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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (21)
- Methods (San Diego, Calif.)
- Nature Protocols
- RNA (New York, N.Y.)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Nature Methods
- RNA (New York, N.Y.)
- PloS One
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology
- Cancer Research
- Cancer Research
- Molecular Cell
- RNA (New York, N.Y.)
- Genes & Development
- Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
- Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
- Cell Host & Microbe
- Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
- PLoS Pathogens
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Articles by Markus Hafner in JoVE
PAR-Clip - метод идентификации транскриптома всей места связывания РНК-связывающие белки
Markus Hafner1, Markus Landthaler2, Lukas Burger3, Mohsen Khorshid3, Jean Hausser4, Philipp Berninger4, Andrea Rothballer1, Manuel Ascano1, Anna-Carina Jungkamp2, Mathias Munschauer2, Alexander Ulrich1, Greg S. Wardle1, Scott Dewell5, Mihaela Zavolan3, Thomas Tuschl1
1Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of RNA Molecular Biology, Rockefeller University, 2Berlin Institute for Medical Systems Biology, Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine, 3Biozentrum der Universität Basel and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), 4Biozentrum der Universität Basel and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), 5Genomics Resource Center, Rockefeller University
РНК-транскрипты подвергаются обширные посттранскрипционные регулирование, которое опосредуется множеством транс действия РНК-связывающими белками (ОДП). Здесь мы представляем обобщению метода точно определить и на транскриптома масштабе РНК места связывания ОДП.
Other articles by Markus Hafner on PubMed
Nature. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17167487
G proteins are an important class of regulatory switches in all living systems. They are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which facilitate the exchange of GDP for GTP. This activity makes GEFs attractive targets for modulating disease-relevant G-protein-controlled signalling networks. GEF inhibitors are therefore of interest as tools for elucidating the function of these proteins and for therapeutic intervention; however, only one small molecule GEF inhibitor, brefeldin A (BFA), is currently available. Here we used an aptamer displacement screen to identify SecinH3, a small molecule antagonist of cytohesins. The cytohesins are a class of BFA-resistant small GEFs for ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), which regulate cytoskeletal organization, integrin activation or integrin signalling. The application of SecinH3 in human liver cells showed that insulin-receptor-complex-associated cytohesins are required for insulin signalling. SecinH3-treated mice show increased expression of gluconeogenic genes, reduced expression of glycolytic, fatty acid and ketone body metabolism genes in the liver, reduced liver glycogen stores, and a compensatory increase in plasma insulin. Thus, cytohesin inhibition results in hepatic insulin resistance. Because insulin resistance is among the earliest pathological changes in type 2 diabetes, our results show the potential of chemical biology for dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of this disease.
Methods (San Diego, Calif.). Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18158127
Distinct classes of small RNAs, 20-32 nucleotides long, play important regulatory roles for diverse cellular processes. It is therefore important to identify and quantify small RNAs as a function of development, tissue and cell type, in normal and disease states. Here we describe methods to prepare cDNA libraries from pools of small RNAs isolated from organisms, tissues or cells. These methods enable the identification of new members or new classes of small RNAs, and they are also suitable to obtain miRNA expression profiles based on clone count frequencies. This protocol includes the use of new deep sequencing methods (454/Roche and Solexa) to facilitate the characterization of diverse sequence pools of small RNAs.
Nature Protocols. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18388939
Small molecule inhibitors of proteins are invaluable tools in research and as starting points for drug development. However, their screening can be tedious, as most screening methods have to be tailored to the corresponding drug target. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for a modular and generally applicable assay for the identification of small organic compounds that displace an aptamer complexed to its target protein. The method relies on fluorescence-labeled aptamers and the increase of fluorescence polarization upon their binding to the target protein. The assay has high Z'-factors, making it compatible with high-throughput screening. It allows easy automation, making fluorescence readout the time-limiting step. As aptamers can be generated for virtually any protein target, the assay allows identification of small molecule inhibitors for targets or individual protein domains for which no functional screen is available. We provide the step-by-step protocol to screen for antagonists of the cytohesin class of small guanosine exchange factors.
Molecular Characterization of Human Argonaute-containing Ribonucleoprotein Complexes and Their Bound Target MRNAs
RNA (New York, N.Y.). Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18978028
microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of mRNAs in animals and plants through miRNA-containing ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs). At the core of these miRNA silencing effector complexes are the Argonaute (AGO) proteins that bind miRNAs and mediate target mRNA recognition. We generated HEK293 cell lines stably expressing epitope-tagged human AGO proteins and other RNA silencing-related proteins and used these cells to purify miRNA-containing RNPs. Mass spectrometric analyses of the proteins associated with different AGO proteins revealed a common set of helicases and mRNA-binding proteins, among them the three trinucleotide repeat containing proteins 6 (TNRC6A,-B,-C). mRNA microarray analyses of these miRNA-associated RNPs revealed that AGO and TNRC6 proteins bind highly similar sets of transcripts enriched in binding sites for highly expressed endogenous miRNAs, indicating that the TNRC6 proteins are a component of the mRNA-targeting miRNA silencing complex. Together with the very similar proteomic composition of each AGO complex, this result suggests substantial functional redundancy within families of human AGO and TNRC6 proteins. Our results further demonstrate that we have developed an effective biochemical approach to identify physiologically relevant human miRNA targets.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19114655
MicroRNAs play important roles in animal development. Numerous conditional knockout (cKO) studies of Dicer have been performed to interrogate the functions of microRNA during mammalian development. However, because Dicer was recently implicated in the biogenesis of endogenous siRNAs in mammals, it raises the question whether the Dicer cKO defects can be attributable to the loss of microRNAs. Previously, we and others conditionally targeted Dicer and identified its critical roles in embryonic skin morphogenesis. Here, we focus explicitly on microRNAs by taking a parallel strategy with Dgcr8, encoding an essential component of the microprocessor complex that is exclusively required for microRNA biogenesis. With this comparative analysis, we show definitively that the Dicer- and Dgcr8-null skin defects are both striking and indistinguishable. By deep sequencing analysis of microRNA depletion in both Dicer- and Dgcr8-null skin, we demonstrate that most abundantly expressed skin microRNAs are dependent on both Dicer and DGCR8. Our results underscore a specific importance of microRNAs in controlling mammalian skin development.
Nature Methods. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19137005
MicroRNAs are small regulatory RNAs with many biological functions and disease associations. We showed that in situ hybridization (ISH) using conventional formaldehyde fixation results in substantial microRNA loss from mouse tissue sections, which can be prevented by fixation with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide that irreversibly immobilizes the microRNA at its 5' phosphate. We determined optimal hybridization parameters for 130 locked nucleic acid probes by recording nucleic acid melting temperature during ISH.
RNA (New York, N.Y.). Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19861428
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a species of small RNAs approximately 21-23-nucleotides long that have been shown to play an important role in many different cellular, developmental, and physiological processes. Accordingly, numerous PCR-, sequencing-, or hybridization-based methods have been established to identify and quantify miRNAs. Their short length results in a high dynamic range of melting temperatures and therefore impedes a proper selection of detection probes or optimized PCR primers. While miRNA microarrays allow for massive parallel and accurate relative measurement of all known miRNAs, they have so far been less useful as an assay for absolute quantification. Here, we present a microarray-based approach for global and absolute quantification of miRNAs. The method relies on the parallel hybridization of the sample of interest labeled with Cy5 and a universal reference of 954 synthetic miRNAs in equimolar concentrations that are labeled with Cy3 on a microarray slide containing probes for all human, mouse, rat, and viral miRNAs (miRBase 12.0). Each single miRNA is quantified with respect to the universal reference canceling biases related to sequence, labeling, or hybridization. We demonstrate the accuracy of the method by various spike-in experiments. Furthermore, we quantified miRNA copy numbers in liver samples and CD34(+)/CD133(-) hematopoietic progenitor cells.
Cell. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20371350
RNA transcripts are subject to posttranscriptional gene regulation involving hundreds of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and microRNA-containing ribonucleoprotein complexes (miRNPs) expressed in a cell-type dependent fashion. We developed a cell-based crosslinking approach to determine at high resolution and transcriptome-wide the binding sites of cellular RBPs and miRNPs. The crosslinked sites are revealed by thymidine to cytidine transitions in the cDNAs prepared from immunopurified RNPs of 4-thiouridine-treated cells. We determined the binding sites and regulatory consequences for several intensely studied RBPs and miRNPs, including PUM2, QKI, IGF2BP1-3, AGO/EIF2C1-4 and TNRC6A-C. Our study revealed that these factors bind thousands of sites containing defined sequence motifs and have distinct preferences for exonic versus intronic or coding versus untranslated transcript regions. The precise mapping of binding sites across the transcriptome will be critical to the interpretation of the rapidly emerging data on genetic variation between individuals and how these variations contribute to complex genetic diseases.
MicroRNAs MiR-17, MiR-20a, and MiR-106b Act in Concert to Modulate E2F Activity on Cell Cycle Arrest During Neuronal Lineage Differentiation of USSC
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21283765
MicroRNAs are short (∼22 nt) non-coding regulatory RNAs that control gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Here the functional impact of microRNAs on cell cycle arrest during neuronal lineage differentiation of unrestricted somatic stem cells from human cord blood (USSC) was analyzed.
Combined Characterization of MicroRNA and MRNA Profiles Delineates Early Differentiation Pathways of CD133+ and CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21394831
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play an important role in hematopoiesis. To elucidate the role of miRNAs in the early steps of hematopoiesis, we directly compared donor-matched CD133(+) cells with the more differentiated CD34(+) CD133(-) and CD34(-) CD133(-) cells from bone marrow on the miRNA and mRNA level. Using quantitative whole genome miRNA microarray and sequencing-based profiling, we found that between 109 (CD133(+) ) and 216 (CD34(-) CD133(-) ) miRNAs were expressed. Quantification revealed that the 25 highest expressed miRNAs accounted for 73% of the total miRNA pool. miR-142-3p was the highest expressed miRNA with up to 2,000 copies per cell in CD34(+) CD133(-) cells. Eighteen miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between CD133(+) and CD34(+) CD133(-) cells. We analyzed their biological role by examining the coexpression of miRNAs and its bioinformatically predicted mRNA targets and luciferase-based reporter assays. We provide the first evidence for a direct regulation of CD133 by miR-142-3p as well as tropomyosin 1 and frizzled homolog 5 by miR-29a. Overexpression of miRNAs in CD133(+) cells demonstrated that miR-142-3p has a negative influence on the overall colony-forming ability. In conclusion, the miRNAs expressed differentially between the CD133(+) and CD34(+) CD133(-) cells are involved in inhibition of differentiation, prevention of apoptosis, and cytoskeletal remodeling. These results are highly relevant for stem cell-based therapies with CD133(+) cells and delineate for the first time how the stem cell character of CD133(+) cells is defined by the expression of specific miRNAs.
Deep Sequencing of Small RNAs Specifically Associated with Arabidopsis AGO1 and AGO4 Uncovers New AGO Functions
The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21457371
As important components of small RNA (smRNA) pathways, Argonaute (AGO) proteins mediate the interaction of incorporated smRNAs with their targets. Arabidopsis contains 10 AGO proteins with specialized or redundant functions. Among them, AGO1 mainly acts in microRNA (miRNA) and small-interfering RNA (siRNA) pathways for post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), whereas AGO4 regulates transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) via endogenous 24-nucleotide (nt) smRNAs. To fully characterize smRNAs associated with AGO1 and AGO4, we developed a two-step protocol to purify AGO/smRNA complexes from flowers, leaves, roots and seedlings with enhanced purity, and sequenced the smRNAs by Illumina technology. Besides recovering most previously annotated smRNAs, we also identified some additional miRNAs, phased smRNA clusters and small-interfering RNAs derived from the overlapping region of natural antisense transcript pairs (NAT) (nat-siRNAs). We also identified a smRNA distribution feature on miRNA precursors which may help to identify authentic miRNAs. Organ-specific sequencing provided digital expression profiles of all obtained smRNAs, especially miRNAs. The presence and conservation of collateral miRNAs on known miRNA precursors were also investigated. Intriguingly, about 30% of AGO1-associated smRNAs were 24-nt long and unrelated to the 21-nt species. Further analysis showed that DNA-dependent RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV)-dependent smRNAs were mainly 24 nt and associated with AGO4, whereas the majority of the potential Pol V-dependent ones were 21-nt smRNAs and bound to AGO1, suggesting the potential involvement of AGO1 in Pol V-related pathways.
Cancer Research. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21586611
MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate many genes critical for tumorigenesis. We profiled miRNAs from 11 normal breast tissues, 17 noninvasive, 151 invasive breast carcinomas, and 6 cell lines by in-house-developed barcoded Solexa sequencing. miRNAs were organized in genomic clusters representing promoter-controlled miRNA expression and sequence families representing seed sequence-dependent miRNA target regulation. Unsupervised clustering of samples by miRNA sequence families best reflected the clustering based on mRNA expression available for this sample set. Clustering and comparative analysis of miRNA read frequencies showed that normal breast samples were separated from most noninvasive ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinomas by increased miR-21 (the most abundant miRNA in carcinomas) and multiple decreased miRNA families (including miR-98/let-7), with most miRNA changes apparent already in the noninvasive carcinomas. In addition, patients that went on to develop metastasis showed increased expression of mir-423, and triple-negative breast carcinomas were most distinct from other tumor subtypes due to upregulation of the mir~17-92 cluster. However, absolute miRNA levels between normal breast and carcinomas did not reveal any significant differences. We also discovered two polymorphic nucleotide variations among the more abundant miRNAs miR-181a (T19G) and miR-185 (T16G), but we did not identify nucleotide variations expected for classical tumor suppressor function associated with miRNAs. The differentiation of tumor subtypes and prediction of metastasis based on miRNA levels is statistically possible but is not driven by deregulation of abundant miRNAs, implicating far fewer miRNAs in tumorigenic processes than previously suggested.
Small RNA Sequencing and Functional Characterization Reveals MicroRNA-143 Tumor Suppressor Activity in Liposarcoma
Cancer Research. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21693658
Liposarcoma remains the most common mesenchymal cancer, with a mortality rate of 60% among patients with this disease. To address the present lack of therapeutic options, we embarked upon a study of microRNA (miRNA) expression alterations associated with liposarcomagenesis with the goal of exploiting differentially expressed miRNAs and the gene products they regulate as potential therapeutic targets. MicroRNA expression was profiled in samples of normal adipose tissue, well-differentiated liposarcoma, and dedifferentiated liposarcoma by both deep sequencing of small RNA libraries and hybridization-based Agilent microarrays. The expression profiles discriminated liposarcoma from normal adipose tissue and well differentiated from dedifferentiated disease. We defined over 40 miRNAs that were dysregulated in dedifferentiated liposarcomas in both the sequencing and the microarray analysis. The upregulated miRNAs included two cancer-associated species (miR-21 and miR-26a), and the downregulated miRNAs included two species that were highly abundant in adipose tissue (miR-143 and miR-145). Restoring miR-143 expression in dedifferentiated liposarcoma cells inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and decreased expression of BCL2, topoisomerase 2A, protein regulator of cytokinesis 1 (PRC1), and polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1). The downregulation of PRC1 and its docking partner PLK1 suggests that miR-143 inhibits cytokinesis in these cells. In support of this idea, treatment with a PLK1 inhibitor potently induced G(2)-M growth arrest and apoptosis in liposarcoma cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-143 re-expression vectors or selective agents directed at miR-143 or its targets may have therapeutic value in dedifferentiated liposarcoma.
Integrative Regulatory Mapping Indicates That the RNA-binding Protein HuR Couples Pre-mRNA Processing and MRNA Stability
Molecular Cell. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21723170
RNA-binding proteins coordinate the fates of multiple RNAs, but the principles underlying these global interactions remain poorly understood. We elucidated regulatory mechanisms of the RNA-binding protein HuR, by integrating data from diverse high-throughput targeting technologies, specifically PAR-CLIP, RIP-chip, and whole-transcript expression profiling. The number of binding sites per transcript, degree of HuR association, and degree of HuR-dependent RNA stabilization were positively correlated. Pre-mRNA and mature mRNA containing both intronic and 3' UTR binding sites were more highly stabilized than transcripts with only 3' UTR or only intronic binding sites, suggesting that HuR couples pre-mRNA processing with mature mRNA stability. We also observed HuR-dependent splicing changes and substantial binding of HuR in polypyrimidine tracts of pre-mRNAs. Comparison of the spatial patterns surrounding HuR and miRNA binding sites provided functional evidence for HuR-dependent antagonism of proximal miRNA-mediated repression. We conclude that HuR coordinates gene expression outcomes at multiple interconnected steps of RNA processing.
RNA (New York, N.Y.). Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21775473
Sequencing of small RNA cDNA libraries is an important tool for the discovery of new RNAs and the analysis of their mutational status as well as expression changes across samples. It requires multiple enzyme-catalyzed steps, including sequential oligonucleotide adapter ligations to the 3' and 5' ends of the small RNAs, reverse transcription (RT), and PCR. We assessed biases in representation of miRNAs relative to their input concentration, using a pool of 770 synthetic miRNAs and 45 calibrator oligoribonucleotides, and tested the influence of Rnl1 and two variants of Rnl2, Rnl2(1-249) and Rnl2(1-249)K227Q, for 3'-adapter ligation. The use of the Rnl2 variants for adapter ligations yielded substantially fewer side products compared with Rnl1; however, the benefits of using Rnl2 remained largely obscured by additional biases in the 5'-adapter ligation step; RT and PCR steps did not have a significant impact on read frequencies. Intramolecular secondary structures of miRNA and/or miRNA/3'-adapter products contributed to these biases, which were highly reproducible under defined experimental conditions. We used the synthetic miRNA cocktail to derive correction factors for approximation of the absolute levels of individual miRNAs in biological samples. Finally, we evaluated the influence of 5'-terminal 5-nt barcode extensions for a set of 20 barcoded 3' adapters and observed similar biases in miRNA read distribution, thereby enabling cost-saving multiplex analysis for large-scale miRNA profiling.
Genome-wide Identification of MicroRNA Targets in Human ES Cells Reveals a Role for MiR-302 in Modulating BMP Response
Genes & Development. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22012620
MicroRNAs are important regulators in many cellular processes, including stem cell self-renewal. Recent studies demonstrated their function as pluripotency factors with the capacity for somatic cell reprogramming. However, their role in human embryonic stem (ES) cells (hESCs) remains poorly understood, partially due to the lack of genome-wide strategies to identify their targets. Here, we performed comprehensive microRNA profiling in hESCs and in purified neural and mesenchymal derivatives. Using a combination of AGO cross-linking and microRNA perturbation experiments, together with computational prediction, we identified the targets of the miR-302/367 cluster, the most abundant microRNAs in hESCs. Functional studies identified novel roles of miR-302/367 in maintaining pluripotency and regulating hESC differentiation. We show that in addition to its role in TGF-β signaling, miR-302/367 promotes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling by targeting BMP inhibitors TOB2, DAZAP2, and SLAIN1. This study broadens our understanding of microRNA function in hESCs and is a valuable resource for future studies in this area.
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22056803
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22081015
FUS, EWSR1 and TAF15, constituting the FET protein family, are abundant, highly conserved RNA-binding proteins with important roles in oncogenesis and neuronal disease, yet their RNA targets and recognition elements are unknown. Using PAR-CLIP, we defined global RNA targets for all human FET proteins and two ALS-causing human FUS mutants. FET members showed similar binding profiles, whereas FUS mutants showed a drastically altered binding pattern, consistent with changes in subcellular localization.
Cell Host & Microbe. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22100165
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and frequently also harbors Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The expression of KSHV- and EBV-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) in PELs suggests a role for these miRNAs in latency and lymphomagenesis. Using PAR-CLIP, a technology which allows the direct and transcriptome-wide identification of miRNA targets, we delineate the target sites for all viral and cellular miRNAs expressed in PEL cell lines. The resulting data set revealed that KSHV miRNAs directly target more than 2000 cellular mRNAs, including many involved in pathways relevant to KSHV pathogenesis. Moreover, 58% of these mRNAs are also targeted by EBV miRNAs, via distinct binding sites. In addition to a known viral analog of cellular miR-155, we show that KSHV encodes a viral miRNA that mimics cellular miR-142-3p function. In summary, this study identifies an extensive list of KSHV miRNA targets, which are likely to influence viral replication and pathogenesis.
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22213601
All mRNA molecules are subject to some degree of post-transcriptional gene regulation (PTGR) involving sequence-dependent modulation of splicing, cleavage and polyadenylation, editing, transport, stability, and translation. The recent introduction of deep-sequencing technologies enabled the development of new methods for broadly mapping interaction sites between RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and their RNA target sites. In this article, we review crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) methods adapted for large-scale identification of target RNA-binding sites and the respective RNA recognition elements. CLIP methods have the potential to detect hundreds of thousands of binding sites in single experiments although the separation of signal from noise can be challenging. As a consequence, each CLIP method has developed different strategies to distinguish true targets from background. We focus on photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced CLIP, which relies on the intracellular incorporation of photoactivatable ribonucleoside analogs into nascent transcripts, and yields characteristic sequence changes upon crosslinking that facilitate the separation of signal from noise. The precise knowledge of the position and distribution of binding sites across mature and primary mRNA transcripts allows critical insights into cellular localization and regulatory function of the examined RBP. When coupled with other systems-wide approaches measuring transcript and protein abundance, the generation of high-resolution RBP-binding site maps across the transcriptome will broaden our understanding of PTGR and thereby lead to new strategies for therapeutic treatment of genetic diseases perturbing these processes. WIREs RNA 2011. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1103 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
PLoS Pathogens. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22291592
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus linked to a number of B cell cancers and lymphoproliferative disorders. During latent infection, EBV expresses 25 viral pre-microRNAs (miRNAs) and induces the expression of specific host miRNAs, such as miR-155 and miR-21, which potentially play a role in viral oncogenesis. To date, only a limited number of EBV miRNA targets have been identified; thus, the role of EBV miRNAs in viral pathogenesis and/or lymphomagenesis is not well defined. Here, we used photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) combined with deep sequencing and computational analysis to comprehensively examine the viral and cellular miRNA targetome in EBV strain B95-8-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). We identified 7,827 miRNA-interaction sites in 3,492 cellular 3'UTRs. 531 of these sites contained seed matches to viral miRNAs. 24 PAR-CLIP-identified miRNA:3'UTR interactions were confirmed by reporter assays. Our results reveal that EBV miRNAs predominantly target cellular transcripts during latent infection, thereby manipulating the host environment. Furthermore, targets of EBV miRNAs are involved in multiple cellular processes that are directly relevant to viral infection, including innate immunity, cell survival, and cell proliferation. Finally, we present evidence that myc-regulated host miRNAs from the miR-17/92 cluster can regulate latent viral gene expression. This comprehensive survey of the miRNA targetome in EBV-infected B cells represents a key step towards defining the functions of EBV-encoded miRNAs, and potentially, identifying novel therapeutic targets for EBV-associated malignancies.