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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (39)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Molecular Biology of the Cell
- The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
- Journal of Virology
- European Journal of Cell Biology
- Biochemical Society Symposium
- Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
- Molecular and Cellular Biology
- Developmental Cell
- Molecular and Cellular Biology
- Experimental Cell Research
- Molecular Biology of the Cell
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Optics Express
- Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS
- Biosensors & Bioelectronics
- The Biochemical Journal
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Experimental Cell Research
- Cellular Microbiology
- Developmental Cell
- Biochemical Society Transactions
- Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
- PLoS Pathogens
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Cellular Signalling
- Journal of Virology
- Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
- The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology
- Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark)
- PloS One
- The Biochemical Journal
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Molecular and Cellular Biology
- Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark)
- FEBS Letters
Articles by Marcelo Ehrlich in JoVE
Rapid Homogeneous Detection of Biological Assays Using Magnetic Modulation Biosensing System
Amos Danielli1,2, Noga Porat3, Marcelo Ehrlich4, Ady Arie1
1Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, 3Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois, 4Department of Cell Research and Immunology, Tel Aviv University
Magnetic modulation biosensing system is utilized to rapidly, sensitively and simply detect biological assays, such as DNA molecules and proteins.
Other articles by Marcelo Ehrlich on PubMed
The Mode of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) Receptor Oligomerization Determines Different BMP-2 Signaling Pathways
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11714695
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional proteins regulating cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. BMP-2 signals via two types of receptors (BRI and BRII) that are expressed at the cell surface as homomeric as well as heteromeric complexes. Prior to ligand binding, a low but measurable level of BMP-receptors is found in preformed hetero-oligomeric complexes. The major fraction of the receptors is recruited into hetero-oligomeric complexes only after ligand addition. For this, BMP-2 binds first to the high affinity receptor BRI and then recruits BRII into the signaling complex. However, ligand binding to the preformed complex composed of BRII and BRI is still required for signaling, suggesting that it may mediate activating conformational changes. Using several approaches we have addressed the following questions: (i) Are preformed complexes incompetent of signaling in the absence of BMP-2? (ii) Which domains of the BRII receptors are essential for this complex formation? (iii) Are there differences in signals sent from BMP-induced versus preformed receptor complexes? By measuring the activation of Smads, of p38 MAPK and of alkaline phosphatase, we show that the ability of kinase-deficient BRII receptor mutants to inhibit BMP signaling depends on their ability to form heteromeric complexes with BRI. Importantly, a BRII mutant that is incapable in forming preassembled receptor complexes but recruits into a BMP-induced receptor complex does not interfere with the Smad pathway but does inhibit the induction of alkaline phosphatase as well as p38 phosphorylation. These results indicate that signals induced by binding of BMP-2 to preformed receptor complexes activate the Smad pathway, whereas BMP-2-induced recruitment of receptors activates a different, Smad-independent pathway resulting in the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity via p38 MAPK.
Molecular Biology of the Cell. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12429842
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily members regulate a wide range of biological processes by binding to two transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors, type I and type II. We have previously shown that the internalization of these receptors is inhibited by K(+) depletion, cytosol acidification, or hypertonic medium, suggesting the involvement of clathrin-coated pits. However, the involvement of the clathrin-associated adaptor complex AP2 and the identity of the AP2 subunit that binds the receptors were not known. Herein, we have studied these issues by combining studies on intact cells with in vitro assays. Using fluorescence photobleaching recovery to measure the lateral mobility of the receptors on live cells (untreated or treated to alter their coated pit structure), we demonstrated that their mobility is restricted by interactions with coated pits. These interactions were transient and mediated through the receptors' cytoplasmic tails. To measure direct binding of the receptors to specific AP2 subunits, we used yeast two-hybrid screens and in vitro biochemical assays. In contrast to most other plasma membrane receptors that bind to AP2 via the mu2 subunit, AP2/TGF-beta receptor binding was mediated by a direct interaction between the beta2-adaptin N-terminal trunk domain and the cytoplasmic tails of the receptors; no binding was observed to the mu2, alpha, or sigma2 subunits of AP2 or to mu1 of AP1. The data uniquely demonstrate both in vivo and in vitro the ability of beta2-adaptin to directly couple TGF-beta receptors to AP2 and to clathrin-coated pits, providing the first in vivo evidence for interactions of a transmembrane receptor with beta2-adaptin.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume. 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12925609
BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein-2) signals via two types of transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors (BRI and BRII), which form heteromeric complexes prior to and after ligand binding. Within a BMP-bound receptor complex, BRII transphosphorylates and activates BRI-a for further signaling. We investigated which signaling pathway is initiated by BMP-2 via preformed receptor complexes versus BMP-2-induced signaling receptor complexes.
The Delta Region of Outer-capsid Protein Micro 1 Undergoes Conformational Change and Release from Reovirus Particles During Cell Entry
Journal of Virology. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14645591
Cell entry by reoviruses requires a large, transcriptionally active subvirion particle to gain access to the cytoplasm. The features of this particle have been the subject of debate, but three primary candidates-the infectious subvirion particle (ISVP), ISVP*, and core particle forms-that differ in whether putative membrane penetration protein micro 1 and adhesin sigma1 remain particle bound have been identified. Experiments with antibody reagents in this study yielded new information about the steps in particle disassembly during cell entry. Monoclonal antibodies specific for the delta region of micro 1 provided evidence for a conformational change in micro 1 and for release of the delta proteolytic fragment from entering particles. Antiserum raised against cores provided evidence for entry-related changes in particle structure and identified entering particles that largely lack the delta fragment inside cells. Antibodies specific for sigma1 showed that it is also largely shed from entering particles. Limited coimmunostaining with markers for late endosomes and lysosomes indicated the particles lacking delta and sigma1 did not localize to those subcellular compartments, and other observations suggested that both the particles and free delta were released into the cytoplasm. Essentially equivalent findings were obtained with native ISVPs and highly infectious recoated particles containing wild-type proteins. Poorly infectious recoated particles containing a hyperstable mutant form of micro 1, however, showed no evidence for the in vitro and intracellular changes in particle structure normally detected by antibodies, and these particles instead accumulated in late endosomes or lysosomes. Recoated particles with hyperstable micro 1 were also ineffective at mediating erythrocyte lysis in vitro and promoting alpha-sarcin coentry and intoxication of cells in cultures. Based on these and other findings, we propose that ISVP* is a transient intermediate in cell entry which mediates membrane penetration and is then further uncoated in the cytoplasm to yield particles, resembling cores, that largely lack the delta fragment of micro 1.
Cell. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15339664
Clathrin-coated vesicles carry traffic from the plasma membrane to endosomes. We report here the real-time visualization of cargo sorting and endocytosis by clathrin-coated pits in living cells. We have detected the formation of coats by monitoring incorporation of fluorescently tagged clathrin or its adaptor AP-2; we have also followed clathrin-mediated uptake of transferrin and of single LDL or reovirus particles. The intensity of a cargo-loaded clathrin cluster grows steadily during its lifetime, and the time required to complete assembly is proportional to the size of the cargo particle. These results are consistent with a nucleation-growth mechanism and an approximately constant growth rate. There are no strongly preferred nucleation sites. A proportion of the nucleation events are weak and short lived. Cargo incorporation occurs primarily or exclusively in a newly formed coated pit. Our data lead to a model in which coated pits initiate randomly but collapse unless stabilized, perhaps by cargo capture.
European Journal of Cell Biology. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15511085
Internalization and traffic to acidic endosomes of anthrax lethal factor (LF) and protective antigen (PA), bound to the anthrax toxin receptor (ATR), is required for LF translocation into the cytosol, where it can elicit its toxic effects. Dynamin is required for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and long-term disruption of dynamin function blocks internalization of PA. We have used LFn-DTA, a surrogate of LF consisting of the N-terminal domain of LF fused to the catalytic subunit of diphtheria toxin, to differentiate the effects of acute and long-term block of dynamin function on LFn-DTA toxicity. Both forms of interference reduce LFn-DTA toxicity only partially, consistent with alternative routes for LFn-DTA endocytosis. In contrast, a long-term block of dynamin activity results in a further interference with LFn-DTA toxicity that is consistent with an altered endosomal environment, probably an increase in endosomal pH.
Biochemical Society Symposium. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15649131
Clathrin-coated vesicles carry traffic from the plasma membrane to endosomes. We report here the first real-time visualization of cargo sorting and endocytosis by clathrin-coated pits in living cells. We have visualized the formation of coats by monitoring the incorporation of fluorescently tagged clathrin or its adaptor AP-2 (adaptor protein 2), and have followed clathrin-mediated uptake of transferrin, single LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and single reovirus particles. The intensity of a cargo-loaded clathrin cluster grows steadily during its lifetime, and the time required to complete assembly is proportional to the size of the cargo particle. These results are consistent with a nucleation-growth mechanism and an approximately constant growth rate. There are no preferred nucleation sites. A proportion of the nucleation events appear to be abortive. Cargo incorporation occurs primarily or exclusively in a newly formed coated pit, and loading appears to commit that pit to finish assembly. Our data led to a model in which coated pits initiate randomly, but collapse with high likelihood unless stabilized, presumably by cargo capture.
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15866482
The scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) mediates the cellular selective uptake of cholesteryl esters and other lipids from high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). This process, unlike classical receptor-mediated endocytosis, does not result in lipoprotein degradation. Instead, the lipid depleted particles are released into the medium. Here we show that selective lipid uptake mediated by murine SR-BI can be uncoupled from the endocytosis of HDL or LDL particles. We found that blocking selective lipid uptake by incubating cells with the small chemical inhibitors BLT-1 or BLT-4 did not affect endocytosis of HDL. Similarly, blocking endocytosis by hyperosmotic sucrose or K+ depletion did not prevent selective lipid uptake from HDL or LDL. These findings suggest that mSR-BI-mediated selective uptake occurs at the cell surface upon the association of lipoproteins with mSR-BI and does not require endocytosis of HDL or LDL particles.
Pathway- and Expression Level-dependent Effects of Oncogenic N-Ras: P27(Kip1) Mislocalization by the Ral-GEF Pathway and Erk-mediated Interference with Smad Signaling
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16135812
Overactivation of Ras pathways contributes to oncogenesis and metastasis of epithelial cells in several ways, including interference with cell cycle regulation via the CDK inhibitor p27(Kip1) (p27) and disruption of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) anti-proliferative activity. Here, we show that at high expression levels, constitutively active N-Ras induces cytoplasmic mislocalization of murine and human p27 via the Ral-GEF pathway and disrupts TGF-beta-mediated Smad nuclear translocation by activation of the Mek/Erk pathway. While human p27 could also be mislocalized via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway, only Ral-GEF activation was effective for murine p27, which lacks the Thr157 Akt phosphorylation site of human p27. This establishes a novel role for the Ral-GEF pathway in regulating p27 localization. Interference with either Smad translocation or p27 nuclear localization was sufficient to disrupt TGF-beta growth inhibition. Moreover, expression of activated N-Ras or specific effector loop mutants at lower levels using retroviral vectors induced p27 mislocalization but did not inhibit Smad2/3 translocation, indicating that the effects on p27 localization occur at lower levels of activated Ras. These findings have important implications for the contribution of activated Ras to oncogenesis and for the conversion of TGF-beta from an inhibitory to a metastatic factor in some epithelial tumors.
Developmental Cell. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16740485
Dynamin is essential for clathrin-dependent coated vesicle formation. It is required for membrane budding at a late stage during the transition from a fully formed pit to a pinched-off vesicle. Dynamin may also fulfill other roles during earlier stages of vesicle formation. We have screened about 16,000 small molecules and have identified 1, named here dynasore, that interferes in vitro with the GTPase activity of dynamin1, dynamin2, and Drp1, the mitochondrial dynamin, but not of other small GTPases. Dynasore acts as a potent inhibitor of endocytic pathways known to depend on dynamin by rapidly blocking coated vesicle formation within seconds of dynasore addition. Two types of coated pit intermediates accumulate during dynasore treatment, U-shaped, half formed pits and O-shaped, fully formed pits, captured while pinching off. Thus, dynamin acts at two steps during clathrin coat formation; GTP hydrolysis is probably needed at both steps.
Clustering of Raft-associated Proteins in the External Membrane Leaflet Modulates Internal Leaflet H-ras Diffusion and Signaling
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16980621
One of the least-explored aspects of cholesterol-enriched domains (rafts) in cells is the coupling between such domains in the external and internal monolayers and its potential to modulate transbilayer signal transduction. Here, we employed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to study the effects of antibody-mediated patching of influenza hemagglutinin (HA) proteins [raft-resident wild-type HA and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored HA, or the nonraft mutant HA(2A520)] on the lateral diffusion of internal-leaflet raft and nonraft Ras isoforms (H-Ras and K-Ras, respectively). Our studies demonstrate that the clustering of outer-leaflet or transmembrane raft-associated HA proteins (but not their nonraft mutants) retards the lateral diffusion of H-Ras (but not K-Ras), suggesting stabilized interactions of H-Ras with the clusters of raft-associated HA proteins. These modulations were paralleled by specific effects on the activity of H-Ras but not of the nonraft K-Ras. Thus, clustering raft-associated HA proteins facilitated the early step whereby H-Ras is converted to an activated, GTP-loaded state but inhibited the ensuing step of downstream signaling via the Mek/Erk pathway. We propose a model for the modulation of transbilayer signaling by clustering of raft proteins, where external clustering (antibody or ligand mediated) enhances the association of internal-leaflet proteins with the stabilized clusters, promoting either enhancement or inhibition of signaling.
Experimental Cell Research. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17097636
Assembly of clathrin-coated pits and their maturation into coated vesicles requires coordinated interactions between specific lipids and several structural and regulatory proteins. In the presence of primary alcohols, phospholipase D generates phosphatidylalcohols instead of PA, reducing stimulation of phosphatidyl inositol 5-kinase (PI5K) and hence decreasing formation of phosphoinositide-4,5-biphosphate (PIP(2)). Using live-cell imaging, we have shown that acute treatment of cells with 1-butanol or other small primary alcohols induces rapid disassembly of coated pits at the plasma membrane and blocks appearance of new ones. Addition of exogenous PIP(2) reverses this effect. Coated pits and vesicles reappear synchronously upon removal of 1-butanol; we have used this synchrony to assess the role of actin in coated vesicle assembly. Prolonged inhibition of actin polymerization by latrunculin A or cytochalasin D reduced by approximately 50% the frequency of coated pit formation without affecting maturation into coated vesicles. As in control cells, removal of 1-butanol in the continued presence of an actin depolymerizer led to synchronous appearance of new pits, which matured normally. Thus, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is not essential for clathrin-coated vesicle assembly but may indirectly affect the nucleation of clathrin-coated pits.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Mannosidase I is Compartmentalized and Required for N-glycan Trimming to Man5-6GlcNAc2 in Glycoprotein ER-associated Degradation
Molecular Biology of the Cell. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18003979
We had previously shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) of glycoproteins in mammalian cells involves trimming of three to four mannose residues from the N-linked oligosaccharide Man(9)GlcNAc(2). A possible candidate for this activity, ER mannosidase I (ERManI), accelerates the degradation of ERAD substrates when overexpressed. Although in vitro, at low concentrations, ERManI removes only one specific mannose residue, at very high concentrations it can excise up to four alpha1,2-linked mannose residues. Using small interfering RNA knockdown of ERManI, we show that this enzyme is required for trimming to Man(5-6)GlcNAc(2) and for ERAD in cells in vivo, leading to the accumulation of Man(9)GlcNAc(2) and Glc(1)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) on a model substrate. Thus, trimming by ERManI to the smaller oligosaccharides would remove the glycoprotein from reglucosylation and calnexin binding cycles. ERManI is strikingly concentrated together with the ERAD substrate in the pericentriolar ER-derived quality control compartment (ERQC) that we had described previously. ERManI knockdown prevents substrate accumulation in the ERQC. We suggest that the ERQC provides a high local concentration of ERManI, and passage through this compartment would allow timing of ERAD, possibly through a cycling mechanism. When newly made glycoproteins cannot fold properly, transport through the ERQC leads to trimming of a critical number of mannose residues, triggering a signal for degradation.
Differential Interference of Chlorpromazine with the Membrane Interactions of Oncogenic K-Ras and Its Effects on Cell Growth
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18693247
Membrane anchorage of Ras proteins is important for their signaling and oncogenic potential. K-Ras4B (K-Ras), the Ras isoform most often mutated in human cancers, is the only Ras isoform where a polybasic motif contributes essential electrostatic interactions with the negatively charged cytoplasmic leaflet. Here we studied the effects of the cationic amphiphilic drug chlorpromazine (CPZ) on the membrane association of oncogenic K-Ras(G12V), cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Combining live cell microscopy, FRAP beam size analysis, and cell fractionation studies, we show that CPZ reduces the association of GFP-K-Ras(G12V) with the plasma membrane and increases its exchange between plasma membrane and cytoplasmic pools. These effects appear to depend on electrostatic interactions because the membrane association of another related protein that has a membrane-interacting polybasic cluster (Rac1(G12V)) was also affected, whereas that of H-Ras was not. The weakened association with the plasma membrane led to a higher fraction of GFP-K-Ras(G12V) in the cytoplasm and in internal membranes, accompanied by either cell cycle arrest (PANC-1 cells) or apoptosis (Rat-1 fibroblasts), the latter being in correlation with the targeting of K-Ras(G12V) to mitochondria. In accord with these results, CPZ compromised the transformed phenotype of PANC-1 cells, as indicated by inhibition of cell migration and growth in soft agar.
Concomitant Expression of the Chemokines RANTES and MCP-1 in Human Breast Cancer: a Basis for Tumor-promoting Interactions
Cytokine. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18790652
The chemokines RANTES (CCL5) and MCP-1 (CCL2) were suggested to contribute, independently, to breast malignancy. In the present study, we asked if the two chemokines are jointly expressed in clinical samples of breast cancer patients, and do they interact in breast tumor cells. We found that RANTES and MCP-1 were expressed by breast tumor cells in primary tumors of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ and of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, but minimally in normal breast epithelial duct cells. The chemokines were also detected in metastases and pleural effusions. Novel findings showed that co-expression of RANTES and MCP-1 in the same tumor was associated with more advanced stages of disease, suggesting that breast tumors "benefit" from interactions between the two chemokines. Accordingly, MCP-1 significantly promoted the release of RANTES from endogenous pre-made vesicles, in an active process that depended on calcium from intracellular and extracellular sources, and on intracellular transport of RANTES towards exocytosis. Our findings show a chemokine-triggered release of stored pro-malignancy chemokine from breast tumor cells. These observations support a major tumor-promoting role for co-expression of the chemokines in breast malignancy, and agree with the significant association of joint RANTES and MCP-1 expression with advanced stages of breast cancer.
Optics Express. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19582017
A sensitive and rapid method for detecting fluorescent dyes at low concentrations in homogenous solution is experimentally demonstrated. Fluorescent-labeled DNA probes are detected by attaching magnetic beads and applying alternating magnetic field gradient. This condenses the fluorescent probes into a small detection volume and eliminates the scattering noise from solution by synchronous detection. For DNA probes concentration of 1 x 10(-13) M the detection signal was 3.3 times higher than the noise, thereby implying detection sensitivity of 3 x 10(-14) M.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19626275
Huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is an accessory protein of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) pathway, yet its precise role and the step at which it becomes involved are unclear. We employed live-cell imaging techniques to focus on the early steps of CME and characterize HIP1 dynamics. We show that HIP1 is highly colocalized with clathrin at the plasma membrane and shares similar dynamics with a subpopulation of clathrin assemblies. Employing transferrin receptor fused to pHluorin, we distinguished between open pits to which HIP1 localizes and newly internalized vesicles that are devoid of HIP1. Moreover, shRNA knockdown of clathrin compromised HIP1 membranal localization, unlike the reported behavior of Sla2p. HIP1 fragment, lacking its ANTH and Talin-like domains, inhibits internalization of transferrin, but retains colocalization with membranal clathrin assemblies. These data demonstrate HIP1's role in pits maturation and formation of the coated vesicle, and its strong dependence on clathrin for membranal localization.
Rapid Homogenous Detection of the Ibaraki Virus NS3 CDNA at Picomolar Concentrations by Magnetic Modulation
Biosensors & Bioelectronics. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19775882
Magnetic modulation biosensing (MMB) system is experimentally demonstrated for rapid and homogeneous detection of the Ibaraki virus NS3 cDNA. A novel fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based probe discriminates the target DNA from the control. When detection is made, the FRET-based probe is cleaved using Taq-polymerase activity and fluorescent light is produced. The biotinylated probes are attached to streptavidin-coupled superparamagnetic beads and are maneuvered into oscillatory motion by applying an alternating magnetic field gradient through two electromagnetic poles. The beads are condensed into the detection area and their movement in and out the orthogonal laser beam produces a periodic fluorescent signal that is demodulated using synchronous detection. 1.9pM of the Ibaraki virus NS3 cDNA was detected in homogeneous solution within 18min without separation or washing steps.
The Biochemical Journal. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19000037
The recruitment of clathrin to the membrane and its assembly into coated pits results from its interaction with endocytic adaptors and other regulatory proteins in the context of a specific lipid microenvironment. Dab2 (disabled 2) is a mitotic phosphoprotein and a monomeric adaptor for clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In the present study, we employed GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion constructs of different isoforms and mutants of rat Dab2 and characterized their effect on the size, distribution and dynamics of clathrin assemblies. Enhanced levels of expression of the p82 isoform of Dab2 in COS7 cells induced enlarged clathrin assemblies at the plasma membrane. p82-clathrin assemblies, which concentrate additional endocytic proteins, such as AP2 (adaptor protein 2) and epsin, are dynamic structures in which both p82 and clathrin exchange actively between the membrane-bound and cytosolic sub-populations. The ability of p82 to induce enlarged clathrin assemblies is dependent on the presence of a functional PTB domain (phosphotyrosine-binding domain), on binding to clathrin and phospholipids, and on a newly identified and evolutionarily conserved poly-lysine stretch which precedes the PTB domain. These same molecular features are required for Dab2 to enhance the spreading of COS7 cells on fibronectin. The ability of the p82 isoform of Dab2 to enhance cell spreading was confirmed in both HeLa cells and HBL cells (human breast epithelial cells). COS7 cells expressing GFP-p82 and plated on to fibronectin concentrate the beta1 integrin into clathrin-p82 assemblies. Furthermore, during cell spreading, p82-clathrin assemblies concentrate at the site of the initial cell-matrix contact and are absent from regions of intense membrane ruffling. We propose a role for Dab2 and clathrin in integrin-mediated cell spreading.
Different Domains Regulate Homomeric and Heteromeric Complex Formation Among Type I and Type II Transforming Growth Factor-beta Receptors
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19147499
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) binds to and signals via two serine-threonine kinase receptors, type I (TbetaRI) and type II (TbetaRII). The oligomerization of TGF-beta receptors modulates ligand binding and receptor trafficking and may contribute to signal diversification. However, numerous features of the molecular domains that determine the homo- and hetero-oligomerization of full-length receptors at the cell surface and the mode of these interactions remain unclear. Here, we address these questions through computerized immunofluorescence co-patching and patch/fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements of different combinations of epitope-tagged receptors and their mutants in live cells. We show that TbetaRI and TbetaRII are present on the plasma membrane both as monomers and homo- and hetero-oligomers. The homodimerization of TbetaRII depends on a cytoplasmic juxtamembrane region (amino acid residues 200-220). In contrast, the cytoplasmic domain of TbetaRI is dispensable for its homodimerization. TbetaRI.TbetaRII hetero-oligomerization depends on the cytoplasmic domain of TbetaRI and on a C-terminal region of TbetaRII (residues 419-565). TGF-beta1 elevates TbetaRII homodimerization to some degree and strongly enhances TbetaRI.TbetaRII heteromeric complex formation. Both ligand-induced effects depend on the region encompassed between residues 200-242 of TbetaRII. Furthermore, the kinase activity of TbetaRI is also necessary for the latter effect. All forms of the homo- and hetero-oligomers, whether constitutively present on the membrane or formed upon TGF-beta1 stimulation, were stable in the time-scale of our patch/FRAP measurements. We suggest that the different forms of receptor oligomerization may serve as a basis for the heterogeneity of TGF-beta signaling responses.
ERK and PI3K Regulate Different Aspects of the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition of Mammary Tumor Cells Induced by Truncated MUC1
Experimental Cell Research. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19245809
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) integrates changes to cell morphology and signaling pathways resulting from modifications to the cell's transcriptional response. Different combinations of stimuli ignite this process in the contexts of development or tumor progression. The human MUC1 gene encodes multiple alternatively spliced forms of a polymorphic oncoprotein that is aberrantly expressed in epithelial malignancies. MUC1 is endowed with various signaling modules and has the potential to mediate proliferative and morphological changes characteristic of the progression of epithelial tumors. The tyrosine-rich cytoplasmic domain and the heavily glycosylated extracellular domain both play a role in MUC1-mediated signal transduction. However, the attribution of function to specific domains of MUC1 is difficult due to the concomitant presence of multiple forms of the protein, which stem from alternative splicing and proteolytic cleavage. Here we show that DA3 mouse mammary tumor cells stably transfected with a truncated genomic fragment of human MUC1 undergo EMT. In their EMT, these cells demonstrate altered [i] morphology, [ii] signaling pathways and [iii] expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Similarly to well characterized human breast cancer cell lines, cells transfected with truncated MUC1 show an ERK-dependent increased spreading on fibronectin, and a PI3K-dependent enhancement of their proliferative rate.
A Legionella Effector Acquired from Protozoa is Involved in Sphingolipids Metabolism and is Targeted to the Host Cell Mitochondria
Cellular Microbiology. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19438520
Legionella pneumophila infects alveolar macrophages and protozoa through establishment of an intracellular replication niche. This process is mediated by bacterial effectors translocated into the host cell via the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system. Most of the effectors identified so far are unique to L. pneumophila; however, some of the effectors are homologous to eukaryotic proteins. We performed a distribution analysis of many known L. pneumophila effectors and found that several of them, mostly eukaryotic homologous proteins, are present in different Legionella species. In-depth analysis of LegS2, a L. pneumophila homologue of the highly conserved eukaryotic enzyme sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SPL), revealed that it was most likely acquired from a protozoan organism early during Legionella evolution. The LegS2 protein was found to translocate into host cells using a C-terminal translocation domain absent in its eukaryotic homologues. LegS2 was found to complement the sphingosine-sensitive phenotype of a Saccharomyces serevisia SPL-null mutant and this complementation depended on evolutionary conserved residues in the LegS2 catalytic domain. Interestingly, unlike the eukaryotic SPL that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum, LegS2 was found to be targeted mainly to host cell mitochondria. Collectively, our results demonstrate the remarkable adaptations of a eukaryotic protein to the L. pneumophila pathogenesis system.
Monoubiquitinylation Regulates Endosomal Localization of Lst2, a Negative Regulator of EGF Receptor Signaling
Developmental Cell. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19460345
Genetic screens performed in worms identified major regulators of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, including the ubiquitin ligase Cbl/SLI-1. Here we focus on the less-characterized Lst2 protein and confirm suppression of MAPK signals. Unexpectedly, human Lst2, a monoubiquitinylated phosphoprotein, does not localize to endosomes, despite an intrinsic phosphoinositol-binding FYVE domain. By constructing an ubiquitinylation-defective mutant and an ubiquitin fusion, we conclude that endosomal localization of Lst2, along with an ability to divert incoming EGFR molecules to degradation in lysosomes, is regulated by ubiquitinylation/deubiquitinylation cycles. Consistent with bifurcating roles, Lst2 physically binds Trim3/BERP, which interacts with Hrs and a complex that biases cargo recycling. These results establish an ubiquitin-based endosomal switch of receptor sorting, functionally equivalent to the mechanism inactivating Hrs via monoubiquitinylation.
Biochemical Society Transactions. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20074057
HIP1 (huntingtin interacting protein 1) has two close relatives: HIP1R (HIP1-related) and yeast Sla2p. All three members of the family have a conserved domain structure, suggesting a common function. Over the past decade, a number of studies have characterized these proteins using a combination of biochemical, imaging, structural and genetic techniques. These studies provide valuable information on binding partners, structure and dynamics of HIP1/HIP1R/Sla2p. In general, all suggest a role in CME (clathrin-mediated endocytosis) for the three proteins, though some differences have emerged. In this mini-review we summarize the current views on the roles of these proteins, while emphasizing the unique attributes of each family member.
Magnetic Modulation Biosensing for Rapid and Homogeneous Detection of Biological Targets at Low Concentrations
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20214612
This paper reviews the development of a magnetic modulation biosensing (MMB) system for rapid, simple and sensitive detection of biological targets in homogeneous solution at low concentrations. It relies on condensation and modulation of the fluorescent-labeled probes attached to magnetic beads using an alternating magnetic field gradient. Condensation of the beads from the entire volume increases the signal while modulation separates the signal from the background noise of the non-magnetized solution. We first discuss the motivation and challenges in specific DNA sequences detection as well as current approaches to overcome some of these challenges. We then present the MMB system, DNA detection schemes and magnetic beads manipulation in solution. Rapid detection at sub-picomolar concentrations of fluorescent-labeled probes as well as of coding sequences of the non-structural Ibaraki virus protein 3 (NS3) complementary DNA (cDNA) without any washing or separation step is also reviewed. Finally, we show preliminary results of protein detection using a 'sandwich'-based assay.
The Gag Cleavage Product, P12, is a Functional Constituent of the Murine Leukemia Virus Pre-integration Complex
PLoS Pathogens. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21085616
The p12 protein is a cleavage product of the Gag precursor of the murine leukemia virus (MLV). Specific mutations in p12 have been described that affect early stages of infection, rendering the virus replication-defective. Such mutants showed normal generation of genomic DNA but no formation of circular forms, which are markers of nuclear entry by the viral DNA. This suggested that p12 may function in early stages of infection but the precise mechanism of p12 action is not known. To address the function and follow the intracellular localization of the wt p12 protein, we generated tagged p12 proteins in the context of a replication-competent virus, which allowed for the detection of p12 at early stages of infection by immunofluorescence. p12 was found to be distributed to discrete puncta, indicative of macromolecular complexes. These complexes were localized to the cytoplasm early after infection, and thereafter accumulated adjacent to mitotic chromosomes. This chromosomal accumulation was impaired for p12 proteins with a mutation that rendered the virus integration-defective. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that intracellular p12 complexes co-localized with capsid, a known constituent of the MLV pre-integration complex (PIC), and immunofluorescence combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed co-localization of the p12 proteins with the incoming reverse transcribed viral DNA. Interactions of p12 with the capsid and with the viral DNA were also demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. These results imply that p12 proteins are components of the MLV PIC. Furthermore, a large excess of wt PICs did not rescue the defect in integration of PICs derived from mutant p12 particles, demonstrating that p12 exerts its function as part of this complex. Altogether, these results imply that p12 proteins are constituent of the MLV PIC and function in directing the PIC from the cytoplasm towards integration.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21097498
Mitotic cells undergo extensive changes in shape and size through the altered regulation and function of their membrane trafficking machinery. Disabled 2 (Dab2), a multidomain cargo-specific endocytic adaptor and a mediator of signal transduction, is a potential integrator of trafficking and signaling. Dab2 binds effectors of signaling and trafficking that localize to different intracellular compartments. Thus, differential localization is a putative regulatory mechanism of Dab2 function. Furthermore, Dab2 is phosphorylated in mitosis and is thus regulated in the cell cycle. However, a detailed description of the intracellular localization of Dab2 in the different phases of mitosis and an understanding of the functional consequences of its phosphorylation are lacking. Here, we show that Dab2 is progressively displaced from the membrane in mitosis. This phenomenon is paralleled by a loss of co-localization with clathrin. Both phenomena culminate in metaphase/anaphase and undergo partial recovery in cytokinesis. Treatment with 2-methoxyestradiol, which arrests cells at the spindle assembly checkpoint, induces the same effects observed in metaphase cells. Moreover, 2-methoxyestradiol also induced Dab2 phosphorylation and reduced Dab2/clathrin interactions, endocytic vesicle motility, clathrin exchange dynamics, and the internalization of a receptor endowed with an NPXY endocytic signal. Serine/threonine to alanine mutations, of residues localized to the central region of Dab2, attenuated its phosphorylation, reduced its membrane displacement, and maintained its endocytic abilities in mitosis. We propose that the negative regulation of Dab2 is part of an accommodation of the cell to the altered physicochemical conditions prevalent in mitosis, aimed at allowing endocytic activity throughout the cell cycle.
Cellular Signalling. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21515362
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) ligands and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play myriad roles in many biological processes and diseases. Their pluripotent activities are subject to multiple levels of regulation, including receptor oligomerization, endocytosis, association with co-receptors, cellular scaffolds or membrane domains, as well as transcriptional control. In this review, we focus on TGF-β and BMP receptor homomeric and heteromeric complex formation and their modulation by ligand binding, which regulate signaling on a near-immediate timescale. We discuss the current structural, biochemical and biophysical evidence for the oligomerization of these receptors, and the potential roles of distinct oligomeric interactions in signaling.
The Conserved YAGL Motif in Human Metapneumovirus is Required for Higher-order Cellular Assemblies of the Matrix Protein and for Virion Production
Journal of Virology. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21525358
YXXL motifs in cellular and viral proteins have a variety of functions. The matrix (M) protein of the respiratory pathogen human metapneumovirus (hMPV) contains two such conserved motifs--YSKL and YAGL. We mutated these sequences to analyze their contributions to hMPV infectivity. The mutant clones were capable of intracellular replication; however, the YAGL but not YSKL mutants were defective at spreading in infected cultures. We improved the reverse genetics system for hMPV and generated cell lines that stably expressed selectable, replicating full-length genomes for both the wild type and the mutant clones, allowing microscopic and biochemical analyses of these viruses. YAGL mutants produced normal cellular levels of M protein but failed to release virions, while ectopic coexpression of wild-type M generated particles that were restricted to a single cycle of infection. The YAGL motif did not act as a late (L) domain, however, since hMPV budding was independent of the cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery and because replacement of the YAGL motif with classical L domains generated defective viruses. Instead, the YAGL mutants had defective M assemblies lacking a normal filamentous appearance and showed poor extractability from the cell compared to the wild-type protein. The mutant proteins were not grossly misfolded, however, as they interacted with cellular membranes and coassembled with wild-type M proteins. Thus, the YAGL motif is an important determinant of hMPV assembly. Furthermore, the selectable hMPV genomes described here should extend the use of reverse genetics systems in the analysis of spreading-defective viruses.
Phenotypic Reversion of Invasive Neurofibromin-deficient Schwannoma by FTS: Ras Inhibition Reduces BMP4/Erk/Smad Signaling
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21632464
Neurofibromin-deficient (Nf1(-/-)) malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are highly invasive, refractory to chemotherapy, and characterized by overactivated Ras. Ras activates mitogenic pathways and regulates morphogenic programs--such as those induced by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) and TGF-β. The role of such a cross-talk in determining the phenotype and transformation potential of MPNSTs is unknown. Here, we used MPNST cell lines and selective Ras inhibition with S-trans,trans-farnesylthiosalicylic-acid (FTS; salirasib) in conjunction with specific inhibitors of TGF-β and BMP signaling. FTS perturbed signaling of BMP4 and TGF-β1 to Smad-dependent and Erk-dependent pathways. Furthermore, FTS inhibited motility and spreading, reduced the gelatinase secretion, eliminated the expression and activation of regulators of cell-matrix interaction, and altered gene expression. These phenomena are indicative of a phenotypic reversion of NF1-deficient cells by FTS. Inhibition of BMP4 and TGF-β by noggin and SB-431542, respectively, mimicked the FTS-mediated effects on adhesion, spreading, and cell morphology. This strongly suggests that a cross-talk among TGF-β superfamily ligands and Ras plays a significant role in the transformation of NF1(-/-) MPNSTs. Our results support the therapeutic potential of FTS, in conjuncture with BMP and TGF-β pathway inhibitors, toward the inhibition of mitogenic and morphogenic signaling pathways and the alleviation of NF1 symptoms.
The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21736652
Extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor-like proteins (RLPs) represent a unique class of cell-surface receptors, as they lack a functional cytoplasmic domain. Our knowledge of how RLPs that do not contain a kinase or Toll domain function is very limited. The tomato RLP receptor LeEix2 signals to induce defense responses mediated by the fungal protein ethylene-inducing xylanase (EIX). The movement of FYVE-positive endosomes before and after EIX application was examined using spinning disc confocal microscopy. We found that while FYVE-positive endosomes generally observe a random movement pattern, following EIX application a subpopulation of FYVE-positive endosomes follow a directional movement pattern. Further, cellular endosomes travel greater distances at higher speeds following EIX application. Time-course experiments conducted with specific inhibitors demonstrate the involvement of endosomal signaling in EIX-triggered defense responses. Abolishing the existence of endosomes or the endocytic event prevented EIX-induced signaling. Endocytosis/endosome inhibitors, such as Dynasore or 1-butanol, inhibit EIX-induced signaling. Moreover, treatment with Endosidin1, which inhibits an early step in plasma membrane/endosome trafficking, enhances the induction of defense responses by EIX. Our data indicate a distinct endosomal signaling mechanism for induction of defense responses in this RLP system.
Recruitment of Cellular Clathrin to Viral Factories and Disruption of Clathrin-dependent Trafficking
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark). Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21736684
The viral factories of mammalian reovirus (MRV) are cytoplasmic structures that serve as sites of viral genome replication and particle assembly. A 721-aa MRV non-structural protein, µNS, forms the factory matrix and recruits other viral proteins to these structures. In this report, we show that µNS contains a conserved C-proximal sequence (711-LIDFS-715) that is similar to known clathrin-box motifs and is required for recruitment of clathrin to viral factories. Clathrin recruitment by µNS occurs independently of infecting MRV particles or other MRV proteins. Ala substitution for a single Leu residue (mutation L711A) within the putative clathrin-binding motif of µNS inhibits clathrin recruitment, but does not prevent formation or expansion of viral factories. Notably, clathrin-dependent cellular functions, including both endocytosis and secretion, are disrupted in cells infected with MRV expressing wild-type, but not L711A, µNS. These results identify µNS as a novel adaptor-like protein that recruits cellular clathrin to viral factories, disrupting normal functions of clathrin in cellular membrane trafficking. To our knowledge, this is the only viral or bacterial protein yet shown to interfere with clathrin functions in this manner. The results additionally establish a new approach for studies of clathrin functions, based on µNS-mediated sequestration.
TMPRSS2/ERG Promotes Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Through the ZEB1/ZEB2 Axis in a Prostate Cancer Model
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21747944
Prostate cancer is the most common non-dermatologic malignancy in men in the Western world. Recently, a frequent chromosomal aberration fusing androgen regulated TMPRSS2 promoter and the ERG gene (TMPRSS2/ERG) was discovered in prostate cancer. Several studies demonstrated cooperation between TMPRSS2/ERG and other defective pathways in cancer progression. However, the unveiling of more specific pathways in which TMPRSS2/ERG takes part, requires further investigation. Using immortalized prostate epithelial cells we were able to show that TMPRSS2/ERG over-expressing cells undergo an Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), manifested by acquisition of mesenchymal morphology and markers as well as migration and invasion capabilities. These findings were corroborated in vivo, where the control cells gave rise to discrete nodules while the TMPRSS2/ERG-expressing cells formed malignant tumors, which expressed EMT markers. To further investigate the general transcription scheme induced by TMPRSS2/ERG, cells were subjected to a microarray analysis that revealed a distinct EMT expression program, including up-regulation of the EMT facilitators, ZEB1 and ZEB2, and down-regulation of the epithelial marker CDH1(E-Cadherin). A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed direct binding of TMPRSS2/ERG to the promoter of ZEB1 but not ZEB2. However, TMPRSS2/ERG was able to bind the promoters of the ZEB2 modulators, IL1R2 and SPINT1. This set of experiments further illuminates the mechanism by which the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion affects prostate cancer progression and might assist in targeting TMPRSS2/ERG and its downstream targets in future drug design efforts.
The Biochemical Journal. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21756249
EHDs [EH (Eps15 homology)-domain-containing proteins] participate in different stages of endocytosis. EHD2 is a plasma-membrane-associated EHD which regulates trafficking from the plasma membrane and recycling. EHD2 has a role in nucleotide-dependent membrane remodelling and its ATP-binding domain is involved in dimerization, which creates a membrane-binding region. Nucleotide binding is important for association of EHD2 with the plasma membrane, since a nucleotide-free mutant (EHD2 T72A) failed to associate. To elucidate the possible function of EHD2 during endocytic trafficking, we attempted to unravel proteins that interact with EHD2, using the yeast two-hybrid system. A novel interaction was found between EHD2 and Nek3 [NIMA (never in mitosis in Aspergillus nidulans)-related kinase 3], a serine/threonine kinase. EHD2 was also found in association with Vav1, a Nek3-regulated GEF (guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor) for Rho GTPases. Since Vav1 regulates Rac1 activity and promotes actin polymerization, the impact of overexpression of EHD2 on Rac1 activity was tested. The results indicated that wt (wild-type) EHD2, but not its P-loop mutants, reduced Rac1 activity. The inhibitory effect of EHD2 overexpression was partially rescued by co-expression of Rac1 as measured using a cholera toxin trafficking assay. The results of the present study strongly indicate that EHD2 regulates trafficking from the plasma membrane by controlling Rac1 activity.
Quantitative Single Cell Monitoring of Protein Synthesis at Subcellular Resolution Using Fluorescently Labeled TRNA
Nucleic Acids Research. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21795382
We have developed a novel technique of using fluorescent tRNA for translation monitoring (FtTM). FtTM enables the identification and monitoring of active protein synthesis sites within live cells at submicron resolution through quantitative microscopy of transfected bulk uncharged tRNA, fluorescently labeled in the D-loop (fl-tRNA). The localization of fl-tRNA to active translation sites was confirmed through its co-localization with cellular factors and its dynamic alterations upon inhibition of protein synthesis. Moreover, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) signals, generated when fl-tRNAs, separately labeled as a FRET pair occupy adjacent sites on the ribosome, quantitatively reflect levels of protein synthesis in defined cellular regions. In addition, FRET signals enable detection of intra-populational variability in protein synthesis activity. We demonstrate that FtTM allows quantitative comparison of protein synthesis between different cell types, monitoring effects of antibiotics and stress agents, and characterization of changes in spatial compartmentalization of protein synthesis upon viral infection.
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21807892
The trafficking, membrane localization, and lipid raft association of Ras proteins, which are crucial oncogenic mediators, dictate their isoform-specific biological responses. Accordingly, their spatiotemporal dynamics are tightly regulated. While extensively studied for H- and K-Ras, such information on N-Ras, an etiological oncogenic factor, is limited. Here, we report a novel mechanism regulating the activation-dependent spatiotemporal organization of N-Ras, its modulation by biologically relevant stimuli, and isoform-specific effects on signaling. We combined patching/immobilization of another membrane protein with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (patch-FRAP) and FRAP beam size analysis to investigate N-Ras membrane interactions. Clustering of raft-associated proteins, either glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA-GPI) or fibronectin receptors, selectively enhanced the plasma membrane-cytoplasm exchange of N-Ras-GTP (preferentially associated with raft domains) in a cholesterol-dependent manner. Electron microscopy (EM) analysis showed N-Ras-GTP localization in cholesterol-sensitive clusters, from which it preferentially detached upon HA-GPI cross-linking. HA-GPI clustering enhanced the Golgi compartment (GC) accumulation and signaling of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated N-Ras-GTP. Notably, the cross-linking-mediated enhancement of N-Ras-GTP exchange and GC accumulation depended strictly on depalmitoylation. We propose that the N-Ras activation pattern (e.g., by EGF) is altered by raft protein clustering, which enhances N-Ras-GTP raft localization and depalmitoylation, entailing its exchange and GC accumulation following repalmitoylation. This mechanism demonstrates a functional signaling role for the activation-dependent differential association of Ras isoforms with raft nanodomains.
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark). Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21810156
Non-integral membrane proteins frequently act as transduction hubs in vital signaling pathways initiated at the plasma membrane (PM). Their biological activity depends on dynamic interactions with the PM, which are governed by their lateral and cytoplasmic diffusion and membrane binding/unbinding kinetics. Accurate quantification of the multiple kinetic parameters characterizing their membrane interaction dynamics has been challenging. Despite a fair number of approximate fitting functions for analyzing fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) data, no approach was able to cope with the full diffusion-exchange problem. Here, we present an exact solution and matlab fitting programs for FRAP with a stationary Gaussian laser beam, allowing simultaneous determination of the membrane (un)binding rates and the diffusion coefficients. To reduce the number of fitting parameters, the cytoplasmic diffusion coefficient is determined separately. Notably, our equations include the dependence of the exchange kinetics on the distribution of the measured protein between the PM and the cytoplasm, enabling the derivation of both k(on) and k(off) without prior assumptions. After validating the fitting function by computer simulations, we confirm the applicability of our approach to live-cell data by monitoring the dynamics of GFP-N-Ras mutants under conditions with different contributions of lateral diffusion and exchange to the FRAP kinetics.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Proteins Traffic Toward Virion Assembly Sites Via a TBC1D20/Rab1-regulated Pathway
Retrovirology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22260459
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The cellular activity of many factors and pathways is required to execute the complex replication cycle of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). To reveal these cellular components, several extensive RNAi screens have been performed, listing numerous 'HIV-dependency factors'. However, only a small overlap between these lists exists, calling for further evaluation of the relevance of specific factors to HIV-1 replication and for the identification of additional cellular candidates. TBC1D20, the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) of Rab1, regulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi trafficking, was not identified in any of these screens, and its involvement in HIV-1 replication cycle is tested here. FINDINGS: Excessive TBC1D20 activity perturbs the early trafficking of HIV-1 envelope protein through the secretory pathway. Overexpression of TBC1D20 hampered envelope processing and reduced its association with detergent-resistant membranes, entailing a reduction in infectivity of HIV-1 virion like particles (VLPs). CONCLUSIONS: These findings add TBC1D20 to the network of host factors regulating HIV replication cycle.
FEBS Letters. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22293501
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) cytokines participate in a multiplicity of ways in the regulation of numerous physiological and pathological processes. Their wide-ranging biological functions are controlled by several mechanisms, including regulation of transcription, complex formation among the signaling receptors (oligomerization) and with co-receptors, binding of the receptors to scaffolding proteins or their targeting to specific membrane domains. Here, we address the generation of TGF-β and BMP receptor homo- and hetero-oligomers and its roles as a mechanism capable of fast regulation of signaling by these crucial cytokines. We examine the available biochemical, biophysical and structural evidence for the ternary structure of these complexes, and the possible roles of homomeric and heteromeric receptor oligomers in signaling.