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In JoVE (1)
- Three-dimensional Cell Culture Model for Measuring the Effects of Interstitial Fluid Flow on Tumor Cell Invasion
Other Publications (12)
- Trends in Cell Biology
- Mutation Research
- Molecular Psychiatry
- Nature Genetics
- Optics Express
- The Open Neuroimaging Journal
- PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
- PloS One
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- PloS One
- Journal of Proteome Research
Articles by Melissa T. Duong in JoVE
Three-dimensional Cell Culture Model for Measuring the Effects of Interstitial Fluid Flow on Tumor Cell Invasion
Alimatou M. Tchafa, Arpit D. Shah, Shafei Wang, Melissa T. Duong, Adrian C. Shieh
School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University
Interstitial fluid flow is elevated in solid tumors and can modulate tumor cell invasion. Here we describe a technique to apply interstitial fluid flow to cells embedded in a matrix and then measure its effects on cell invasion. This technique can be easily adapted to study other systems.
Other articles by Melissa T. Duong on PubMed
Trends in Cell Biology. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21632250
Like the conductor of an orchestra, the Sec protein translocation channel is the platform needed to bring together the many different players required for the constitutive and obligatory process of protein transport. This conserved membrane channel, termed SecY in bacteria and Sec61 in eukaryotes, creates a ubiquitous protein-conducting pathway by which thousands of newly synthesized polypeptides make their way through the lipid bilayer. The channel is not a simple passive pore, however; it displays remarkable complexity by interacting with numerous soluble partners, including SecA, Syd, FtsY and the ribosome in bacteria. For several decades, scientists have been fascinated by the sophistication and versatility of this transport channel. In this review, we cover the current state of the field including some of the newest and most exciting findings on channel structure and mechanism of action.
Mutation Research. Nov-Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21787879
Formaldehyde, the recently classified carcinogen and ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has long been suspected of causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects, but previous reviews were inconclusive, due in part, to limitations in the design of many of the human population studies. In the current review, we systematically evaluated evidence of an association between formaldehyde exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental effects, in human populations and in vivo animal studies, in the peer-reviewed literature. The mostly retrospective human studies provided evidence of an association of maternal exposure with adverse reproductive and developmental effects. Further assessment of this association by meta-analysis revealed an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (1.76, 95% CI 1.20-2.59, p=0.002) and of all adverse pregnancy outcomes combined (1.54, 95% CI 1.27-1.88, p<0.001), in formaldehyde-exposed women, although differential recall, selection bias, or confounding cannot be ruled out. Evaluation of the animal studies including all routes of exposure, doses and dosing regimens studied, suggested positive associations between formaldehyde exposure and reproductive toxicity, mostly in males. Potential mechanisms underlying formaldehyde-induced reproductive and developmental toxicities, including chromosome and DNA damage (genotoxicity), oxidative stress, altered level and/or function of enzymes, hormones and proteins, apoptosis, toxicogenomic and epigenomic effects (such as DNA methylation), were identified. To clarify these associations, well-designed molecular epidemiologic studies, that include quantitative exposure assessment and diminish confounding factors, should examine both reproductive and developmental outcomes associated with exposure in males and females. Together with mechanistic and animal studies, this will allow us to better understand the systemic effect of formaldehyde exposure.
Association Between Genetic Variation in a Region on Chromosome 11 and Schizophrenia in Large Samples from Europe
Molecular Psychiatry. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21747397
Recent molecular studies have implicated common alleles of small to moderate effect and rare alleles with larger effect sizes in the genetic architecture of schizophrenia (SCZ). It is expected that the reliable detection of risk variants with very small effect sizes can only be achieved through the recruitment of very large samples of patients and controls (that is tens of thousands), or large, potentially more homogeneous samples that have been recruited from confined geographical areas using identical diagnostic criteria. Applying the latter strategy, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1169 clinically well characterized and ethnically homogeneous SCZ patients from a confined area of Western Europe (464 from Germany, 705 from The Netherlands) and 3714 ethnically matched controls (1272 and 2442, respectively). In a subsequent follow-up study of our top GWAS results, we included an additional 2569 SCZ patients and 4088 controls (from Germany, The Netherlands and Denmark). Genetic variation in a region on chromosome 11 that contains the candidate genes AMBRA1, DGKZ, CHRM4 and MDK was significantly associated with SCZ in the combined sample (n=11 540; P=3.89 × 10(-9), odds ratio (OR)=1.25). This finding was replicated in 23 206 independent samples of European ancestry (P=0.0029, OR=1.11). In a subsequent imaging genetics study, healthy carriers of the risk allele exhibited altered activation in the cingulate cortex during a cognitive control task. The area of interest is a critical interface between emotion regulation and cognition that is structurally and functionally abnormal in SCZ and bipolar disorder.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 12 July 2011; doi:10.1038/mp.2011.80.
Nature Genetics. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21926974
We examined the role of common genetic variation in schizophrenia in a genome-wide association study of substantial size: a stage 1 discovery sample of 21,856 individuals of European ancestry and a stage 2 replication sample of 29,839 independent subjects. The combined stage 1 and 2 analysis yielded genome-wide significant associations with schizophrenia for seven loci, five of which are new (1p21.3, 2q32.3, 8p23.2, 8q21.3 and 10q24.32-q24.33) and two of which have been previously implicated (6p21.32-p22.1 and 18q21.2). The strongest new finding (P = 1.6 × 10(-11)) was with rs1625579 within an intron of a putative primary transcript for MIR137 (microRNA 137), a known regulator of neuronal development. Four other schizophrenia loci achieving genome-wide significance contain predicted targets of MIR137, suggesting MIR137-mediated dysregulation as a previously unknown etiologic mechanism in schizophrenia. In a joint analysis with a bipolar disorder sample (16,374 affected individuals and 14,044 controls), three loci reached genome-wide significance: CACNA1C (rs4765905, P = 7.0 × 10(-9)), ANK3 (rs10994359, P = 2.5 × 10(-8)) and the ITIH3-ITIH4 region (rs2239547, P = 7.8 × 10(-9)).
Optics Express. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22109408
Microvasculature hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2) is important in the progression of various pathologies. Non-invasive depth-resolved measurement of SaO2 levels in tissue microvasculature has the potential to provide early biomarkers and a better understanding of the pathophysiological processes allowing improved diagnostics and prediction of disease progression. We report proof-of-concept in vivo depth-resolved measurement of SaO(2) levels in selected 30 µm diameter arterioles in the murine brain using Dual-Wavelength Photothermal (DWP) Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) with 800 nm and 770 nm photothermal excitation wavelengths. Depth location of back-reflected light from a target arteriole was confirmed using Doppler and speckle contrast OCT images. SaO(2) measured in a murine arteriole with DWP-OCT is linearly correlated (R(2)=0.98) with systemic SaO(2) values recorded by a pulse-oximeter. DWP-OCT are steadily lower (10.1%) than systemic SaO(2) values except during pure oxygen breathing. DWP-OCT is insensitive to OCT intensity variations and is a candidate approach for in vivo depth-resolved quantitative imaging of microvascular SaO(2) levels.
Measurements and Modeling of Transient Blood Flow Perturbations Induced by Brief Somatosensory Stimulation
The Open Neuroimaging Journal. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22262991
Proper interpretation of BOLD fMRI and other common functional imaging methods requires an understanding of neurovascular coupling. We used laser speckle-contrast optical imaging to measure blood-flow responses in rat somatosensory cortex elicited by brief (2 s) forepaw stimulation. Results show a large increase in local blood flow speed followed by an undershoot and possible late-time oscillations. The blood flow measurements were modeled using the impulse response of a simple linear network, a four-element windkessel. This model yielded excellent fits to the detailed time courses of activated regions. The four-element windkessel model thus provides a simple explanation and interpretation of the transient blood-flow response, both its initial peak and its late-time behavior.
Clinical and Virological Study of Dengue Cases and the Members of Their Households: the Multinational DENFRAME Project
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22292098
Dengue has emerged as the most important vector-borne viral disease in tropical areas. Evaluations of the burden and severity of dengue disease have been hindered by the frequent lack of laboratory confirmation and strong selection bias toward more severe cases.
Coaggregation of RNA-binding Proteins in a Model of TDP-43 Proteinopathy with Selective RGG Motif Methylation and a Role for RRM1 Ubiquitination
PloS One. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22761693
TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a major component within ubiquitin-positive inclusions of a number of neurodegenerative diseases that increasingly are considered as TDP-43 proteinopathies. Identities of other inclusion proteins associated with TDP-43 aggregation remain poorly defined. In this study, we identify and quantitate 35 co-aggregating proteins in the detergent-resistant fraction of HEK-293 cells in which TDP-43 or a particularly aggregate prone variant, TDP-S6, were enriched following overexpression, using stable isotope-labeled (SILAC) internal standards and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We also searched for differential post-translational modification (PTM) sites of ubiquitination. Four sites of ubiquitin conjugation to TDP-43 or TDP-S6 were confirmed by dialkylated GST-TDP-43 external reference peptides, occurring on or near RNA binding motif (RRM) 1. RRM-containing proteins co-enriched in cytoplasmic granular structures in HEK-293 cells and primary motor neurons with insoluble TDP-S6, including cytoplasmic stress granule associated proteins G3BP, PABPC1, and eIF4A1. Proteomic evidence for TDP-43 co-aggregation with paraspeckle markers RBM14, PSF and NonO was also validated by western blot and by immunocytochemistry in HEK-293 cells. An increase in peptides from methylated arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG) RNA-binding motifs of FUS/TLS and hnRNPs was found in the detergent-insoluble fraction of TDP-overexpressing cells. Finally, TDP-43 and TDP-S6 detergent-insoluble species were reduced by mutagenesis of the identified ubiquitination sites, even following oxidative or proteolytic stress. Together, these findings define some of the aggregation partners of TDP-43, and suggest that TDP-43 ubiquitination influences TDP-43 oligomerization.
Two Copies of the SecY Channel and Acidic Lipids Are Necessary to Activate the SecA Translocation ATPase
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22378651
The SecA ATPase associates with the SecY complex to push preproteins across the bacterial membrane. Because a single SecY is sufficient to create the conducting channel, the function of SecY oligomerization remains unclear. Here, we have analyzed the translocation reaction using nanodiscs. We show that one SecY copy is sufficient to bind SecA and the preprotein, but only the SecY dimer together with acidic lipids supports the activation of the SecA translocation ATPase. In discs, the dimer is predominantly arranged in a back-to-back manner and remains active even if a constituent SecY copy is defective for SecA binding. In membrane vesicles and in intact cells, the coproduction of two inactive SecYs, one for channel gating and the other for SecA binding, recreates a functional translocation unit. These results indisputably argue that the SecY dimer is crucial for the activation of SecA, which is necessary for preprotein transport.
Structure-activity Analysis of Niclosamide Reveals Potential Role for Cytoplasmic PH in Control of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Signaling
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. May, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22474287
Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is frequently dysregulated in cancer. Inhibition of mTORC1 is thus regarded as a promising strategy in the treatment of tumors with elevated mTORC1 activity. We have recently identified niclosamide (a Food and Drug Administration-approved antihelminthic drug) as an inhibitor of mTORC1 signaling. In the present study, we explored possible mechanisms by which niclosamide may inhibit mTORC1 signaling. We tested whether niclosamide interferes with signaling cascades upstream of mTORC1, the catalytic activity of mTOR, or mTORC1 assembly. We found that niclosamide does not impair PI3K/Akt signaling, nor does it inhibit mTORC1 kinase activity. We also found that niclosamide does not interfere with mTORC1 assembly. Previous studies in helminths suggest that niclosamide disrupts pH homeostasis of the parasite. This prompted us to investigate whether niclosamide affects the pH balance of cancer cells. Experiments in both breast cancer cells and cell-free systems demonstrated that niclosamide possesses protonophoric activity in cells and in vitro. In cells, niclosamide dissipated protons (down their concentration gradient) from lysosomes to the cytosol, effectively lowering cytoplasmic pH. Notably, analysis of five niclosamide analogs revealed that the structural features of niclosamide required for protonophoric activity are also essential for mTORC1 inhibition. Furthermore, lowering cytoplasmic pH by means other than niclosamide treatment (e.g. incubation with propionic acid or bicarbonate withdrawal) recapitulated the inhibitory effects of niclosamide on mTORC1 signaling, lending support to a possible role for cytoplasmic pH in the control of mTORC1. Our data illustrate a potential mechanism for chemical inhibition of mTORC1 signaling involving modulation of cytoplasmic pH.
PloS One. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22529943
The maltose transporter MalFGK(2), together with the substrate-binding protein MalE, is one of the best-characterized ABC transporters. In the conventional model, MalE captures maltose in the periplasm and delivers the sugar to the transporter. Here, using nanodiscs and proteoliposomes, we instead find that MalE is bound with high-affinity to MalFGK2 to facilitate the acquisition of the sugar. When the maltose concentration exceeds the transport capacity, MalE captures maltose and dissociates from the transporter. This mechanism explains why the transport rate is high when MalE has low affinity for maltose, and low when MalE has high affinity for maltose. Transporter-bound MalE facilitates the acquisition of the sugar at low concentrations, but also captures and dissociates from the transporter past a threshold maltose concentration. In vivo, this maltose-forced dissociation limits the rate of transport. Given the conservation of the substrate-binding proteins, this mode of allosteric regulation may be universal to ABC importers.
Journal of Proteome Research. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22129326
Integral membrane proteins are challenging to work with biochemically given their insoluble nature; the nanodisc circumvents the difficulty by stabilizing them in small patches of lipid bilayer. Here, we show that nanodiscs combined with SILAC-based quantitative proteomics can be used to identify the soluble interacting partners of virtually any membrane protein. As a proof of principle, we applied the method to the bacterial SecYEG protein-conducting channel, the maltose transporter MalFGK(2) and the membrane integrase YidC. In contrast to the detergent micelles, which tend to destabilize interactions, the nanodisc was able to capture out of a complex whole cell extract the proteins SecA, Syd, and MalE with a high degree of confidence and specificity. The method was sensitive enough to isolate these interactors as a function of the lipid composition in the disc and the culture conditions. In agreement with a previous photo-cross linking analysis, YidC did not show any high-affinity interactions with cytosolic or periplasmic proteins. These three examples illustrate the utility of nanoscale lipid bilayers to identify the soluble peripheral partners of proteins intergrated in the lipid bilayer.