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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (4)

Articles by Marcella A. Calfon in JoVE

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

In vivo Near Infrared Fluorescence (NIRF) Intravascular Molecular Imaging of Inflammatory Plaque, a Multimodal Approach to Imaging of Atherosclerosis

1Cardiovascular Research Center and Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging, Helmholtz Zentrum München und Technische Universität München, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University


JoVE 2257

We detail a new near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) catheter for 2-dimensional intravascular molecular imaging of plaque biology in vivo. The NIRF catheter can visualize key biological processes such as inflammation by reporting on the presence of plaque-avid activatable and targeted NIR fluorochromes. The catheter utilizes clinical engineering and power requirements and is targeted for application in human coronary arteries. The following research study describes a multimodal imaging strategy that utilizes a novel in vivo intravascular NIRF catheter to image and quantify inflammatory plaque in proteolytically active inflamed rabbit atheromata.

Other articles by Marcella A. Calfon on PubMed

Intravascular Near-infrared Fluorescence Molecular Imaging of Atherosclerosis: Toward Coronary Arterial Visualization of Biologically High-risk Plaques

New imaging methods are urgently needed to identify high-risk atherosclerotic lesions prior to the onset of myocardial infarction, stroke, and ischemic limbs. Molecular imaging offers a new approach to visualize key biological features that characterize high-risk plaques associated with cardiovascular events. While substantial progress has been realized in clinical molecular imaging of plaques in larger arterial vessels (carotid, aorta, iliac), there remains a compelling, unmet need to develop molecular imaging strategies targeted to high-risk plaques in human coronary arteries. We present recent developments in intravascular near-IR fluorescence catheter-based strategies for in vivo detection of plaque inflammation in coronary-sized arteries. In particular, the biological, light transmission, imaging agent, and engineering principles that underlie a new intravascular near-IR fluorescence sensing method are discussed. Intravascular near-IR fluorescence catheters appear highly translatable to the cardiac catheterization laboratory, and thus may offer a new in vivo method to detect high-risk coronary plaques and to assess novel atherosclerosis biologics.

Progress on Multimodal Molecular / Anatomical Intravascular Imaging of Coronary Vessels Combining Near Infrared Fluorescence and Ultrasound

The use of intravascular imaging modalities for the detection and assessment of atherosclerotic plaque is becoming increasingly useful. Current clinical invasive modalities assess the presence of plaque using anatomical information and include Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). However, such modalities cannot take into account underlying functional biological information, which can however be revealed with the use of molecular imaging. Consequently, intravascular molecular imaging is emerging as a powerful approach. We have developed such a Near-Infrared Fluorescence (NIRF) imaging system and showcased, in both phantom and in-vivo (rabbit) experiments, its potential to successfully detect inflamed atherosclerotic plaques, using appropriate fluorescent probes. Here, we discuss some limitations of the current system and suggest the combined use of the NIRF and IVUS imaging systems as a means for more accurate assessment of atherosclerotic plaque. We include some results and models that showcase the potential power of this kind of hybrid imaging.

Two-dimensional Intravascular Near-infrared Fluorescence Molecular Imaging of Inflammation in Atherosclerosis and Stent-induced Vascular Injury

This study sought to develop a 2-dimensional (2D) intravascular near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging strategy for investigation of arterial inflammation in coronary-sized vessels.

Indocyanine Green Enables Near-infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Lipid-rich, Inflamed Atherosclerotic Plaques

New high-resolution molecular and structural imaging strategies are needed to visualize high-risk plaques that are likely to cause acute myocardial infarction, because current diagnostic methods do not reliably identify at-risk subjects. Although molecular imaging agents are available for low-resolution detection of atherosclerosis in large arteries, a lack of imaging agents coupled to high-resolution modalities has limited molecular imaging of atherosclerosis in the smaller coronary arteries. Here, we have demonstrated that indocyanine green (ICG), a Food and Drug Administration-approved near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF)-emitting compound, targets atheromas within 20 min of injection and provides sufficient signal enhancement for in vivo detection of lipid-rich, inflamed, coronary-sized plaques in atherosclerotic rabbits. In vivo NIRF sensing was achieved with an intravascular wire in the aorta, a vessel of comparable caliber to human coronary arteries. Ex vivo fluorescence reflectance imaging showed high plaque target-to-background ratios in atheroma-bearing rabbits injected with ICG compared to atheroma-bearing rabbits injected with saline. In vitro studies using human macrophages established that ICG preferentially targets lipid-loaded macrophages. In an early clinical study of human atheroma specimens from four patients, we found that ICG colocalized with plaque macrophages and lipids. The atheroma-targeting capability of ICG has the potential to accelerate the clinical development of NIRF molecular imaging of high-risk plaques in humans.

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