed three aspects of the viral life cycle: host protein synthesis shutoff concurrent with the onset of viral protein synthesis, replication by plaque assay, and cell killing. We observed that host shutoff and replication are unaffected by the reduction in hnRNPA1 but that the rate of VSV-induced apoptosis is slower in cells that have reduced hnRNPA1. These data suggest that VSV promotes hnRNPA1 relocalization in a Rae1-dependent manner for apoptotic signaling.
Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Matrix Protein Mutations That Affect Association with Host Membranes and Viral Nucleocapsids
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19088071
Viral matrix (M) proteins bind the nucleoprotein core (nucleocapsid) to host membranes during the process of virus assembly by budding. Previous studies using truncated M proteins had implicated the N-terminal 50 amino acids of the vesicular stomatitis virus M protein in binding both membranes and nucleocapsids and a sequence from amino acids 75-106 as an additional membrane binding region. Structure-based mutations were introduced into these two regions, and their effects on membrane association and incorporation into nucleocapsid-M protein complexes were determined using quantitative assays. The results confirmed that the N terminus of M protein is involved in association with plasma membranes as well as nucleocapsids, although these two activities were differentially affected by individual mutations. Mutations in the 75-106 region affected incorporation into nucleocapsid-M complexes but had only minor effects on association with membranes. The ability of site-specific mutant M proteins to complement growth of temperature-sensitive M mutant virus did not correlate well with the ability to associate with membranes or nucleocapsids, suggesting that complementation involves an additional activity of M protein. Mutants with similar abilities to associate with membranes and nucleocapsids but differing in complementation activity were incorporated into infectious cDNA clones. Infectious virus was repeatedly recovered containing mutant M proteins capable of complementation but was never recovered with mutant M proteins that lacked complementation activity, providing further evidence for a separate activity of M protein that is essential for virus replication.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19587008
Type I IFNs play an important, yet poorly characterized, role in systemic lupus erythematosus. To better understand the interplay between type I IFNs and the activation of autoreactive B cells, we evaluated the effect of type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) deficiency in murine B cell responses to common TLR ligands. In comparison to wild-type B cells, TLR7-stimulated IFNAR(-/-) B cells proliferated significantly less well and did not up-regulate costimulatory molecules. By contrast, IFNAR1(-/-) B cells did not produce cytokines, but did proliferate and up-regulate activation markers in response to other TLR ligands. These defects were not due to a difference in the distribution of B cell populations or a failure to produce a soluble factor other than a type I IFN. Instead, the compromised response pattern reflected the disruption of an IFN-beta feedback loop and constitutively low expression of TLR7 in the IFNAR1(-/-) B cells. These results highlight subtle differences in the IFN dependence of TLR7 responses compared with other TLR-mediated B cell responses.
Journal of Virology. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19740993
Many viruses activate the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3k)/Akt intracellular signaling pathway to promote viral replication. We have analyzed whether a rapidly replicating rhabdovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), requires the PI3k/Akt signaling pathway for its replication. Through the use of chemical inhibitors of PI3k and Akt, we show that VSV replication and cytopathic effects do not require activation of these kinases. Inhibitors that block the activating phosphorylations of Akt at threonine 308 (Thr308) and serine 473 (Ser473) did not inhibit VSV protein expression or the induction of the cytopathic effects of VSV. One compound, Akt inhibitor Akt-IV, inhibited the replication of VSV, respiratory syncytial virus, and vaccinia virus but increased the phosphorylation of Akt at positions Thr308 and Ser473 and did not inhibit Akt kinase activity in vitro. Together, our data suggest that the PI3k/Akt pathway is of limited relevance to the replication of VSV but that Akt inhibitor Akt-IV is a novel broad-spectrum antiviral compound with a mechanism differing from that of its previously reported effect on the PI3k/Akt pathway. Identification of other targets for this compound may define a new approach for blocking virus replication.
Antiviral Research. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20452380
Ebola virus (EBOV), a negative-sense RNA virus in the family Filoviridae, is known to cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and other primates. Infection with EBOV causes a high mortality rate and currently there is no FDA-licensed vaccine or therapeutic treatment available. Recently, heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a molecular chaperone, was shown to be an important host factor for the replication of several negative-strand viruses. We tested the effect of several different Hsp90 inhibitors including geldanamycin, radicicol, and 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG; a geldanamycin analog) on the replication of Zaire EBOV. Our results showed that inhibition of Hsp90 significantly reduced the replication of EBOV. Classic Hsp90 inhibitors reduced viral replication with an effective concentration at 50% (EC(50)) in the high nanomolar to low micromolar range, while drugs from a new class of Hsp90 inhibitors showed markedly more potent inhibition. These compounds blocked EBOV replication with an EC(50) in the low nanomolar range and showed significant potency in blocking replication in primary human monocytes. These results validated that Hsp90 is an important host factor for the replication of filoviruses and suggest that Hsp90 inhibitors may be therapeutically effective in treating EBOV infection.
Nano Letters. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21053965
Fast and sensitive virus detection techniques, which can be rapidly deployed at multiple sites, are essential to prevent and control future epidemics and bioterrorism threats. In this Letter, we demonstrate a label-free optofluidic nanoplasmonic sensor that can directly detect intact viruses from biological media at clinically relevant concentrations with little to no sample preparation. Our sensing platform is based on an extraordinary light transmission effect in plasmonic nanoholes and utilizes group-specific antibodies for highly divergent strains of rapidly evolving viruses. So far, the questions remain for the possible limitations of this technique for virus detection, as the penetration depths of the surface plasmon polaritons are comparable to the dimensions of the pathogens. Here, we demonstrate detection and recognition of small enveloped RNA viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus and pseudotyped Ebola) as well as large enveloped DNA viruses (vaccinia virus) within a dynamic range spanning 3 orders of magnitude. Our platform, by enabling high signal to noise measurements without any mechanical or optical isolation, opens up opportunities for detection of a broad range of pathogens in typical biology laboratory settings.
Biosensors & Bioelectronics. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21342761
We demonstrate detection of whole viruses and viral proteins with a new label-free platform based on spectral reflectance imaging. The Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS) has been shown to be capable of sensitive protein and DNA detection in a real time and high-throughput format. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) was used as the target for detection as it is well-characterized for protein composition and can be modified to express viral coat proteins from other dangerous, highly pathogenic agents for surrogate detection while remaining a biosafety level 2 agent. We demonstrate specific detection of intact VSV virions achieved with surface-immobilized antibodies acting as capture probes which is confirmed using fluorescence imaging. The limit of detection is confirmed down to 3.5 × 10(5)plaque-forming units/mL (PFUs/mL). To increase specificity in a clinical scenario, both the external glycoprotein and internal viral proteins were simultaneously detected with the same antibody arrays with detergent-disrupted purified VSV and infected cell lysate solutions. Our results show sensitive and specific virus detection with a simple surface chemistry and minimal sample preparation on a quantitative label-free interferometric platform.
Development of Vaccinia Reporter Viruses for Rapid, High Content Analysis of Viral Function at All Stages of Gene Expression
Antiviral Research. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21569797
Vaccinia virus is the prototypical orthopoxvirus of Poxviridae, a family of viruses that includes the human pathogens Variola (smallpox) and Monkeypox. Core viral functions are conserved among orthopoxviruses, and consequently Vaccinia is routinely used to study poxvirus biology and screen for novel antiviral compounds. Here we describe the development of a series of fluorescent protein-based reporter Vaccinia viruses that provide unprecedented resolution for tracking viral function. The reporter viruses are divided into two sets: (1) single reporter viruses that utilize temporally regulated early, intermediate, or late viral promoters; and (2) multi-reporter viruses that utilize multiple temporally regulated promoters. Promoter and reporter combinations were chosen that yielded high signal-to-background for stage-specific viral outputs. We provide examples for how these viruses can be used in the rapid and accurate monitoring of Vaccinia function and drug action.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21715661
We introduce an ultrasensitive label-free detection technique based on asymmetric Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoholes with far reaching implications for point-of-care diagnostics. By exploiting extraordinary light transmission phenomena through high-quality factor (Q(solution) ∼ 200) subradiant dark modes, we experimentally demonstrate record high figures of merits (FOMs as high as 162) for intrinsic detection limits surpassing that of the gold standard prism coupled surface-plasmon sensors (Kretschmann configuration). Our experimental record high sensitivities are attributed to the nearly complete suppression of the radiative losses that are made possible by the high structural quality of the fabricated devices as well as the subradiant nature of the resonances. Steep dispersion of the plasmonic Fano resonance profiles in high-quality plasmonic sensors exhibit dramatic light intensity changes to the slightest perturbations within their local environment. As a spectacular demonstration of the extraordinary sensitivity and the quality of the fabricated biosensors, we show direct detection of a single monolayer of biomolecules with naked eye using these Fano resonances and the associated Wood's anomalies. To fabricate high optical-quality sensors, we introduce a high-throughput lift-off free evaporation fabrication technique with extremely uniform and precisely controlled nanofeatures over large areas, leading to resonance line-widths comparable to that of the ideally uniform structures as confirmed by our time-domain simulations. The demonstrated label-free sensing platform offers unique opportunities for point-of-care diagnostics in resource poor settings by eliminating the need for fluorescent labeling and optical detection instrumentation (camera, spectrometer, etc.) as well as mechanical and light isolation.
Therapeutics of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever: Whole-genome Transcriptional Analysis of Successful Disease Mitigation
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21987740
The mechanisms of Ebola (EBOV) pathogenesis are only partially understood, but the dysregulation of normal host immune responses (including destruction of lymphocytes, increases in circulating cytokine levels, and development of coagulation abnormalities) is thought to play a major role. Accumulating evidence suggests that much of the observed pathology is not the direct result of virus-induced structural damage but rather is due to the release of soluble immune mediators from EBOV-infected cells. It is therefore essential to understand how the candidate therapeutic may be interrupting the disease process and/or targeting the infectious agent. To identify genetic signatures that are correlates of protection, we used a DNA microarray-based approach to compare the host genome-wide responses of EBOV-infected nonhuman primates (NHPs) responding to candidate therapeutics. We observed that, although the overall circulating immune response was similar in the presence and absence of coagulation inhibitors, surviving NHPs clustered together. Noticeable differences in coagulation-associated genes appeared to correlate with survival, which revealed a subset of distinctly differentially expressed genes, including chemokine ligand 8 (CCL8/MCP-2), that may provide possible targets for early-stage diagnostics or future therapeutics. These analyses will assist us in understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of EBOV infection and in identifying improved therapeutic strategies.
Dominant Inhibition of Akt/protein Kinase B Signaling by the Matrix Protein of a Negative-strand RNA Virus
Journal of Virology. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20980511
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a rhabdovirus that alters host nuclear and cytoplasmic function upon infection. We have investigated the effect of VSV infection on cellular signaling through the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3k)/Akt signaling pathway. Akt phosphorylation at both threonine 308 (Thr308) and serine 473 (Ser473) was inhibited in cells infected with VSV. This inhibition was rapid (beginning within the first 2 to 3 h postinfection) and correlated with the dephosphorylation of downstream effectors of Akt, such as glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The dephosphorylation of Akt occurred in the presence of growth factor stimulation and was not overcome through constitutive membrane targeting of Akt or high levels of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) accumulation in the membrane. Akt dephosphorylation was not a result of alterations in PDK1 phosphorylation or activity, changes in phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) levels, or the downregulation of PI3k signaling. Inactivation of Akt was caused by the expression of the viral M protein in the absence of other viral components, and an M protein mutant that does not inhibit RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription and nuclear/cytoplasmic transport was also defective in inhibiting Akt phosphorylation. These data illustrate that VSV utilizes a novel mechanism to alter this central player in cell signaling and oncogenesis. It also suggests an inside-out model of signal transduction where VSV interruption of nuclear events has a rapid and significant effect on membrane signaling events.
Identification of a Pyridopyrimidinone Inhibitor of Orthopoxviruses from a Diversity-oriented Synthesis Library
Journal of Virology. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22205744
Orthopoxviruses include the prototypical vaccinia virus, the emerging infectious agent monkeypox virus, and the potential biothreat variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). There is currently no FDA-approved drug for humans infected with orthopoxviruses. We screened a diversity-oriented synthesis library for new scaffolds with activity against vaccinia virus. This screen identified a nonnucleoside analog that blocked postreplicative intermediate and late gene expression. Viral genome replication was unaffected, and inhibition could be elicited late in infection and persisted upon drug removal. Sequencing of drug-resistant viruses revealed mutations predicted to be on the periphery of the highly conserved viral RNA polymerase large subunit. Consistent with this, the compound had broad-spectrum activity against orthopoxviruses in vitro. These findings indicate that novel chemical synthesis approaches are a potential source for new infectious disease therapeutics and identify a potentially promising candidate for development to treat orthopoxvirus-infected individuals.
Nanoscale. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22214976
Nanoparticle research has become increasingly important in the context of bioscience and biotechnology. Practical use of nanoparticles in biology has significantly advanced our understanding about biological processes in the nanoscale as well as led to many novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Besides, synthetic and natural nanoparticles are of concern for their potential adverse effect on human health. Development of novel detection and characterization tools for nanoparticles will impact a broad range of disciplines in biological research from nanomedicine to nanotoxicology. In this article, we discuss the recent progress and future directions in the area of single nanoparticle detectors with an emphasis on their biological applications. A brief critical overview of electrical and mechanical detection techniques is given and a more in-depth discussion of label-free optical detection techniques is presented.
Virology Journal. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22225589
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Orthopoxvirus genus contains numerous virus species that are capable of causing disease in humans, including variola virus (the etiological agent of smallpox), monkeypox virus, cowpox virus, and vaccinia virus (the prototypical member of the genus). Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that is endemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and is characterized by systemic lesion development and prominent lymphadenopathy. Like variola virus, monkeypox virus is a high priority pathogen for therapeutic development due to its potential to cause serious disease with significant health impacts after zoonotic, accidental, or deliberate introduction into a naive population. RESULTS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of interferon-beta (IFN-beta) for use against monkeypox virus. We found that treatment with human IFN-beta results in a significant decrease in monkeypox virus production and spread in vitro. IFN-beta substantially inhibited monkeypox virus when introduced 6-8 h post infection, revealing its potential for use as a therapeutic. IFN-beta induced the expression of the antiviral protein MxA in infected cells, and constitutive expression of MxA was shown to inhibit monkeypox virus infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the successful inhibition of monkeypox virus using human IFN-beta and suggest that IFN-beta could potentially serve as a novel safe therapeutic for human monkeypox disease.