Recently, ionic liquids (ILs) are used for biomass valorization into valuable chemicals because of their remarkable properties such as thermal stability, lower vapor pressure, non-flammability, higher heat capacity, and tunable solubility and acidity. Here, we demonstrate a method for the synthesis of C5 sugars (xylose and arabinose) from the pentosan present in jute biomass in a one-pot process by utilizing a catalytic amount of Brønsted acidic 1-methyl-3-(3-sulfopropyl)-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate IL. The acidic IL is synthesized in the lab and characterized using NMR spectroscopic techniques for understanding its purity. The various properties of BAIL are measured such as acid strength, thermal and hydrothermal stability, which showed that the catalyst is stable at a higher temperature (250 °C) and possesses very high acid strength (Ho 1.57). The acidic IL converts over 90% of pentosan into sugars and furfural. Hence, the presenting method in this study can also be employed for the evaluation of pentosan concentration in other kinds of lignocellulosic biomass.