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In JoVE (2)
- חלבון לוקליזציה ב 3D תרבות גזע עצביים נייד: מתודולוגיה ויזואליזציה היברידי
- ביצוע שטיפת נרתיק, כתמים ויולטו קריסטל, והערכת ציטולוגית נרתיק לאחסון זמני מחזור הייחום חולל זיהוי עכבר
Other Publications (31)
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Methods in Molecular Medicine
- Methods in Molecular Medicine
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Journal of Neuroscience Research
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
- Phytochemical Analysis : PCA
- Apoptosis : an International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Analytical Chemistry
- Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
- Journal of Lipid Research
- Briefings in Functional Genomics & Proteomics
- BMC Neuroscience
- Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM
- Phytotherapy Research : PTR
- Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
- BMC Biology
- Cell Communication & Adhesion
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Phytotherapy Research : PTR
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Mass Spectrometry Reviews
- Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM
- PLoS Genetics
- Planta Medica
- Cell Adhesion & Migration
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Articles by Steffany A.L. Bennett in JoVE
חלבון לוקליזציה ב 3D תרבות גזע עצביים נייד: מתודולוגיה ויזואליזציה היברידי
Sophie Imbeault*1, Nicolas Valenzuela*2, Stephen Fai2, Steffany A.L. Bennett1
1Neural Regeneration Laboratory and Ottawa Institute of Systems Biology, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 2Carleton Immersive Media Studio, Azrieli School of Architecture and Urbanism, Carleton University
כאן אנו מתארים כיצד לייצר, להתרחב, immunolabel תאים בהיפוקמפוס לאחר הלידה אבי עצביים (NPCs) בתרבות (3D) תלת ממדי. בשלב הבא, תוך שימוש בטכנולוגיות הדמיה היברידית, אנו מדגימים כיצד תמונות דיגיטליות של cryosections immunolabelled יכול לשמש כדי לשחזר ולמפות את המיקום המרחבי של תאים immunopositive ברחבי neurosphere 3D כולו.
ביצוע שטיפת נרתיק, כתמים ויולטו קריסטל, והערכת ציטולוגית נרתיק לאחסון זמני מחזור הייחום חולל זיהוי עכבר
Ashleigh C. McLean1,2,3, Nicolas Valenzuela3,4, Stephen Fai3,4, Steffany A.L. Bennett1,3
1Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Neural Regeneration Laboratory and Ottawa Institute of Systems Biology, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, 3CIHR Program in Neurodegenerative Lipidomics, University of Ottawa, 4Carleton Immersive Media Studio, Azrieli School of Architecture and Urbanism
כאן, אנו מתארים כיצד לזהות את השלב של הרבייה העכברית (proestrus, ייחום, metestrus, או diestrus) על ידי אוסף פשוט, לא פולשנית והערכת ציטולוגיה של דגימות למרוח בנרתיק. בנוסף, אנו מתארים כיצד ציטולוגית נרתיק משקפת רמות הורמונים במחזור שעשו את המעבר דרך מחזור הרבייה העכברי.
Other articles by Steffany A.L. Bennett on PubMed
Platelet Activating Factor-induced Apoptosis is Inhibited by Ectopic Expression of the Platelet Activating Factor G-protein Coupled Receptor
Journal of Neurochemistry. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12354298
The pro-inflammatory lipid mediator platelet activating factor (PAF: 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) accumulates in ischemia, epilepsy, and human immunodeficiency virus-1-associated dementia and is implicated in neuronal loss. The present study was undertaken to establish a role for its G-protein coupled receptor in regulating neurotoxicity. PC12 cells do not express PAF receptor mRNA as demonstrated by northern analysis and RT-PCR. In the absence of the G-protein coupled receptor, PAF (0.1-1 micro m) triggered chromatin condensation, DNA strand breaks, oligonucleosomal fragmentation, and nuclear disintegration characteristic of apoptosis. Lyso-PAF (0.001-1 micro m), the immediate metabolite of PAF, did not elicit apoptotic death. Concentrations of PAF or lyso-PAF that exceeded critical micelle concentration had physicochemical effects on plasma membrane resulting in necrosis. Apoptosis but not necrosis was inhibited by the PAF antagonist BN52021 (1-100 micro m) but not CV3988 (0.2-20 micro m). Ectopic PAF receptor expression protected PC12 transfectants from ligand-induced apoptosis. PAF receptor-mediated protection was inhibited by CV3988 (1 micro m). These data provide empirical evidence that: (i) PAF can initiate apoptosis independently of its G-protein coupled receptor; (ii) PAF signaling initiated by its G-protein coupled receptor is cytoprotective to PC12 cells; (iii) the pro- and anti-apoptotic effects of PAF on PC12 cells can be pharmacologically distinguished using two different PAF antagonists.
Methods in Molecular Medicine. 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12506704
Methods in Molecular Medicine. 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12506712
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12629180
Before the establishment of chemical synapses, neural progenitors are often coupled by connexin-mediated gap junctions providing a robust mechanism for cell-cell communication in developing brain. The present study was undertaken to determine whether alterations in junctional coupling also affect neural progenitor proliferation, survival, and differentiation in adult brain. We localized the connexin32 gap junction protein to a subset of NG2+ and platelet-derived growth factor alpha receptor+ early oligodendrocyte progenitors in the dentate gyrus of adult mice. In connexin32-deficient mice, we found an increase in the total number of proliferating nestin+ and NG2+ progenitors in the subgranular zone, hilus, and polymorphonuclear layer of the dentate gyrus in vivo and in the total number of nestin+ progenitors capable of clonogenic expansion in vitro. By bromodeoxyuridine labeling, lineage analysis, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl nick end labeling, we demonstrate that turnover of these cells is constitutively enhanced in the connexin32 knock-out dentate gyrus reflecting a dynamic defect in oligodendrogenesis in this population. Analyses of surviving bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells at 1, 3, 7, and 28 d after injection demonstrate that this transient amplifying population fails to terminally differentiate and is deleted by an apoptotic-like mechanism within 3 d of labeling. These data provide empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that connexin expression influences adult progenitor number and specifically implicate connexin32-mediated signaling in the activation, survival, and differentiation of a subset of early oligodendrocyte progenitors in postnatal brain.
Differential Connexin Expression, Gap Junction Intercellular Coupling, and Hemichannel Formation in NT2/D1 Human Neural Progenitors and Terminally Differentiated HNT Neurons
Journal of Neuroscience Research. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12692906
Connexin-mediated gap junctions and open hemichannels in nonjunctional membranes represent two biologically relevant mechanisms by which neural progenitors can coordinate their response to changes in the extracellular environment. NT2/D1 cells are a teratocarcinoma progenitor line that can be induced to differentiate terminally into functional hNT neurons and NT-G nonneuronal cells. Clinical transplants of hNT neurons and experimental grafts of NT2/D1 progenitors or hNT neurons have been used in cell-replacement therapy in vivo. Previous studies have shown that NT2/D1 cells express connexin 43 (Cx43) and that NT2/D1 progenitors are capable of dye transfer. To determine whether NT2/D1 progenitors and differentiated hNT cultures express other connexins, Cx26, Cx30, Cx32, Cx36, Cx37, Cx43, and Cx46.6 mRNA and protein were analyzed. NT2/D1 progenitors express Cx30, Cx36, Cx37, and Cx43. hNT/NT-G cultures express Cx36, Cx37, and de novo Cx46.6. Cx26 and Cx32 were not expressed in NT2/D1 or hNT/NT-G cells. NT2/D1 progenitors formed functional gap junctions as assessed by dye coupling as well as open hemichannels in nonjunctional membranes as assessed by dye-uptake studies. Dye coupling was inhibited by the gap junction blocker 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid. Hemichannel activity was inhibited by the dual-specificity chloride channel/connexin hemichannel inhibitor flufenamic acid but not by the chloride channel inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid. Both dye coupling and dye uptake were substantially reduced following differentiation of NT2/D1 progenitors. We conclude that the pattern of connexin expression in NT2/D1 cells changes over the course of differentiation corresponding with a reduction in biochemical coupling and hemichannel activity in differentiated cells.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15456758
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is an important mediator of cell loss following diverse pathophysiological challenges, but the manner in which PAF transduces death is not clear. Both PAF receptor-dependent and -independent pathways are implicated. In this study, we show that extracellular PAF can be internalized through PAF receptor-independent mechanisms and can initiate caspase-3-dependent apoptosis when cytosolic concentrations are elevated by approximately 15 pM/cell for 60 min. Reducing cytosolic PAF to less than 10 pM/cell terminates apoptotic signaling. By pharmacological inhibition of PAF acetylhydrolase I and II (PAF-AH) activity and down-regulation of PAF-AH I catalytic subunits by RNA interference, we show that the PAF receptor-independent death pathway is regulated by PAF-AH I and, to a lesser extent, by PAF-AH II. Moreover, the anti-apoptotic actions of PAF-AH I are subunit-specific. PAF-AH I alpha1 regulates intracellular PAF concentrations under normal physiological conditions, but expression is not sufficient to reduce an acute rise in intracellular PAF levels. PAF-AH I alpha2 expression is induced when cells are deprived of serum or exposed to apoptogenic PAF concentrations limiting the duration of pathological cytosolic PAF accumulation. To block PAF receptor-independent death pathway, we screened a panel of PAF antagonists (CV-3988, CV-6209, BN 52021, and FR 49175). BN 52021 and FR 49175 accelerated PAF hydrolysis and inhibited PAF-mediated caspase 3 activation. Both antagonists act indirectly to promote PAF-AH I alpha2 homodimer activity by reducing PAF-AH I alpha1 expression. These findings identify PAF-AH I alpha2 as a potent anti-apoptotic protein and describe a new means of pharmacologically targeting PAF-AH I to inhibit PAF-mediated cell death.
Apoptosis-inducing Factor is a Key Factor in Neuronal Cell Death Propagated by BAX-dependent and BAX-independent Mechanisms
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15703386
Mitochondria release proteins that propagate both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death pathways. AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor) is an important caspase-independent death regulator in multiple neuronal injury pathways. Presently, there is considerable controversy as to whether AIF is neuroprotective or proapoptotic in neuronal injury, such as oxidative stress or excitotoxicity. To evaluate the role of AIF in BAX-dependent (DNA damage induced) and BAX-independent (excitotoxic) neuronal death, we used Harlequin (Hq) mice, which are hypomorphic for AIF. Neurons carrying double mutations for Hq/Apaf1-/- (apoptosis proteases-activating factor) are impaired in both caspase-dependent and AIF-mediated mitochondrial cell death pathways. These mutant cells exhibit extended neuroprotection against DNA damage, as well as glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Specifically, AIF is involved in NMDA- and kainic acid- but not AMPA-induced excitotoxicity. In vivo excitotoxic studies using kainic acid-induced seizure showed that Hq mice had significantly less hippocampal damage than wild-type littermates. Our results demonstrate an important role for AIF in both BAX-dependent and BAX-independent mechanisms of neuronal injury.
Inhibition of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator Pore Function and Protection Against Apoptosis in Vivo by an HIV Protease Inhibitor
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15937550
Inhibitors of HIV protease have been shown to have antiapoptotic effects in vitro, yet whether these effects are seen in vivo remains controversial. In this study, we have evaluated the impact of the HIV protease inhibitor (PI) nelfinavir, boosted with ritonavir, in models of nonviral disease associated with excessive apoptosis. In mice with Fas-induced fatal hepatitis, Staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced shock, and middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced stroke, we demonstrate that PIs significantly reduce apoptosis and improve histology, function, and/or behavioral recovery in each of these models. Further, we demonstrate that both in vitro and in vivo, PIs block apoptosis through the preservation of mitochondrial integrity and that in vitro PIs act to prevent pore function of the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) subunit of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex.
Selected Plant Species from the Cree Pharmacopoeia of Northern Quebec Possess Anti-diabetic Potential
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. Aug-Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17111029
Type II diabetes is a major health problem worldwide. Some populations, such as aboriginal peoples, are particularly at risk for this disease. In the Cree Nation of Quebec, Canada, prevalence in adults is approaching 20%, and the consequences are compounded by low compliance with modern medicine. In 2003, we conducted an ethnobotanical study of Cree medicinal plants used for the treatment of symptoms of diabetes. This served as the basis for a project designed to identify efficacious complementary treatment options more readily accepted by this population. The present study assesses the in vitro anti-diabetic potential of extracts from the 8 most promising plants to emerge from the ethnobotanical study. Cell-based bioassays were employed to screen for (i) potentiation of glucose uptake by skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) and adipocytes (3T3-L1); (ii) potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin production by pancreatic beta cells (INS 832/13); (iii) potentiation of triglyceride accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells; (iv) protection against glucose toxicity and glucose deprivation in pre-sympathetic neurons (PC12-AC). Additionally, anti-oxidant activity was measured biochemically by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reduction assay. All plant extracts potentiated basal or insulin-stimulated glucose uptake to some degree in muscle cells or adipocytes. Adipocyte differentiation was accelerated by 4 extracts. Five extracts conferred protection in PC12 cells. Three extracts displayed free radical scavenging activity similar to known anti-oxidants. None of the plant extracts enhanced GSIS or insulin content in INS 832/13 beta cells. It is concluded that the Cree pharmacopoeia contains several plants with significant anti-diabetic potential.
A Single HPLC-PAD-APCI/MS Method for the Quantitative Comparison of Phenolic Compounds Found in Leaf, Stem, Root and Fruit Extracts of Vaccinium Angustifolium
Phytochemical Analysis : PCA. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17439018
A method was developed for the analysis of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. (Lowbush blueberry), which is a widely used natural health product, particularly for the treatment of diabetic symptoms. While the anthocyanin content of the fruit has been well characterized, the chemistry of the vegetative parts used in supportive therapy for diabetes has been largely ignored. Using a metabolomics-based approach for compound identification with an emphasis on phenolic metabolites, a single HPLC-PAD-APCI/ MS method was developed for the separation and quantitation of the major metabolites found in the 95% ethanol extracts of leaf, stem, root and fruit. The leaf extract contained high concentrations of chlorogenic acid (approximately 100 microg/mg extract) and a variety of quercetin glycosides that were also detected in the fruit and stem extracts. Flavan-3-ol monomers (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were found in all plant parts but their procyanidin dimers were exclusively identified in the stem and root. The accuracy and precision of the presented method were corroborated by low intra- and inter-day variations in quantitative results in all plant part extracts. Further validation of the extraction and analytical protocols focused on identified compounds with reputed anti-diabetic activity, revealing recoveries greater than 80% and detection limits of 0.12-2.73 microg/mL.
Apoptosis : an International Journal on Programmed Cell Death. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17453162
HIV protease inhibitors are an integral part of effective anti-HIV therapy. The drugs block HIV protease, prevent proper packaging of HIV virions, and decrease the HIV viral burden in the peripheral blood of infected individuals. In addition to direct anti-viral effects, the HIV protease inhibitors also modulate apoptosis. A growing body of work demonstrates the anti-apoptotic effects of HIV protease inhibitors on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during HIV infection. The mechanism of this apoptosis inhibition is supported by several proposed hypotheses for how they alter the fate of the cell, including preventing adenine nucleotide translocator pore function, which consequently prevents loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. More recently, the anti-apoptotic effects of the HIV protease inhibitors have been tested in non-HIV, non-immune cell, whereby protease inhibitors prevent apoptosis, and disease in animal models of sepsis, hepatitis, pancreatitis and stroke. Interestingly, when HIV protease inhibitors are used at supra-therapeutic concentrations, they exert pro-apoptotic effects. This has been demonstrated in a number of tumor models. Although it is unclear how HIV protease inhibitors can induce apoptosis at increased concentrations, future research will define the targets of the immunomodulation and reveal the full clinical potential of this intriguing class of drugs.
Platelet Activating Factor-induced Neuronal Apoptosis is Initiated Independently of Its G-protein Coupled PAF Receptor and is Inhibited by the Benzoate Orsellinic Acid
Journal of Neurochemistry. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17877634
The bioactive lipid mediator platelet activating factor (PAF) is recognized as a key effecter of neuronal apoptosis, yet it is not clear whether its G-protein coupled receptor (PAFR) initiates or prevents PAF neurotoxicity. Using PAFR-/- and congenic wild-type mice, we show that PAF triggers caspase-3/7 activity and neuronal death in PAFR-/- but not PAFR+/+ cerebellar granule neurons. Restoring receptor expression by recombinant adenoviral infection protected cells from PAF challenge. Neuronal death was not mediated by nitric oxide or N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor signaling given that N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and MK-801 did not inhibit PAF-induced neuronal loss in PAFR-/- neurons. To intervene in PAFR-independent neurotoxicity, the anti-apoptotic actions of three structurally distinct PAF antagonists were compared to a panel of plant and fungal benzoic acid derivatives. We found that the PAF antagonist BN 52021 but not FR 49175 or CV 3988 inhibited PAFR-independent neurotoxicity. Orsellinic acid, a fungal-derived benzoic acid, blocked PAF-mediated neuronal apoptosis without affecting PAFR-mediated neuroprotection. These findings demonstrate that PAF can transduce apoptotic death in primary neurons independently of its G-protein coupled receptor, that PAFR activation is neuroprotective, and that orsellinic acid effectively attenuates PAFR-independent neuronal apoptosis.
Identification and Quantitation of Changes in the Platelet Activating Factor Family of Glycerophospholipids over the Course of Neuronal Differentiation by High-performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Analytical Chemistry. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17949058
Glycerophospholipids are important structural lipids in membranes with changes associated with progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease. Synthesis of the platelet activating factor (PAF) glycerophospholipid subclass is implicated in the control of neuronal differentiation and death. In this article, we combine nanoflow HPLC and mass spectrometry to screen, identify, and quantitate changes in glycerophospholipid subspecies, specifically PAF family members, over the course of neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, precursor ion scans for fragments characteristic of PAF phosphocholine family members and the standard additions of PAF subspecies were combined to perform absolute quantitation of PAF lipids in undifferentiated and differentiated PC12 cells. Surprisingly, a marked asymmetry was detected in the two predominant PAF species (C16:0, C18:0) over the course of differentiation. These results describe a new technique for the sensitive analysis of lipids combining nanoflow HPLC, ESI-MS, and precursor ion scan. Limits of detection of as little as 2 pg of PAF and LPC were obtained, and analysis of the lipidome of as little as 70,000 cells was performed on this system. Furthermore, application to the PC12 model identified a quantifiable difference between PAF molecular species produced over the course of neuronal differentiation.
Plant Phenolics Regulate Neoplastic Cell Growth and Survival: a Quantitative Structure-activity and Biochemical Analysis
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18066115
The anti-tumour activities of many plant phenolics at high concentrations (>100 micromol/L) suggest their potential use as dietary supplements in cancer chemoprevention and cancer chemotherapy. However, it is not clear what impact phenolic compounds have at the physiological concentrations obtained through consumption of high phenolic diets on neoplastic cells. In the present study, 54 naturally occurring phenolics were evaluated at physiologically relevant concentrations for their capacity to alter PC12 cell viability in response to serum deprivation, the chemotherepeutic agent etoposide, and the apoptogen C2-ceramide. Surprisingly, novel mitogenic, cytoprotective, and antiapoptotic activities were detected. Quantitative structure-activity relationship modelling indicated that many of these activities could be predicted by compound lipophilicity, steric bulk, and (or) antioxidant capacity, with the exception of inhibition of ceramide-induced apoptosis. Where quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis was insufficient, biochemical assessment demonstrated that the benzoate orsellinic acid blocked downstream caspase-12 activation following ceramide challenge. These findings demonstrate substantive mitogenic, cytoprotective, and antiapoptotic biological activities of plant phenolics on neoplastic cells at physiologically relevant dietary concentrations that should be considered in chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic strategies.
Heterogeneity in the Sn-1 Carbon Chain of Platelet-activating Factor Glycerophospholipids Determines Pro- or Anti-apoptotic Signaling in Primary Neurons
Journal of Lipid Research. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18550892
The platelet-activating factor (PAF) family of glycerophospholipids accumulates in damaged brain tissue following injury. Little is known about the role of individual isoforms in regulating neuronal survival. Here, we compared the neurotoxic and neuroprotective activities of 1-O-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (C16-PAF) and 1-O-octadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (C18-PAF) in cerebellar granule neurons. We find that both C16-PAF and C18-PAF cause PAF receptor-independent death but signal through different pathways. C16-PAF activates caspase-7, whereas C18-PAF triggers caspase-independent death in PAF receptor-deficient neurons. We further show that PAF receptor signaling is either pro- or anti-apoptotic, depending upon the identity of the sn-1 fatty acid of the PAF ligand. Activation of the PAF G-protein-coupled receptor (PAFR) by C16-PAF stimulation is anti-apoptotic and inhibits caspase-dependent death. Activation of PAFR by C18-PAF is pro-apoptotic. These results demonstrate the importance of the long-chain sn-1 fatty acid in regulating PAF-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, caspase-independent neurodegeneration, and neuroprotection in the presence or absence of the PAF receptor.
Briefings in Functional Genomics & Proteomics. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18805902
Lipid analysis is a well-established field of research that focuses on one lipid or a few lipids. The recent developments in mass spectrometry technologies have enabled more comprehensive studies to be performed on lipids present in a sample. The move towards extensive lipid research has led to the coining of the term lipidomics, which is defined as the ensemble of lipids present in a sample. In this review, we will discuss the technical developments in the field of lipidomics and the current limitations of this nascent field.
Differential Regulation of Wild-type and Mutant Alpha-synuclein Binding to Synaptic Membranes by Cytosolic Factors
BMC Neuroscience. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18808659
Alpha-Synuclein (alpha-syn), a 140 amino acid protein associated with presynaptic membranes in brain, is a major constituent of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD). Three missense mutations (A30P, A53T and E46K) in the alpha-syn gene are associated with rare autosomal dominant forms of familial PD. However, the regulation of alpha-syn's cellular localization in neurons and the effects of the PD-linked mutations are poorly understood.
Identification of Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) from PC12 Cells and Mouse Cortex Using Liquid Chromatography/multi-stage Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS3)
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18937225
Lipids play essential roles in cellular structural support, energy storage and signal transduction. Recently, mass spectrometry (MS) has been used to produce three-dimensional maps that elucidate the lipid composition of complex cellular lysates. The identification of individual lipids within these maps is slow and requires the synthesis and spiking of each candidate lipid. We present a novel MS-based technique that rapidly elucidates the atomic connectivity of the fatty acid/alcohol substituent on the sn-1 position of several different families of glycerophosphocholine-containing lipids within the confines of a chromatographic separation. Sodiated lipid species were fragmented to produce radical cations which lost successive methylene groups upon further collisional activation to reveal the identity of the parent molecule. This approach was demonstrated to be effective on isobaric members of the lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and platelet activating factor (PAF) families of glycerophospholipids. We demonstrate the application of this technique to unambiguously identify these species within complex cellular lysates and tissue extracts.
Inhibition of Non-enzymatic Glycation by Silk Extracts from a Mexican Land Race and Modern Inbred Lines of Maize (Zea Mays)
Phytotherapy Research : PTR. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17724765
Non-enzymatic glycation and the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are associated with various disease states, including complications of diabetes and aging. Secondary metabolites from several plant species are known to inhibit non-enzymatic glycation and the formation of AGEs, including flavonoids found in the style (silk) of Zea mays (maize). Thirteen modern maize inbreds and one land race were tested for in vitro inhibition of non-enzymatic glycation of bovine serum albumin. Many of the tested extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, in particular the newest inbreds, which were bred for resistance to gibberella ear rot (Fusarium graminearum) and common smut (Ustilago maydis). The most active maize genotype (CO441), displaying an IC50 of 9.5 microg/mL, was more effective than aminoguanidine, a known inhibitor of glycation. Zapalote chico, a land race with high maysin content, showed only moderate inhibitory activity compared with the modern maize genotypes. Antiglycation activity was highly correlated with the total phenolic content of silk extracts and mildly correlated with resistance to certain fungal infections. The results identify modern resistant and high phenolic maize inbreds as promising candidates for the development of natural AGE inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications and the degenerative effects of aging.
Evaluation of the Antidiabetic Potential of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts from the Canadian Boreal Forest Used to Treat Symptoms of Diabetes: Part II
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19526043
Among the Cree of northern Quebec, the disproportionately high rate of diabetic complications is largely due to the cultural inadequacy of modern therapies for type 2 diabetes. To establish culturally adapted antidiabetic treatments, our team identified several candidate plant species used by the Cree to treat symptoms of diabetes. An initial study focused on 8 species and revealed that most possess significant in vitro antidiabetic activity. The purpose of the present study was to assess a further 9 species identified through the ethnobotanical survey. Crude plant extracts were screened for (i) potentiation of basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) and adipocytes (3T3-L1); (ii) potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells (betaTC); (iii) potentiation of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells; (iv) protection against glucose toxicity and glucose deprivation in PC12-AC neuronal precursor cells; and (v) diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) oxygen free radical scavenging. Four species potentiated basal glucose uptake in muscle cells or adipocytes, one species being as potent as metformin. Adipogenesis was accelerated by 4 species with a potency roughly half that of rosiglitazone. Five species protected PC12-AC cells against glucose toxicity and 4 protected against glucose deprivation. Five species exhibited antioxidant activity comparable to ascorbic acid. However, no species increased insulin secretion. The present study revealed that Gaultheria hispidula, Rhododendron tomentosum, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea exhibit a promising profile of antidiabetic potential and are good candidates for more in-depth evaluation.
Retinoic Acid Enhances Skeletal Muscle Progenitor Formation and Bypasses Inhibition by Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 but Not Dominant Negative Beta-catenin
BMC Biology. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19814781
Understanding stem cell differentiation is essential for the future design of cell therapies. While retinoic acid (RA) is the most potent small molecule enhancer of skeletal myogenesis in stem cells, the stage and mechanism of its function has not yet been elucidated. Further, the intersection of RA with other signalling pathways that stimulate or inhibit myogenesis (such as Wnt and BMP4, respectively) is unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the molecular mechanisms by which RA enhances skeletal myogenesis and interacts with Wnt and BMP4 signalling during P19 or mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation.
Tissue-specific Cross-reactivity of Connexin32 Antibodies: Problems and Solutions Unique to the Central Nervous System
Cell Communication & Adhesion. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19845480
Gap junction proteins are a highly homologous family of 21 connexins. Here, the authors describe a tissue-specific technical artifact complicating analysis of connexin32 protein expression in the central nervous system. The authors show that in brain, but not liver, eight commonly employed antibodies exhibit a higher affinity for a cross-reactive protein that masks the detection of connexin32. Cross-reactivity is evident in Western blot analyses when proteins are subjected to reducing/denaturing conditions but not immunoprecipitation or immunofluorescent applications. Through bioinformatic analyses, tested by sucrose gradient fractionation and immunoblotting of lysates from connexin null-mutant mice, the authors show that the cross-reactive protein is not found in the same cellular compartments as connexin32 and is likely not a member of the connexin family. These findings are presented with the intent of helping to reduce the amount of time laboratories currently expend in validating changes in connexin32 expression in the central nervous system.
Amyloid-beta42 Signals Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Compromises Neuronal Viability by Disrupting Alkylacylglycerophosphocholine Metabolism
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19926863
Perturbation of lipid second messenger networks is associated with the impairment of synaptic function in Alzheimer disease. Underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Here, we used an unbiased lipidomic approach to profile alkylacylglycerophosphocholine second messengers in diseased tissue. We found that specific isoforms defined by a palmitic acid (16:0) at the sn-1 position, namely 1-O-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (C16:0 PAF) and 1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (C16:0 lyso-PAF), were elevated in the temporal cortex of Alzheimer disease patients, transgenic mice expressing human familial disease-mutant amyloid precursor protein, and human neurons directly exposed to amyloid-beta(42) oligomers. Acute intraneuronal accumulation of C16:0 PAF but not C16:0 lyso-PAF initiated cyclin-dependent kinase 5-mediated hyperphosphorylation of tau on Alzheimer disease-specific epitopes. Chronic elevation caused a caspase 2 and 3/7-dependent cascade resulting in neuronal death. Pharmacological inhibition of C16:0 PAF signaling, or molecular strategies increasing hydrolysis of C16:0 PAF to C16:0 lyso-PAF, protected human neurons from amyloid-beta(42) toxicity. Together, these data provide mechanistic insight into how disruptions in lipid metabolism can determine neuronal response to accumulating oligomeric amyloid-beta(42).
Inhibitory Effect of the Cree Traditional Medicine Wiishichimanaanh (Vaccinium Vitis-idaea) on Advanced Glycation Endproduct Formation: Identification of Active Principles
Phytotherapy Research : PTR. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19927274
Like many aboriginal populations, First Nations communities such as the Cree of Eeyou Istchee are facing continuously increasing rates of diabetes and related complications. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), which readily form and accumulate with sustained hyperglycemia, contribute to the development of diabetic complications and, as such, are considered a potential therapeutic target. In the present study, the inhibition of AGE formation by ethanolic extracts of the Cree medicinal plant Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. was assessed by fluorometric detection of fluorescent AGEs and immunodetection of N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine adducts of albumin. Extracts from V. vitis-idaea berries demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of AGE formation in both measures. High performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) identified nine main phenolic constituents. Four were selected for further testing, of which catechin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside but not para-coumaric acid displayed antiglycation activities. These results demonstrate that the flavonoid components of the berry extract are potent antiglycation agents and provide pharmacological validation for the traditional use of V. vitis-idaea as an antidiabetic remedy.
Pannexin 2 is Expressed by Postnatal Hippocampal Neural Progenitors and Modulates Neuronal Commitment
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20529862
The pannexins (Panx1, -2, and -3) are a mammalian family of putative single membrane channels discovered through homology to invertebrate gap junction-forming proteins, the innexins. Because connexin gap junction proteins are known regulators of neural stem and progenitor cell proliferation, migration, and specification, we asked whether pannexins, specifically Panx2, play a similar role in the postnatal hippocampus. We show that Panx2 protein is differentially expressed by multipotential progenitor cells and mature neurons. Both in vivo and in vitro, Type I and IIa stem-like neural progenitor cells express an S-palmitoylated Panx2 species localizing to Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Protein expression is down-regulated during neurogenesis in neuronally committed Type IIb and III progenitor cells and immature neurons. Panx2 is re-expressed by neurons following maturation. Protein expressed by mature neurons is not palmitoylated and localizes to the plasma membrane. To assess the impact of Panx2 on neuronal differentiation, we used short hairpin RNA to suppress Panx2 expression in Neuro2a cells. Knockdown significantly accelerated the rate of neuronal differentiation. Neuritic extension and the expression of antigenic markers of mature neurons occurred earlier in stable lines expressing Panx2 short hairpin RNA than in controls. Together, these findings describe an endogenous post-translational regulation of Panx2, specific to early neural progenitor cells, and demonstrate that this expression plays a role in modulating the timing of their commitment to a neuronal lineage.
Mass Spectrometry Reviews. Nov-Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20931646
Lipid mediators participate in signal transduction pathways, proliferation, apoptosis, and membrane trafficking in the cell. Lipids are highly complex and diverse owing to the various combinations of polar headgroups, fatty acyl chains, and backbone structures. This structural diversity continues to pose a challenge for lipid analysis. Here we review the current state of the art in lipidomics research and discuss the challenges facing this field. The latest technological developments in mass spectrometry, the role of bioinformatics, and the applications of lipidomics in lipid metabolism and cellular physiology and pathology are also discussed.
Lyso-form Fragment Ions Facilitate the Determination of Stereospecificity of Diacyl Glycerophospholipids
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21157865
In this work we report the development of a novel methodology for the determination of stereospecificity of diacyl glycerophospholipids, including glycerophosphatidic acids (PA), glycerophosphoserines (PS), glycerophosphoglycerols (PG), glycerophosphoinositols (PI), and glycerophosphoethanolamines (PE), which can be conventionally ionized in negative ion mode. This methodology uses MS(2) recorded on a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer to determine the stereospecificity of diacyl glycerophospholipids based on the lyso-form fragment ions, attributed to the neutral loss of fatty acyl moieties. The fragmentation patterns of a variety of diacyl glycerophospholipid standards were first fully examined over a wide range of collision energy. We observed that lyso-form fragment ions corresponding to the neutral loss of fatty acyl moieties attached to the sn2 position as free fatty acids ([M-Sn2](-) ) and as ketenes ([M-(Sn2-H(2) O)](-) ) exhibited consistently higher intensity than their counterpart ions due to the neutral loss of fatty acyl moieties attached to the sn1 position ([M-Sn1](-) and [M-(Sn1-H(2) O)](-) ). Therefore, we concluded that an empirical fragmentation rule can be used to precisely determine the stereospecificity of diacyl glycerophospholipids, primarily on the basis of relative abundance of the lyso-form fragment ions. We then examined the product ion spectra of diacyl glycerophospholipids recorded from lipid extracts of rat hepatoma cells, where the stereospecific information of these lipids was conclusively determined. Combining the novel methodology reported in this work with the currently widely practiced mass spectrometric techniques such as multiple precursor ion scans (MPIS), fatty acyl scans (FAS), and multidimensional mass spectrometry based shotgun lipidomics (MDMS-SL), should enable a reliable and convenient platform for comprehensive glycerophospholipid profiling.
Expression and Detrimental Role of Hematopoietic Prostaglandin D Synthase in Spinal Cord Contusion Injury
Glia. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21294159
Prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2) ) is a potent inflammatory mediator, which is implicated in both the initiation and resolution of inflammation in peripheral non-neural tissues. Its role in the central nervous system has not been fully elucidated. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with an acute inflammatory response, which contributes to secondary tissue damage that worsens functional loss. We show here, with the use of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS) deficient mice and a HPGDS selective inhibitor (HQL-79), that PGD(2) plays a detrimental role after SCI. We also show that HPGDS is expressed in macrophages in the injured mouse spinal cord and contributes to the increase in PGD(2) in the contused spinal cord. HPGDS(-/-) mice also show reduced secondary tissue damage and reduced expression of the proinflammatory chemokine CXCL10 as well as an increase in IL-6 and TGFβ-1 expression in the injured spinal cord. This was accompanied by a reduction in the expression of the microglia/macrophage activation marker Mac-2 and an increase in the antioxidant metallothionein III. Importantly, HPGDS deficient mice exhibit significantly better locomotor recovery after spinal cord contusion injury than wild-type (Wt) mice. In addition, systemically administered HPGDS inhibitor (HQL-79) also enhanced locomotor recovery after SCI in Wt mice. These data suggest that PGD(2) generated via HPGDS has detrimental effects after SCI and that blocking the activity of this enzyme can be beneficial.
Srf1 is a Novel Regulator of Phospholipase D Activity and is Essential to Buffer the Toxic Effects of C16:0 Platelet Activating Factor
PLoS Genetics. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21347278
During Alzheimer's Disease, sustained exposure to amyloid-β₄₂ oligomers perturbs metabolism of ether-linked glycerophospholipids defined by a saturated 16 carbon chain at the sn-1 position. The intraneuronal accumulation of 1-O-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine (C16:0 PAF), but not its immediate precursor 1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine (C16:0 lyso-PAF), participates in signaling tau hyperphosphorylation and compromises neuronal viability. As C16:0 PAF is a naturally occurring lipid involved in cellular signaling, it is likely that mechanisms exist to protect cells against its toxic effects. Here, we utilized a chemical genomic approach to identify key processes specific for regulating the sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to alkyacylglycerophosphocholines elevated in Alzheimer's Disease. We identified ten deletion mutants that were hypersensitive to C16:0 PAF and five deletion mutants that were hypersensitive to C16:0 lyso-PAF. Deletion of YDL133w, a previously uncharacterized gene which we have renamed SRF1 (Spo14 Regulatory Factor 1), resulted in the greatest differential sensitivity to C16:0 PAF over C16:0 lyso-PAF. We demonstrate that Srf1 physically interacts with Spo14, yeast phospholipase D (PLD), and is essential for PLD catalytic activity in mitotic cells. Though C16:0 PAF treatment does not impact hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine in yeast, C16:0 PAF does promote delocalization of GFP-Spo14 and phosphatidic acid from the cell periphery. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, similar to yeast cells, PLD activity is required to protect mammalian neural cells from C16:0 PAF. Together, these findings implicate PLD as a potential neuroprotective target capable of ameliorating disruptions in lipid metabolism in response to accumulating oligomeric amyloid-β₄₂.
Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Product Formation by Medicinal Plant Extracts Correlates with Phenolic Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity
Planta Medica. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20717877
Nonenzymatic formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is accelerated under hyperglycemic conditions characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus and contributes to the development of vascular complications. As such, inhibition of AGE formation represents a potential therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of 17 medicinal plants were assessed for inhibitory effects on in vitro AGE formation through fluorometric and immunochemical detection of fluorescent AGEs and N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine adducts of albumin (CML-BSA), respectively. Most extracts inhibited fluorescent AGE formation with IC (50) values ranging from 0.4 to 38.6 µg/mL and all extracts reduced CML-BSA formation but to differing degrees. Results obtained through both methods were highly correlated. Antiglycation activities were positively correlated with total phenolic content, free radical scavenging activity and reduction in malonyldiadehyde levels following oxidation of low-density lipoprotein, but negatively correlated with lag time to formation of conjugated dienes. Together, these results provide evidence that antioxidant phenolic metabolites mediate the antiglycation activity of our medicinal plant collection, a relationship that likely extends to other medicinal and food plants.
Role of E-cadherin and Other Cell Adhesion Molecules in Survival and Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
Cell Adhesion & Migration. Jan-Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22647941
The survival, proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs, including human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells) involve a number of processes that require cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), a group of cell surface proteins play a pivotal role in mediating such interactions. Recent studies have provided insights into the essential roles and mechanisms of CAMs in the regulation of hPSC fate decisions. Here, we review the latest research progress in this field and focus on how E-cadherin and several other important CAMs including classic cadherins, Ig-superfamily CAMs, integrins and heparin sulfate proteoglycans control survival and differentiation of hPSCs.