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In JoVE (1)
- MAME Models for 4D Live-cell Imaging of Tumor: Microenvironment Interactions that Impact Malignant Progression
Other Publications (5)
Articles by Mary B. Olive in JoVE
MAME Models for 4D Live-cell Imaging of Tumor: Microenvironment Interactions that Impact Malignant Progression
Mansoureh Sameni1, Arulselvi Anbalagan1, Mary B. Olive1, Kamiar Moin1,2, Raymond R. Mattingly1,2, Bonnie F. Sloane1,2
1Department of Pharmacology, Wayne State University, 2Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University
We have developed 3D coculture models for live-cell imaging in real-time of interactions among breast tumor cells and other cells in their microenvironment that impact progression to an invasive phenotype. These models can serve as preclinical screens for drugs to target paracrine-induced proteolytic, chemokine/cytokine and kinase pathways implicated in invasiveness.
Other articles by Mary B. Olive on PubMed
Current Protocols in Cell Biology / Editorial Board, Juan S. Bonifacino ... [et Al.]. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18551423
Proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components by cells is an important metabolic activity as cells grow, remodel, and migrate through the ECM. The ability to analyze ECM degradation can be valuable in the study of developmental processes as well as pathologies, such as cancer. In this unit we describe an in vitro live cell-based method to image and quantitatively measure the degradation of ECM components by live cells. Cells are grown in the presence of fluorescent dye-quenched protein substrates (DQ-gelatin, DQ-collagen I, and DQ-collagen IV) that are mixed with protein matrices. Upon proteolytic cleavage, fluorescence is released that directly reflects the level of proteolysis by the cells. Using confocal microscopy and advanced imaging software, the fluorescence is detected and accurate measurements of proteolytic degradation in three and four dimensions can be assessed.
Clinical & Experimental Metastasis. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19082919
The roles of proteases in cancer are dynamic. Furthermore, the roles or functions of any one protease may differ from one stage of cancer to another. Proteases from tumor-associated cells (e.g., fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, endothelial cells) as well as from tumor cells make important contributions to 'tumor proteolysis'. Many tumors exhibit increases in expression of proteases at the level of transcripts and protein; however, whether those proteases play causal roles in malignant progression is known for only a handful of proteases. What the critical substrate or substrates that are cleaved in vivo by any given protease is also known for only a few proteases. Therefore, the recent development of techniques and reagents for live cell imaging of protease activity, in conjunction with informed knowledge of critical natural substrates, should help to define protease functions. Here we describe live cell assays for imaging proteolysis, protocols for quantifying proteolysis and the use of such assays to follow the dynamics of proteolysis by tumor cells alone and tumor cells interacting with other cells found in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, we describe an in vitro model that recapitulates the architecture of the mammary gland, a model designed to determine the effects of dynamic interactions with the surrounding microenvironment on 'tumor proteolysis' and the respective contributions of various cell types to 'tumor proteolysis'. The assays and models described here could serve as screening platforms for the identification of proteolytic pathways that are potential therapeutic targets and for further development of technologies and imaging probes for in vivo use.
The American Journal of Pathology. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19700761
Bone metastasis is a hallmark of advanced prostate and breast cancers, yet the critical factors behind attraction of tumors to the skeleton have not been validated. Here, we investigated the involvement of cathepsin K in the progression of prostate tumors in the bone, which occurs both by direct degradation of bone matrix collagen I and by cleavage of other factors in the bone microenvironment. Our results demonstrated that bone marrow-derived cathepsin K is capable of processing and thereby modulating SPARC, a protein implicated in bone metastasis and inflammation. The coincident up-regulation of SPARC and cathepsin K occurred both in vivo in experimental prostate bone tumors, and in vitro in co-cultures of bone marrow stromal cells with PC3 prostate carcinoma cells. PC3-bone marrow stromal cell interaction increased secretion and processing of SPARC, as did co-cultures of bone marrow stromal cells with two other cancer cell lines. In addition, bone marrow stromal cells that were either deficient in cathepsin K or treated with cathepsin K inhibitors had significantly reduced secretion and cleavage of SPARC. Increases in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (ie, interleukin-6, -8) coincident with overexpression of cathepsin K suggest possible mechanisms by which this enzyme contributes to tumor progression in the bone. This is the first study implicating bone marrow cathepsin K in regulation of biological activity of SPARC in bone metastasis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20080563
A chiral porphyrazine (pz), H(2)[pz(trans-A(2)B(2))] (247), has been prepared that exhibits preferential in vivo accumulation in the cells of tumors. Pz 247 exhibits near-infrared (NIR) emission with lambda > 700 nm in the required wavelength range for maximum tissue penetration. When MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells are treated with 247, the agent shows strong intracellular fluorescence with an emission maximum, 704 nm, which indicates that it localizes within a hydrophobic microenvironment. Pz 247 is shown to associate with the lipophilic core of LDL and undergo cellular entry primarily through receptor-mediated endocytosis accumulating in lysosomes. Preliminary in vivo studies show that 247 exhibits preferential accumulation and retention in the cells of MDA-MB-231 tumors subcutaneously implanted in mice, thereby enabling NIR optical imaging with excellent contrast between tumor and surrounding tissue. The intensity of fluorescence from 247 within the tumor increases over time up to 48 h after injection presumably due to the sequestration of circulating 247/LDL complex by the tumor tissue. As the need for cholesterol, and thus LDL, is elevated in highly proliferative tumor cells over nontumorigenic cells, 247 has potential application for all such tumors.
Cancer Research. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22266111
Metastasis to bone is a major cause of morbidity in breast cancer patients, emphasizing the importance of identifying molecular drivers of bone metastasis for new therapeutic targets. The endogenous cysteine cathepsin inhibitor stefin A is a suppressor of breast cancer metastasis to bone that is co-expressed with cathepsin B in bone metastases. In this study, we used the immunocompetent 4T1.2 model of breast cancer which exhibits spontaneous bone metastasis to evaluate the function and therapeutic targeting potential of cathepsin B in this setting of advanced disease. Cathepsin B abundancy in the model mimicked human disease, both at the level of primary tumors and matched spinal metastases. RNAi-mediated knockdown of cathepsin B in tumor cells reduced collagen I degradation in vitro and bone metastasis in vivo. Similarly, intraperitoneal administration of the highly selective cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 reduced metastasis in tumor-bearing animals, a reduction that was not reproduced by the broad spectrum cysteine cathepsin inhibitor JPM-OEt. Notably, metastasis suppression by CA-074 was maintained in a late treatment setting, pointing to a role in metastatic outgrowth. Together, our findings established a pro-metastatic role for cathepsin B in distant metastasis and illustrated the therapeutic benefits of its selective inhibition in vivo.