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In JoVE (2)
- הקמת גידול תוך גולגולתי xenografts המוח עם ניתוח בדיעבד של הגידול ואת התגובה לטיפול באמצעות הדמיה פליטת אור
- תרופות משלוח מערכתית מקומי לטיפול במחלות של מערכת העצבים המרכזית מודלים מכרסמים
Other Publications (33)
- In Vivo (Athens, Greece)
- Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
- Molecular Pharmaceutics
- International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
- Cancer Research
- Cancer Gene Therapy
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
- International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
- Brain Research
- Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
- The Journal of Organic Chemistry
- International Immunology
- Journal of Natural Products
- Journal of Natural Products
- Brain Pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
- The Journal of Organic Chemistry
- Cellular Immunology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- The American Journal of Pathology
- Journal of Neuro-oncology
- Journal of Biochemistry
- Cancer Research
- Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging : JMRI
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Journal of Neuro-oncology
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Articles by Tomoko Ozawa in JoVE
הקמת גידול תוך גולגולתי xenografts המוח עם ניתוח בדיעבד של הגידול ואת התגובה לטיפול באמצעות הדמיה פליטת אור
Tomoko Ozawa, C. David James
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco - UCSF
בלוציפראז, שונה אדם xenografts גידול במוח ניתן לקבוע intracranially בעכברים athymic, עם ניטור הבאים של הגידול ואת התגובה לטיפול באמצעות הדמיה פליטת אור. בשילוב עם ניתוח הישרדות, ניטור פליטת אור הוא כלי מחקר הכרחי לצורך בדיקות טרום קליניים של טיפולים נשקלת לטיפול בגידולים במוח.
תרופות משלוח מערכתית מקומי לטיפול במחלות של מערכת העצבים המרכזית מודלים מכרסמים
Laura Serwer, Rintaro Hashizume, Tomoko Ozawa, C. David James
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco - UCSF
בדיקות פרה יסודית של תרופות הפועלות על מערכת העצבים המרכזית כרוך לעתים קרובות בהערכת השוואת biodistribution התרופה בשיתוף עם מסלולים ספציפיים של הממשל. הנה שלוש שיטות נפוצות של משלוח מערכתית (תוך ורידי, intraperitoneal, ובעל פה), כמו גם שיטה למסירה מקומית (הסעה משופרת משלוח) הם הוכיחו בעכברים.
Other articles by Tomoko Ozawa on PubMed
In Vivo (Athens, Greece). Jan-Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11980362
BACKGROUND: We have developed xenografts of human glioblastoma (GBM) and established the baseline growth parameters and histopathological features of these tumors. MATERIALS-METHODS: Cells from 4 different human GBM cell lines were injected into the right caudate-putamen of brain in athymic rats. We measured tumor weights and the estimated survival time of each rat. RESULTS-CONCLUSION: U-251 MG and U-87 MG cells produced solid intracerebral tumors with a 100% tumor take rate, while SF-767 and SF-126 cells did not grow in the brains of athymic rats. Under the conditions employed, U-87 MG tumors grew faster than U-251 MG tumors, but both types of tumors exhibited reproducible growth characteristics from animal to animal. There was heterogeneity in the growth characteristics and histologies between the 2 tumor types, indicating that these tumor models might be useful for simulating some of the heterogeneity that occurs between GBM in humans.
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.). Jul-Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14511400
We used the standard comet assay successfully to generate in vitro dose-response curves under oxic and hypoxic conditions. We then made mixtures of cells that had been irradiated with 3 and 9 Gy of X-rays to simulate two subpopulations in a tumor, but efforts to accurately detect and quantify the subpopulations using the standard comet assay were unsuccessful. Therefore, we investigated a modified comet assay to determine whether it could be used for measuring hypoxia in our model systems. U251 MG cells were grown as subcutaneous tumors in athymic mice; U251 MG and U87 MG cells were grown as intracerebral (i.c.) tumors in athymic rats. Animals were injected with RSU 1069, irradiated, and euthanized. Tumors and normal brains were removed, and the cells were analyzed using a modified comet assay. Differences in comet tail moment distributions between tumor and contralateral normal brain, using tail moments at either the 25th or 50th percentile in each distribution, were taken as measures of the degree of tumor hypoxia. For U251 MG tumors, there was a positive relationship between tumor size and the degree of hypoxia, whereas preliminary data from U87 MG i.c. tumors showed less hypoxia and no apparent relationship between tumor size and hypoxia.
Neuro-oncology. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15279714
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that elongates telomeric DNA and appears to play an important role in cellular immortalization of cancers. Because telomerase is expressed in the vast majority of malignant gliomas but not in normal brain tissues, it is a logical target for gliomaspecific therapy. The telomerase inhibitor GRN163, a 13-mer oligonucleotide N3'-->P5' thio-phosphoramidate (Geron Corporation, Menlo Park, Calif.), is complementary to the template region of the human telomerase RNA subunit hTR. When athymic mice bearing U-251 MG human brain tumor xenografts in their flanks were treated intratumorally with GRN163, a significant growth delay in tumor size was observed (P < 0.01 in all groups) as compared to the tumor size in mice receiving a mismatched oligonucleotide or the carrier alone. We also investigated biodistribution of the drug in vivo in an intracerebral rat brain-tumor model. Fluorescein-labeled GRN163 was loaded into an osmotic minipump and infused directly into U-251 MG brain tumors over 7 days. Examination of the brains revealed that GRN163 was present in tumor cells at all time points studied. When GRN163 was infused into intracerebral U-251 MG tumors shortly after their implantation, it prevented their establishment and growth. Lastly, when rats with larger intracerebral tumors were treated with the inhibitor, GRN163 increased animal survival times. Our results demonstrate that the antitelomerase agent GRN163 inhibits growth of glioblastoma in vivo, exhibits favorable intracerebral tumor uptake properties, and prevents the growth of intracerebral tumors. These findings support further development of this compound as a potential anticancer agent.
In Vivo Evaluation of the Boronated Porphyrin TABP-1 in U-87 MG Intracerebral Human Glioblastoma Xenografts
Molecular Pharmaceutics. Sep-Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 16026007
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an adjuvant therapy that has the potential to control local tumor growth. A selective delivery of sufficient amounts of boron to individual tumor cells, compared to surrounding normal tissues, is the key for successful BNCT. We have designed and synthesized a new highly water-soluble boronated porphyrin, TABP-1, as a possible BNCT agent. When we injected the maximum tolerated dose (MTD: 15 mg/kg) of TABP-1 systemically into the tail vein of athymic rats bearing intracerebral (i.c.) human glioblastoma U-87 MG xenografts, the compound accumulated preferentially in brain tumors compared to normal brain; however, the level of boron in the tumors was less than the 30 microg/g of tissue that is generally considered necessary for BNCT. We next investigated whether convection-enhanced delivery (CED) could improve the boron distribution. The compound was administered directly into i.c. tumors using an osmotic minipump attached to a brain-infusion cannula. TABP-1 doses from 0.25 to 1.0 mg infused locally over 24 h produced tumor boron concentrations greater than those obtained by systemic administration at the MTD. For example, CED administration of 0.5 mg of TABP-1 produced a tumor boron level of 65.4 microg/g of tumor, whereas the serum level was only 0.41 microg/g (tumor to serum ratio of approximately 160:1). CED also produced relatively high tumor to normal brain ratios of approximately 5:1 for ipsilateral brain and approximately 26:1 for contralateral brain tissues at the 0.5 mg dose. Thus, we may be able to achieve therapeutic BNCT efficacy with minimal systemic toxicity or radiation-induced damage to normal tissue by administering TABP-1 using CED.
Toxicity, Biodistribution, and Convection-enhanced Delivery of the Boronated Porphyrin BOPP in the 9L Intracerebral Rat Glioma Model
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16111595
To investigate the toxicity, biodistribution, and convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of a boronated porphyrin (BOPP) that was designed for boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy.
Neurosurgery. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16284574
For patients with gliomas, decreasing the tumor burden with macroscopic surgical resection may affect quality of life, time to tumor progression, and survival. Injection of bromophenol blue (BPB) may enhance intraoperative visualization of an infiltrating tumor and its margins and improve the extent of resection. In this study, we investigated the uptake of BPB in experimental rat brain tumors.
Orthotopic Growth of Human Glioma Cells Quantitatively and Qualitatively Influences Radiation-induced Changes in Gene Expression
Cancer Research. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16288029
The effect of radiation on gene expression has been most frequently studied using tissue culture models. To determine the influence of experimental growth condition on radiation-induced changes in gene expression, microarray analysis was done on two human glioma cell lines (U87 and U251) grown in tissue culture and as s.c. or i.c. xenografts. Compared with tissue culture, the number of genes, whose expression was affected by radiation in both cell lines, was increased in the s.c. xenografts and further increased in the orthotopic tumors. Furthermore, in each growth condition, radiation modulated the expression of a different set of genes. In addition, whereas there were few commonly affected genes after irradiation of U87 and U251 in tissue culture, there were 729 common changes after orthotopic irradiation. These results indicate that the influence of the orthotopic environment on radiation-induced modulation of gene expression in glioma cells was both quantitative and qualitative. Moreover, they suggest that investigations of the functional consequence of radiation-induced gene expression will require accounting for experimental growth conditions.
Cancer Gene Therapy. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15706354
The effectiveness of radiation therapy for human brain tumors is limited by the presence of radiation-resistant hypoxic cells. In order to improve patient outcomes, therapeutic methods that increase hypoxic cell killing must be developed. To investigate the possibility of using the hypoxic tumor microenvironment itself as a target for gene therapy, we stably transfected U-251 MG human glioblastoma cells with constructs containing the suicide gene Bax under the regulation of a nine-copy concatemer of hypoxia responsive elements (HREs). Previously, we demonstrated that the expression of BAX protein under anoxic conditions in transfected U-251 MG clones leads to increased cell killing in vitro. Our recent studies revealed that HIF-1alpha induction under anoxic conditions occurs prior to the increase in BAX expression, thereby implicating HIF-1 induction as the basis of BAX upregulation. To test the effect of BAX-mediated cell killing in vivo, we implanted five stably transfected clones subcutaneously into the flanks of athymic mice. Compared to nontransfected controls, tumor growth in four of five clones was significantly retarded. Histopathological analysis demonstrated decreased hypoxic fractions and increased amounts of apoptosis in clone-derived tumors. These results suggest that the tumor microenvironment is sufficiently hypoxic to trigger HRE-mediated cell killing via the BAX apoptotic pathway.
Influence of in Vivo Growth on Human Glioma Cell Line Gene Expression: Convergent Profiles Under Orthotopic Conditions
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15928080
Defining the molecules that regulate tumor cell survival is an essential prerequisite for the development of targeted approaches to cancer treatment. Whereas many studies aimed at identifying such targets use human tumor cells grown in vitro or as s.c. xenografts, it is unclear whether such experimental models replicate the phenotype of the in situ tumor cell. To begin addressing this issue, we have used microarray analysis to define the gene expression profile of two human glioma cell lines (U251 and U87) when grown in vitro and in vivo as s.c. or as intracerebral (i.c.) xenografts. For each cell line, the gene expression profile generated from tissue culture was significantly different from that generated from the s.c. tumor, which was significantly different from those grown i.c. The disparity between the i.c gene expression profiles and those generated from s.c. xenografts suggests that whereas an in vivo growth environment modulates gene expression, orthotopic growth conditions induce a different set of modifications. In this study the U251 and U87 gene expression profiles generated under the three growth conditions were also compared. As expected, the profiles of the two glioma cell lines were significantly different when grown as monolayer cultures. However, the glioma cell lines had similar gene expression profiles when grown i.c. These results suggest that tumor cell gene expression, and thus phenotype, as defined in vitro is affected not only by in vivo growth but also by orthotopic growth, which may have implications regarding the identification of relevant targets for cancer therapy.
AAV Serotype 8-mediated Gene Delivery of a Soluble VEGF Receptor to the CNS for the Treatment of Glioblastoma
Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16580881
The presence of the blood-brain barrier complicates drug delivery in the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The use of local gene transfer in the brain has the potential to overcome this delivery barrier by allowing the expression of therapeutic agents directly at the tumor site. In this study, we describe the development of a recombinant adeno-associated (rAAV) serotype 8 vector that encodes an optimized soluble inhibitor, termed sVEGFR1/R2, of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF is an angiogenic factor highly up-regulated in GBM tumor tissue and correlates with disease progression. In subcutaneous models of GBM, VEGF inhibition following rAAV-mediated gene transfer significantly reduces overall tumor volume and increases median survival time following a single administration of vector. Using orthotopic brain tumor models of GBM, we find that direct intracranial administration of the rAAV-sVEGFR1/R2 vector to the tumor site demonstrates anti-tumor efficacy at doses that are not efficacious following systemic delivery of the vector. We propose that rAAV-mediated gene transfer of a potent soluble VEGF inhibitor in the CNS represents an effective antiangiogenic treatment strategy for GBM.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16904526
We investigated the effects of fractionated radiation treatments on the life spans of athymic rats bearing intracerebral brain tumors.
Brain Research. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17125752
A retro-convection enhanced delivery (R-CED) method has been developed to improve the entry of intravenously administered therapeutics within solid brain tumors. R-CED uses an osmotic gradient to withdraw brain interstitial fluid (ISF) in a controlled manner via an implanted microdialysis catheter. Withdrawal of ISF increases the local tissue specific gravity in normal brain and increases twofold the extravasation of intravenous Evans blue (EB) albumin in normal brain and in an orthotopic 9L tumor. R-CED also increases the extravasation of 70 nm fluorescent liposomes fivefold in the 9L tumor. Thus the transmembrane osmotic gradient induces movement of substances in the blood into the tissue parenchyma. Following probe removal, the magnitude of the R-CED effect on EB-albumin extravasation decreases to control values within 1.5 h in normal brain; however, the effect persists beyond 6 h in the tumor. There was no evidence of histologic damage to the neurons at either 6 h or 2 weeks after R-CED. These studies establish the feasibility of applying R-CED to increase the distribution of systemically administered drugs in both the normal tissue-tumor margin as well as in the central tumor core, holding forth the possibility of improved antitumor drug efficacy.
Synthesis and Comparative Toxicology of a Series of Polyhedral Borane Anion-substituted Tetraphenyl Porphyrins
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17253677
Three structurally similar tetraphenylporphyrins bearing polyhedral borane anions have been synthesized and their toxicological profiles obtained in rats. These conjugates were found to have quite different acute toxicities as manifested at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). When given at the MTD and observed over 28 days, the most acutely toxic porphyrin was found to be devoid of toxicity, as measured by blood chemistry panels. The remaining two less acutely toxic compounds both elicited significant changes, characterized by moderate to severe thrombocytopenia, failure to gain weight normally and changes in liver enzymes indicative of mild hepatotoxicity. All toxic effects were transient, with platelets rebounding to above normal levels at day 28. We conclude that thrombocytopenia is the dose limiting toxicity for boronated porphyrins in mammals and suggest that these effects may be due to the porphyrin, not the borane or carborane.
Iriomoteolide-1a, a Potent Cytotoxic 20-membered Macrolide from a Benthic Dinoflagellate Amphidinium Species
The Journal of Organic Chemistry. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17500570
A potent cytotoxic 20-membered macrolide, iriomoteolide-1a (1), has been isolated from a benthic dinoflagellate Amphidinium sp. (strain HYA024), and the structure was elucidated on the basis of detailed analyses of 2-D NMR data. The relative and absolute stereochemistries were assigned by the combination of conformational analyses using NMR data and modified Mosher's method of 1.
Negative Autoregulation of Src Homology Region 2-domain-containing Phosphatase-1 in Rat Basophilic Leukemia-2H3 Cells
International Immunology. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17675340
Src homology region 2-domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) plays an important role in the regulation of signaling from various receptors in hematopoietic cells. In mast cells, SHP-1 has been shown to negatively regulate the initial signaling triggered by high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI) and positively regulate downstream outputs. To clarify the molecular mechanisms of SHP-1 in mast cells, we determined substrates for SHP-1 by using the substrate-trapping approach. When phosphatase-inactive SHP-1 was over-expressed in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells, tyrosine phosphorylation of a 68-kDa protein was enhanced before and after FcepsilonRI aggregation. Immunoprecipitation and western blot analyses revealed that this protein is SHP-1, either endogenous or ectopically expressed. FcepsilonRI-induced activation of Lyn and Syk was comparable between cells expressing wild-type (wt) and phosphatase-inactive SHP-1. In vitro phosphatase assay and combined transfection, immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analyses showed that tyrosine 536 of SHP-1 was potent phosphorylation site and that SHP-1 could dephosphorylate this site that had been phosphorylated by Lyn. Furthermore, the phosphatase activity of SHP-1 immunoprecipitated from cells expressing a phosphatase-inactive SHP-1 was increased compared with that from vector-transfected or wt SHP-1-expressing cells. Finally, expression of phosphatase-inactive SHP-1 resulted in decreased activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and suppressed transcription of cytokine genes, whereas wt SHP-1 enhanced these processes. Taken collectively, these results suggest that SHP-1 may be a physiological substrate of SHP-1 in RBL-2H3 cells and that dephosphorylation of SHP-1 leads to a decrease in its catalytic activity and an enhancement of downstream signaling. A negative autoregulatory circuit of SHP-1 may contribute to mast cell regulation.
Journal of Natural Products. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17922551
Two 26-membered macrolides, amphidinolides B6 ( 2) and B7 ( 1), have been isolated from a marine symbiotic dinoflagellate Amphidinium sp., and the structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed analyses of 2D NMR data. The relative and absolute configurations for 1 and 2 were assigned by comparison of NMR data and CD data with those of known amphidinolides.
Journal of Natural Products. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17927263
Two 20-membered macrolides, iriomoteolides-1b ( 1) and -1c ( 2), have been isolated from a marine dinoflagellate Amphidinium sp. (strain HYA024), and the structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed analyses of 2D NMR data and chemical correlation.
Brain Pathology (Zurich, Switzerland). Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18093250
Meningioma tumor growth involves the subarachnoid space that contains the cerebrospinal fluid. Modeling tumor growth in this microenvironment has been associated with widespread leptomeningeal dissemination, which is uncharacteristic of human meningiomas. Consequently, survival times and tumor properties are varied, limiting their utility in testing experimental therapies. We report the development and characterization of a reproducible orthotopic skull-base meningioma model in athymic mice using the IOMM-Lee cell line. Localized tumor growth was obtained by using optimal cell densities and matrigel as the implantation medium. Survival times were within a narrow range of 17-21 days. The xenografts grew locally compressing surrounding brain tissue. These tumors had histopathologic characteristics of anaplastic meningiomas including high cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, cellular pattern loss, necrosis and conspicuous mitosis. Similar to human meningiomas, considerable invasion of the dura and skull and some invasion of adjacent brain along perivascular tracts were observed. The pattern of hypoxia was also similar to human malignant meningiomas. We use bioluminescent imaging to non-invasively monitor the growth of the xenografts and determine the survival benefit from temozolomide treatment. Thus, we describe a malignant meningioma model system that will be useful for investigating the biology of meningiomas and for preclinical assessment of therapeutic agents.
Iriomoteolide-3a, a Cytotoxic 15-membered Macrolide from a Marine Dinoflagellate Amphidinium Species
The Journal of Organic Chemistry. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18197690
A 15-membered macrolide, iriomoteolide-3a (1), with an allyl epoxide has been isolated from a marine benthic dinoflagellate Amphidinium sp. (strain HYA024), and the structure was assigned by detailed analyses of 2D NMR data. Relative and absolute configurations were elucidated on the basis of conformational studies of 1 and its acetonide (2) and modified Mosher's method of 1, respectively. Iriomoteolide-3a (1) and the acetonide (2) exhibited potently cytotoxic activity against antitumor cells.
Neuro-oncology. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18287341
The blood-brain barrier is a substantial obstacle for delivering anticancer agents to brain tumors, and new strategies for bypassing it are greatly needed for brain-tumor therapy. Intranasal delivery provides a practical, noninvasive method for delivering therapeutic agents to the brain and could provide an alternative to intravenous injection and convection-enhanced delivery. We treated rats bearing intracerebral human tumor xenografts intranasally with GRN163, an oligonucleotide N3'-->P5'thio-phosphoramidate telomerase inhibitor. 3'-Fuorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled GRN163 was administered intranasally every 2 min as 6 microl drops into alternating sides of the nasal cavity over 22 min. FITC-labeled GRN163 was present in tumor cells at all time points studied, and accumulation of GRN163 peaked at 4 h after delivery. Moreover, GRN163 delivered intranasally, daily for 12 days, significantly prolonged the median survival from 35 days in the control group to 75.5 days in the GRN163-treated group. Thus, intranasal delivery of GRN163 readily bypassed the blood-brain barrier, exhibited favorable tumor uptake, and inhibited tumor growth, leading to a prolonged lifespan for treated rats compared to controls. This delivery approach appears to kill tumor cells selectively, and no toxic effects were noted in normal brain tissue. These data support further development of intranasal delivery of tumor-specific therapeutic agents for brain tumor patients.
PICOT, Protein Kinase C Theta-interacting Protein, is a Novel Regulator of FcepsilonRI-mediated Mast Cell Activation
Cellular Immunology. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18479680
PICOT (PKC-interacting cousin of thioredoxin) consists of one thioredoxin homology domain in the N-terminal and two tandem PICOT homology domains in the C-terminal. PICOT specifically interacts with protein kinase C theta (PKC-theta) via its thioredoxin homology domain and acts as an important modulator of T cell receptor (TCR)-signaling. Using PICOT overexpressing rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3), we evaluated the effect of PICOT overexpression on the FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling. In comparison to the control cells, introduction of PICOT to RBL-2H3 cells induced increased degranulation and the activation of NFAT and in the expression of IL-4 and TNF-alpha transcripts by FcepsilonRI-crosslinking, whereas no significant change was observed with the elevation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation by FcepsilonRI aggregation. More interesting was the exogenous PICOT overexpression in RBL-2H3 cells causing a large decrease in the elevation of JNK phosphorylation. PICOT-regulated FcepsilonRI-mediated signals in RBL-2H3 cells and acted as a positive regulator on IL-4 and TNF-alpha expression, NFAT and degranulation signal pathways and a negative regulator on a JNK signal pathway. Considering that PICOT has no enzymatic activity, the regulation of PICOT on FcepsilonRI-signaling may depend on PICOT-associated molecule(s).
Orphan Nuclear Receptor NR4A2 Expressed in T Cells from Multiple Sclerosis Mediates Production of Inflammatory Cytokines
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18550828
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) mediated by Th17 and Th1 cells. DNA microarray analysis previously showed that NR4A2, an orphan nuclear receptor, is strongly up-regulated in the peripheral blood T cells of MS. Here, we report that NR4A2 plays a pivotal role for mediating cytokine production from pathogenic T cells. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, NR4A2, was selectively up-regulated in the T cells isolated from the CNS. Strikingly, a forced expression of NR4A2 augmented promoter activities of IL-17 and IFN-gamma genes, leading to an excessive production of these cytokines. Conversely, treatment with siRNA for NR4A2, resulted in a significant reduction in the production of IL-17 and IFN-gamma. Furthermore, treatment with NR4A2 siRNA reduced the ability of encephalitogenic T cells to transfer EAE in recipient mice. Thus, NR4A2 is an essential transcription factor for triggering the inflammatory cascade of MS/EAE and may serve as a therapeutic target.
Synthetic Retinoid AM80 Inhibits Th17 Cells and Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
The American Journal of Pathology. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19389933
Recent evidence suggests that interleukin-17-producing CD4(+) T cells (Th17 cells) are the dominant pathogenic cellular component in autoimmune inflammatory diseases, including multiple sclerosis. It has recently been demonstrated that all-trans retinoic acid can suppress Th17 differentiation and promote the generation of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells via retinoic acid receptor signals. Here, we investigated the effects of AM80, a synthetic retinoid with enhanced biological properties to all-trans retinoic acid, on Th17 differentiation and function and evaluated its therapeutic potential in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. AM80 treatment was more effective than all-trans retinoic acid in inhibiting Th17 differentiation in vitro. Oral administration of AM80 was protective for the early development of EAE and the down-modulation of Th17 differentiation and effector functions in vivo. Moreover, AM80 inhibited interleukin-17 production by splenic memory T cells, in vitro-differentiated Th17 cells, and central nervous system-infiltrating effector T cells. Accordingly, AM80 was effective when administered therapeutically after the onset of EAE. Continuous AM80 treatment, however, was ineffective at inhibiting late EAE symptoms despite the maintained suppression of RORgammat and interleukin-17 expression levels by central nervous system-infiltrating T cells. We reveal that continuous AM80 treatment also led to the suppression of interleukin-10 production by a distinct T cell subset that expressed both Foxp3 and RORgammat. These findings suggest that retinoid signaling regulates both inflammatory Th17 cells and Th17-like regulatory cells.
Journal of Neuro-oncology. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19585223
Despite the use of radiation and chemotherapy, the prognosis for children with diffuse brainstem gliomas is extremely poor. There is a need for relevant brainstem tumor models that can be used to test new therapeutic agents and delivery systems in pre-clinical studies. We report the development of a brainstem-tumor model in rats and the application of bioluminescence imaging (BLI) for monitoring tumor growth and response to therapy as part of this model. Luciferase-modified human glioblastoma cells from five different tumor cell sources (either cell lines or serially-passaged xenografts) were implanted into the pontine tegmentum of athymic rats using an implantable guide-screw system. Tumor growth was monitored by BLI and tumor volume was calculated by three-dimensional measurements from serial histopathologic sections. To evaluate if this model would allow detection of therapeutic response, rats bearing brainstem U-87 MG or GS2 glioblastoma xenografts were treated with the DNA methylating agent temozolomide (TMZ). For each of the tumor cell sources tested, BLI monitoring revealed progressive tumor growth in all animals, and symptoms caused by tumor burden were evident 26-29 days after implantation of U-87 MG, U-251 MG, GBM6, and GBM14 cells, and 37-47 days after implantation of GS2 cells. Histopathologic analysis revealed tumor growth within the pons in all rats and BLI correlated quantitatively with tumor volume. Variable infiltration was evident among the different tumors, with GS2 tumor cells exhibiting the greatest degree of infiltration. TMZ treatment groups were included for experiments involving U-87 MG and GS2 cells, and in each case TMZ delayed tumor growth, as indicated by BLI monitoring, and significantly extended survival of animal subjects. Our results demonstrate the development of a brainstem tumor model in athymic rats, in which tumor growth and response to therapy can be accurately monitored by BLI. This model is well suited for pre-clinical testing of therapeutics that are being considered for treatment of patients with brainstem tumors.
Protein Phosphatase 1alpha Associates with Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-PEST Inducing Dephosphorylation of Phospho-serine 39
Journal of Biochemistry. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19919952
Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST is expressed in a wide variety of several cell types and is an efficient regulator of cell adhesion, spreading and migration. PTP-PEST-associating molecules are important in elucidating the function of PTP-PEST. Herein, we have identified protein phosphatase 1alpha (PP1alpha) as a novel PTP-PEST binding protein, and then we aimed to determine how PP1alpha contributes to the phosphorylation at Ser39 of PTP-PEST, whose phosphorylation suppresses PTP-PEST enzymatic activity. The HEK 293 cells overexpressing exogenous PTP-PEST were stimulated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) and the phosphorylation of PTP-PEST at Ser39 was evaluated using an anti-phospho-Ser39 PTP-PEST specific antibody (anti-pS39-PEST Ab). It was demonstrated that the phosphorylation at Ser39 detected by anti-pS39-PEST Ab was dependent on TPA treatment and a significant inverse correlation between the PTP activity of PTP-PEST and anti-pS39-PEST Ab-immunoreactive band intensity. The phosphorylation of Ser39 was suppressed by co-transfection of a plasmid encoding wild-type PP1alpha, but not by that of the dominant-negative PP1alpha mutant. Furthermore, TPA-induced phosphorylation could take place in PTP-PEST catalytic domain, but the phosphorylation of PTP-PEST catalytic domain could not be abrogated by co-transfection of a plasmid expressing wild-type PP1alpha. In conclusion, PP1alpha associates with the non-catalytic domain of PTP-PEST and regulates PTP activity via dephosphorylation of phospho-Ser39.
Neuro-oncology. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20150380
In order to compare in vivo metabolism between malignant gliomas and normal brain, (13)C magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging data were acquired from rats with human glioblastoma xenografts (U-251 MG and U-87 MG) and normal rats, following injection of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]-pyruvate. The median signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of lactate, pyruvate, and total observed carbon-13 resonances, as well as their relative ratios, were calculated from voxels containing Gadolinium-enhanced tissue in T(1) postcontrast images for rats with tumors and from normal brain tissue for control rats. [1-(13)C]-labeled pyruvate and its metabolic product, [1-(13)C]-lactate, demonstrated significantly higher SNR in the tumor compared with normal brain tissue. Statistical tests showed significant differences in all parameters (P < .0004) between the malignant glioma tissue and normal brain. The SNR of lactate, pyruvate, and total carbon was observed to be different between the U-251 MG and U-87 MG models, which is consistent with inherent differences in the molecular characteristics of these tumors. These results suggest that hyperpolarized MR metabolic imaging may be valuable for assessing prognosis and monitoring response to therapy for patients with brain tumors.
Pharmacologic Inhibition of Cyclin-dependent Kinases 4 and 6 Arrests the Growth of Glioblastoma Multiforme Intracranial Xenografts
Cancer Research. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20354191
Activation of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (cdk4/6) occurs in the majority of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors, and represents a promising molecular target for the development of small molecule inhibitors. In the current study, we investigated the molecular determinants and in vivo response of diverse GBM cell lines and xenografts to PD-0332991, a cdk4/6-specific inhibitor. In vitro testing of PD-0332991 against a panel of GBM cell lines revealed a potent G(1) cell cycle arrest and induction of senescence in each of 16 retinoblastoma protein (Rb)-proficient cell lines regardless of other genetic lesions, whereas 5 cell lines with homozygous inactivation of Rb were completely resistant to treatment. Short hairpin RNA depletion of Rb expression conferred resistance of GBM cells to PD-0332991, further demonstrating a requirement of Rb for sensitivity to cdk4/6 inhibition. PD-0332991 was found to efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier and proved highly effective in suppressing the growth of intracranial GBM xenograft tumors, including those that had recurred after initial therapy with temozolomide. Remarkably, no mice receiving PD-0332991 died as a result of disease progression while on therapy. Additionally, the combination of PD-0332991 and radiation therapy resulted in significantly increased survival benefit compared with either therapy alone. In total, our results support clinical trial evaluation of PD-0332991 against newly diagnosed as well as recurrent GBM, and indicate that Rb status is the primary determinant of potential benefit from this therapy.
Inhibition of PI3K/mTOR Pathways in Glioblastoma and Implications for Combination Therapy with Temozolomide
Neuro-oncology. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21317208
Due to its molecular heterogeneity and infiltrative nature, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is notoriously resistant to traditional and experimental therapeutics. To overcome these hurdles, targeted agents have been combined with conventional therapy. We evaluated the preclinical potential of a novel, orally bioavailable PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor (XL765) in in vitro and in vivo studies. In vivo serially passaged human GBM xenografts that are more genetically stable than GBM cell lines in culture were used for all experiments. Biochemical downstream changes were evaluated by immunoblot and cytotoxicity by colorimetric ATP-based assay. For in vivo experiments, human xenograft GBM 39 grown intracranially in nude mice was altered to express luciferase to monitor tumor burden by optical imaging. XL765 resulted in concentration-dependent decreases in cell viability in vitro. Cytotoxic doses resulted in specific inhibition of PI3K signaling. Combining XL765 with temozolomide (TMZ) resulted in additive toxicity in 4 of 5 xenografts. In vivo, XL765 administered by oral gavage resulted in greater than 12-fold reduction in median tumor bioluminescence compared with control (Mann-Whitney test p = 0.001) and improvement in median survival (logrank p = 0.05). TMZ alone showed a 30-fold decrease in median bioluminescence, but the combination XL765 + TMZ yielded a 140-fold reduction in median bioluminescence (Mann-Whitney test p = 0.05) with a trend toward improvement in median survival (logrank p = 0.09) compared with TMZ alone. XL765 shows activity as monotherapy and in combination with conventional therapeutics in a range of genetically diverse GBM xenografts.
Detection of Early Response to Temozolomide Treatment in Brain Tumors Using Hyperpolarized 13C MR Metabolic Imaging
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging : JMRI. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21590996
To demonstrate the feasibility of using DNP hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]-pyruvate to measure early response to temozolomide (TMZ) therapy using an orthotopic human glioblastoma xenograft model.
Investigation of Intravenous Delivery of Nanoliposomal Topotecan for Activity Against Orthotopic Glioblastoma Xenografts
Neuro-oncology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21954443
Achieving effective treatment outcomes for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) has been impeded by many obstacles, including the pharmacokinetic limitations of antitumor agents, such as topotecan (TPT). Here, we demonstrate that intravenous administration of a novel nanoliposomal formulation of TPT (nLS-TPT) extends the survival of mice with intracranial GBM xenografts, relative to administration of free TPT, because of improved biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of the liposome-formulated drug. In 3 distinct orthotopic GBM models, 3 weeks of biweekly intravenous therapy with nLS-TPT was sufficient to delay tumor growth and significantly extend animal survival, compared with treatment with free TPT (P ≤ .03 for each tumor tested). Analysis of intracranial tumors showed increased activation of cleaved caspase-3 and increased DNA fragmentation, both indicators of apoptotic response to treatment with nLS-TPT. These results demonstrate that intravenous delivery of nLS-TPT is a promising strategy in the treatment of GBM and support clinical investigation of this therapeutic approach.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22038601
Microorganisms have developed mechanisms to combat reactive nitrogen species (RNS); however, only a few of the fungal genes involved have been characterized. Here we screened RNS-resistant Aspergillus nidulans strains from fungal transformants obtained by introducing a genomic DNA library constructed in a multicopy vector. We found that the AN0121.3 gene (hemC) encodes a protein similar to the heme biosynthesis enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and facilitates RNS-tolerant fungal growth. The overproduction of PBG-D in A. nidulans promoted RNS tolerance, whereas PBG-D repression caused growth that was hypersensitive to RNS. PBG-D levels were comparable to those of cellular protoheme synthesis as well as flavohemoglobin (FHb; encoded by fhbA and fhbB) and nitrite reductase (NiR; encoded by niiA) activities. Both FHb and NiR are hemoproteins that consume nitric oxide and nitrite, respectively, and we found that they are required for maximal growth in the presence of RNS. The transcription of hemC was upregulated by RNS. These results demonstrated that PBG-D is a novel NO-tolerant protein that modulates the reduction of environmental NO and nitrite levels by FHb and NiR.
Journal of Neuro-oncology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22231932
The prognosis for diffuse infiltrating pontine gliomas (DIPG) remains extremely poor, with the majority of patients surviving less than 2 years. Here, we have adapted standard xenograft techniques to study glioma growth in the mouse brainstem, and have utilized the mouse model for studying a relevant therapeutic for treating DIPGs. bioluminescence imaging monitoring revealed a progressive increase in signal following the injection of either of two tumor cell types into the brainstem. Mice with orthotopic GS2 tumors, and receiving a single 100 mg/kg dose of temozolomide showed a lengthy period of decreased tumor luminescence, with substantially increased survival relative to untreated mice (P < 0.001). A small molecule inhibitor that targets cdk4/6 was used to test AM-38 brainstem xenograft response to treatment. Drug treatment resulted in delayed tumor growth, and significantly extended survival. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using an orthotopic brainstem tumor model in athymic mice, and for application to testing therapeutic agents in treating DIPG.
Hyperpolarized 13C MR Spectroscopic Imaging Can Be Used to Monitor Everolimus Treatment in Vivo in an Orthotopic Rodent Model of Glioblastoma
NeuroImage. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21807103
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary malignant brain tumor in humans. Because the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is activated in more than 88% of GBM, new drugs which target this pathway, such as the mTOR inhibitor Everolimus, are currently in clinical trials. Early tumor response to molecularly targeted treatments remains challenging to assess non-invasively, because it is often associated with tumor stasis or slower tumor growth. Innovative neuroimaging methods are therefore critically needed to provide metabolic or functional information that is indicative of targeted therapeutic action at early time points during the course of treatment. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that hyperpolarized (HP) 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) can be used on a clinical MR system to monitor early metabolic response of orthotopic GBM tumors to Everolimus treatment through measurement of the HP lactate-to-pyruvate ratios. The study was performed on a highly invasive non-enhancing orthotopic GBM tumor model in rats (GS-2 tumors), which replicates many fundamental features of human GBM tumors. Seven days after initiation of treatment there was a significant drop in the HP lactate-to-pyruvate ratio from the tumor tissue in treated animals relative to day 0 (67%±27% decrease). In the control group, no significant changes in the HP lactate-to-pyruvate ratios were observed. Importantly, at the 7 day time point, conventional MR imaging (MRI) was unable to detect a significant difference in tumor size between control and treated groups. Inhibition of tumor growth by conventional MRI was observed from day 15 of treatment. This implies that the decrease in the HP lactate-to-pyruvate ratio could be detected before any treatment-induced inhibition of tumor growth. Using immunohistochemical staining to further examine tumor response to treatment, we found that the decrease in the HP lactate-to-pyruvate ratio was associated with a drop in expression of lactate dehydrogenase, the enzyme that catalyzes pyruvate to lactate conversion. Also evident was decreased staining for carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX), an indicator of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) activity, which, in turn, regulates expression of lactate dehydrogenase. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the use of HP 13C MRSI at a clinical field strength to monitor GBM response to molecularly targeted treatments. It highlights the potential of HP lactate-to-pyruvate ratio as an early biomarker of response, thereby supporting further investigation of this non-invasive imaging approach for eventual clinical application.