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In JoVE (1)
- The Culture of Primary Motor and Sensory Neurons in Defined Media on Electrospun Poly-L-lactide Nanofiber Scaffolds
Other Publications (26)
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
- Growth Hormone & IGF Research : Official Journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System : JPNS
- Experimental Neurology
- Neurobiology of Disease
- Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
- Endocrine Reviews
- Kidney International
- Neuromolecular Medicine
- Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- Experimental Neurology
- Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
- Drug Discovery Today
- Current Drug Targets
- Neurobiology of Disease
- Pharmacology & Therapeutics
- Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
- Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System : JPNS
- Acta Neuropathologica
- Nature Reviews. Neurology
Articles by Andrea M. Vincent in JoVE
The Culture of Primary Motor and Sensory Neurons in Defined Media on Electrospun Poly-L-lactide Nanofiber Scaffolds
Michelle K. Leach1, Zhang-Qi Feng2, Caitlyn C. Gertz3, Samuel J. Tuck3, Tara M. Regan3, Youssef Naim3, Andrea M. Vincent3, Joseph M. Corey1,3,4
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, 3Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, 4Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Health System
Aligned electrospun fibers direct the growth of neurons in vitro and are a potential component of nerve regeneration scaffolds. We describe a procedure for preparing electrospun fiber substrates and the serum-free culture of primary rat E15 sensory (DRG) and motor neurons. Visualization of neurons by immunocytochemistry is also included.
Other articles by Andrea M. Vincent on PubMed
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11976211
Recent evidence in both animal models and human sural nerve biopsies indicates an association with oxidative stress, mitochondrial (Mt) membrane depolarization (MMD), and induction of programmed cell death (PCD). In streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic rats, hyperglycemia induces typical apoptotic changes as well as swelling and disruption of the Mt cristae in diabetic dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) and Schwann cells (SC), but these changes are only rarely observed in control neurons. In human sural nerve biopsies, from patients with diabetic sensory neuropathy, there is transmission electromicrograph evidence of swelling and disruption of the Mt and cristae compared to patients without peripheral neuropathy. In human SH-SY5Y neurons, rat sensory neurons, and SC, in vivo, there is an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) after exposure to 20 mM added glucose. In parallel, there is an initial Mt membrane hyperpolarization followed by depolarization (MMD). In turn, MMD is coupled with cleavage of caspases. Various strategies aimed at inhibiting the oxidative burst, or stabilizing the DeltaPsi(M), block induction of PCD. First, growth factors such as NGF can block induction of ROS and/or stabilize the DeltaPsi(M). This, in turn, is associated with inhibition of PCD. Second, reduction of ROS generation in neuronal Mt prevents neuronal PCD. Third, up-regulation of uncoupling proteins (UCPs), which stabilize the DeltaPsi(M), blocks induction of caspase cleavage. Collectively, these findings indicate that hyperglycemic conditions observed in diabetes mellitus are associated with oxidative stress-induced neuronal and SC death, and targeted therapies aimed at regulating ROS may prove effective in therapy of diabetic neuropathy.
Growth Hormone & IGF Research : Official Journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society. Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12175651
The insulin-like growth factor system efficiently signals to cells to grow, differentiate, and survive. One central player in the prevention of cell death is the IGF-I receptor. Transduction of signals through this receptor leads to multiple series of intracellular phosphorylation events and the activation of several signaling pathways. Mechanisms of IGF system signaling that prevent cell death continue to be identified, suggesting that cells have alternative ways to avert death signals in addition to primary protective pathways. This review describes current knowledge of the mechanisms utilized by the IGF system to promote cell survival.
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12409316
The current study examines the association between glucose induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial (Mt) depolarization, and programmed cell death in primary neurons. In primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, 45 mM glucose rapidly induces a peak rise in ROS corresponding to a 50% increase in mean Mt size at 6 h (P<0.001). This is coupled with loss of regulation of the Mt membrane potential (Mt membrane hyperpolarization, followed by depolarization, MMD), partial depletion of ATP, and activation of caspase-3 and -9. Glucose-induced activation of ROS, MMD, and caspase-3 and -9 activation is inhibited by myxothiazole and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (P<0.001), which inhibit specific components of the Mt electron transfer chain. Similarly, MMD and caspase-3 activation are inhibited by 100 microM bongkrekic acid (an inhibitor of the adenosine nucleotide translocase ANT). These results indicate that mild increases in glucose induce ROS and Mt swelling that precedes neuronal apoptosis. Glucotoxicity is blocked by inhibiting ROS induction, MMD, or caspase cleavage by specific inhibitors of electron transfer, or by stabilizing the ANT.
Identification of the Neuroprotective Molecular Region of Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor and Its Binding Sites on Motor Neurons
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12417663
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) family, is a survival factor for various types of neurons. We studied the mechanisms by which human PEDF protects motor neurons from degeneration, with the goal of eventually conducting human clinical trials. We first searched for a molecular region of human PEDF essential to motor neuron protection. Using a spinal cord culture model of chronic glutamate toxicity, we show herein that a synthetic 44 mer peptide from an N-terminal region of the human PEDF molecule that lacks the homologous serpin-reactive region contains its full neuroprotective activity. We also investigated the presence and distribution of PEDF receptors in the spinal cord. Using a fluoresceinated PEDF probe, we show that spinal motor neurons contain specific binding sites for PEDF. Kinetics analyses using a radiolabeled PEDF probe demonstrate that purified rat motor neurons contain a single class of saturable and specific binding sites. This study indicates that a small peptide fragment of the human PEDF molecule could be engineered to contain all of its motor neuron protective activity, and that the neuroprotective action is likely to be mediated directly on motor neurons via a single class of PEDF receptors. The data support the pharmacotherapeutic potential of PEDF as a neuroprotectant in human motor neuron degeneration.
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System : JPNS. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14871451
Peripheral neuropathy afflicts 60% of all diabetic patients. Underlying the clinical disorder is the loss or degeneration of neurons, Schwann cells, and neuronal fibers. This degenerative pathology has prompted interest in the potential of growth factors as a therapy in diabetic neuropathy. Three lines of evidence support the theory that growth factors may be important in this disorder: (1) endogenous growth factors promote survival and health of neurons, (2) expression levels of growth factors are altered in diabetic neuropathy and peripheral neuron injury, and (3) growth factors induce neuronal regeneration in in vitro and in vivo models of diabetic injury. This review surveys the roles of several growth factors in diabetic neuropathy, including the neurotrophins, insulin-like growth factors, cytokine-like growth factors, and vascular endothelial growth factor. These growth factors are examined in terms of their expression during peripheral nerve injury and their protective and regenerative effects on peripheral neurons. Growth factor-mediated neuroprotective signaling is discussed, particularly in relation to the recent research, suggesting that diabetic neuropathy-induced degeneration stems from oxidative stress. Finally, the potential of growth factors as therapeutic agents is addressed, including an assessment of past growth factor clinical trials and other potential avenues of growth factor therapy.
Diabetes. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14988258
The central role of mitochondria in most pathways leading to programmed cell death (PCD) has focused our investigations into the mechanisms of glucose-induced neuronal degeneration. It has been postulated that hyperglycemic neuronal injury results from mitochondria membrane hyperpolarization and reactive oxygen species formation. The present study not only provides further evidence to support our model of glucose-induced PCD but also demonstrates a potent ability for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) to prevent this process. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were screened for UCP expression by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The abilities of individual UCPs to prevent hyperglycemic PCD were assessed by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of UCP1 and UCP3. Interestingly, UCP3 is expressed not only in muscle, but also in DRG neurons under control conditions. UCP3 expression is rapidly downregulated by hyperglycemia in diabetic rats and by high glucose in cultured neurons. Overexpression of UCPs prevents glucose-induced transient mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization, reactive oxygen species formation, and induction of PCD. The loss of UCP3 in DRG neurons may represent a significant contributing factor in glucose-induced injury. Furthermore, the ability to prevent UCP3 downregulation or to reproduce the uncoupling response in DRG neurons constitutes promising novel approaches to avert diabetic complications such as neuropathy.
Experimental Neurology. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15081582
Although the root cause of many neurodegenerative diseases is unknown, neuroinflammation may play a key role in these types of disease, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the context of neurodegeneration, it is unclear if the disease is propagated through inflammation, or whether in contrast, evidence of inflammation reflects an attempt to protect against further cellular injury. Inflammatory pathways involving the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes and subsequent generation of prostaglandins are potential target sites for treatments to halt the progression of ALS. In the CNS, COX enzymes are localized to neurons, astrocytes, and microglia and can be induced under various conditions. In addition, there appears to be a dual role for the prostaglandin products of COX enzymes in the nervous system. Some prostaglandins promote the survival of neurons, while others promote apoptosis. In this review, the pathways of COX activity and prostaglandin production form the center of the debate regarding the dual nature of neuroinflammation. We will also discuss how this duality may affect future treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS.
Neurobiology of Disease. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15193297
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is currently in clinical trials for treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but little is known about how it promotes the survival of motor neurons. In the current study, we examined IGF-I-mediated neuroprotection in an in vitro model of ALS utilizing enriched cultures of embryonic rat spinal cord motor neurons. IGF-I binds to the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) in motor neurons and activates MAPK and the downstream effector of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) signaling, Akt. IGF-I:IGF-IR signaling involves phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Shc, but not IRS-2. Glutamate, which is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of ALS patients, induced DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 cleavage in the spinal cord motor neurons. These effects of glutamate were blocked by co-treatment with IGF-I. However, a delay of IGF-I treatment for as little as 30 min eliminated its neuroprotective effect. Finally, alone, neither the MAPK pathway inhibitor PD98059 nor the PI-3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked the neuroprotective effect of IGF-I, but both inhibitors together were effective in this regard. These results suggest that the dose and timing of IGF-I administration are critical for producing a neuroprotective effect, and also suggest that both the MAPK and PI-3K/Akt pathways can promote the survival of motor neurons. We discuss our results in terms of novel strategies for ALS therapy.
Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15211094
Endocrine Reviews. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15294884
Oxidative stress results from a cell or tissue failing to detoxify the free radicals that are produced during metabolic activity. Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia that produces dysregulation of cellular metabolism. This review explores the concept that diabetes overloads glucose metabolic pathways, resulting in excess free radical production and oxidative stress. Evidence is presented to support the idea that both chronic and acute hyperglycemia cause oxidative stress in the peripheral nervous system that can promote the development of diabetic neuropathy. Proteins that are damaged by oxidative stress have decreased biological activity leading to loss of energy metabolism, cell signaling, transport, and, ultimately, to cell death. Examination of the data from animal and cell culture models of diabetes, as well as clinical trials of antioxidants, strongly implicates hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. We conclude that striving for superior antioxidative therapies remains essential for the prevention of neuropathy in diabetic patients.
Kidney International. Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15496159
An imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defense mechanisms has been suggested to play an important role in podocyte injury in nephrotic syndrome. Experimental nephrotic syndrome induced by injection of puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) into rats is a well-established model of nephrotic syndrome, and can be largely prevented by pretreatment with antioxidant enzymes (AOE), suggesting that podocyte injury may be mediated by ROS.
Neuromolecular Medicine. 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15970625
Recent work has demonstrated that adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated delivery of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) gene through retrograde axonal transport can prolong survival and delay disease onset in the superoxide dismutase mutant mouse model of motor neuron (MN) disease. The present experiment examines IGF-I gene transfer in vitro. Adenoviral and AAV vectors for IGF-I infect neurons triggering expression and secretion of biologically active IGF-I. AAV-mediated IGF-I expression in SH-SY5Y neurons protects both cells expressing the transgene, and bystanders without transgene expression from glutamate-induced apoptosis. Similarly, AAV-mediated IGF-I delivery in primary E15 MN culture provides a titer-dependent neuroprotection from glutamate-induced DNA fragmentation. Both infected and noninfected neurons are equally protected. These observations argue that vector-mediated IGF-I gene transfer induces secretion of active IGF-I that acts through direct effects on spinal cord MNs. This mechanism may explain the therapeutic effects observed in vivo despite relatively low affinity AAV spinal cord uptake.
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. Nov-Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16356113
The concept that oxidative stress is a key mediator of nerve injury in diabetes has led us to design therapies that target oxidative stress mechanisms. Using an in vitro model of glucose-treated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in culture, we can examine both free radical generation, using fluorimetric probes for reactive oxygen species, and cell death via the TUNEL assay. The cell culture system is scaled down to a 96-well plate format, and so is well suited to high-throughput screening. In the present study, we test the ability of three drugs, nicotinamide, allopurinol, and alpha-lipoic acid, alone and in combination to prevent DRG neuron oxidative stress and cell death. This combination of drugs is currently in clinical trial in type 1 diabetic patients. We demonstrate independent effects on oxidative stress and neuronal survival for the three drugs, and neuronal protection using the three drugs in combination. The data strengthen the rationale for the current clinical trial. In addition, we describe an effective tool for rapid preclinical testing of novel therapies against diabetic neuropathy.
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15677696
Dorsal root ganglia neurons in culture die through programmed cell death when exposed to elevated glucose, providing an in vitro model system for the investigation of the mechanisms leading to diabetic neuropathy. This study examines the time course of programmed cell death induction, regulation of cellular antioxidant capacity, and the protective effects of antioxidants in neurons exposed to hyperglycemia. We demonstrate that the first 2 h of hyperglycemia are sufficient to induce oxidative stress and programmed cell death. Using fluorimetric analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, in vitro assays of antioxidant enzymes, and immunocytochemical assays of cell death, we demonstrate superoxide formation, inhibition of aconitase, and lipid peroxidation within 1 h of hyperglycemia. These are followed by caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Antioxidant potential increases by 3-6 h but is insufficient to protect these neurons. Application of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid potently prevents glucose-induced oxidative stress and cell death. This study identifies cellular therapeutic targets to prevent diabetic neuropathy. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of the micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes, the present findings have broad application to the treatment of diabetic patients.
Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Activation Injures Primary Sensory Neurons Via Oxidative Stress
Endocrinology. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17095586
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) may promote diabetic vascular and renal disease through the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that promote oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a mediator of hyperglycemia-induced cell injury and a unifying theme for all mechanisms of diabetic complications, but there are few studies on the expression and potential contribution of RAGE in diabetic neuropathy. The current study demonstrates that dorsal root ganglia neurons express functional RAGE and respond to the RAGE ligand S100 with similar downstream signaling, oxidative stress, and cellular injury as other diabetic complication-prone tissues. RAGE-induced phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase activity is associated with formation of reactive oxygen species, caspase-3 activation, and nuclear DNA degradation. These events are prevented by treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid. Our data indicate that therapies aimed at decreasing RAGE ligands, blocking RAGE signaling, or preventing oxidative stress could significantly decrease the development of neuropathy in diabetic patients.
Experimental Neurology. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17927981
Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is an inciting event in the development of diabetic complications including diabetic neuropathy. Our observations of significant oxidative stress and morphological abnormalities in mitochondria led us to examine manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2), the enzyme responsible for mitochondrial detoxification of oxygen radicals. We demonstrate that overexpression of SOD2 decreases superoxide (O(2)(-)) in cultured primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and subsequently blocks caspase-3 activation and cellular injury. Underexpression of SOD2 in dissociated DRG cultures from adult SOD2(+/-) mice results in increased levels of O2-, activation of caspase-3 cleavage and decreased neurite outgrowth under basal conditions that are exacerbated by hyperglycemia. These profound changes in sensory neurons led us to explore the effects of decreased SOD2 on the development of diabetic neuropathy (DN) in mice. DN was assessed in SOD2(+/-) C57BL/6J mice and their SOD2(+/+) littermates following streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. These animals, while hyperglycemic, do not display any signs of DN. DN was observed in the C57BL/6Jdb/db mouse, and decreased expression of SOD2 in these animals increased DN. Our data suggest that SOD2 activity is an important cellular modifier of neuronal oxidative defense against hyperglycemic injury.
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17961065
A key mechanism of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neuron injury in high glucose is mitochondrial overload leading to oxidative stress. We screened selected compounds for the ability to prevent hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide in primary sensory DRG neurons. Twenty five out of 1,040 compounds decreased both mitochondrial superoxide and subsequent neuronal injury. These data both validate our screening strategy and indicate further mechanistic evaluation of drug hits and related compounds. Such studies may lead to the design of rational therapeutic approaches for this severe complication of diabetes.
Drug Discovery Today. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18190866
Significant progress in understanding the cellular mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has not been matched with the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent disease progression. The multiple potential causes and relative rarity of the disease are two significant factors that make drug development and assessment in clinical trials extremely difficult. We review recent progress in promoting therapeutics into clinical trials and highlight the value of moderate throughput screening for the acceleration and improvement of drug design.
Current Drug Targets. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18220717
While increasing antioxidant potential is an attractive treatment strategy for diabetic neuropathy, many years of trials using high-dose oral antioxidants have not produced therapeutic results. An increasing understanding of the innate antioxidant response and the pharmacological agents that can regulate this mechanism may open new avenue for drug development. This review describes the current state of antioxidant trials and the potential for targeting the antioxidant response. In combination with antihyperglycemic agents, agents that regulate the antioxidant response may afford superior protection against cellular oxidative injury in diabetes.
Neurobiology of Disease. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18424057
Clinical studies suggest that impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is associated with the development of neuropathy. The aim of the current study was to determine if neuropathy developed in the female Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat, an animal model of IGT and type 2 diabetes. The ZDF rat develops impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) when fed a control diet, and frank diabetes when fed a high fat diet. Following 10 weeks of hyperglycemia, sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) and compound motor action potentials (CMAP) were reduced and sensory conduction velocities were slowed (distal>proximal) in the tail and hind limb in ZDF animals with IGT and frank diabetes (p<0.01). Neuropathy was coupled with evidence of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular injury in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from IGT animals. Our study supports the hypothesis that neuropathy develops in an animal model of IGT and is associated with evidence of oxidative injury in DRG and peripheral nerves.
Pharmacology & Therapeutics. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18616962
Neuropathy is the most common and debilitating complication of diabetes and results in pain, decreased motility, and amputation. Diabetic neuropathy encompasses a variety of forms whose impact ranges from discomfort to death. Hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in diabetic neurons and results in activation of multiple biochemical pathways. These activated pathways are a major source of damage and are potential therapeutic targets in diabetic neuropathy. Though therapies are available to alleviate the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, few options are available to eliminate the root causes. The immense physical, psychological, and economic cost of diabetic neuropathy underscore the need for causally targeted therapies. This review covers the pathology, epidemiology, biochemical pathways, and prevention of diabetic neuropathy, as well as discusses current symptomatic and causal therapies and novel approaches to identify therapeutic targets.
Sensory Neurons and Schwann Cells Respond to Oxidative Stress by Increasing Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19072199
Elevated blood glucose is a key initiator of mechanisms leading to diabetic neuropathy. Increases in glucose induce acute mitochondrial oxidative stress in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, the sensory neurons normally affected in diabetic neuropathy, whereas Schwann cells are largely unaffected. We propose that activation of an antioxidant response in DRG neurons would prevent glucose-induced injury. In this study, mild oxidative stress (1 microM H2O2) leads to the activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 and expression of antioxidant (phase II) enzymes. DRG neurons are thus protected from subsequent hyperglycemia-induced injury, as determined by activation of caspase 3 and the TUNEL assay. Schwann cells display high basal antioxidant enzyme expression and respond to hyperglycemia and mild oxidative stress via further increases in these enzymes. The botanical compounds resveratrol and sulforaphane activate the antioxidant response in DRG neurons. Other drugs that protect DRG neurons and block mitochondrial superoxide, identified in a compound screen, have differential ability to activate the antioxidant response. Multiple cellular targets exist for the prevention of hyperglycemic oxidative stress in DRG neurons, and these form the basis for new therapeutic strategies against diabetic neuropathy.
Diabetes. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19592619
Neuropathy is a frequent and severe complication of diabetes. Multiple metabolic defects in type 2 diabetic patients result in oxidative injury of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Our previous work focused on hyperglycemia clearly demonstrates induction of mitochondrial oxidative stress and acute injury in DRG neurons; however, this mechanism is not the only factor that produces neuropathy in vivo. Dyslipidemia also correlates with the development of neuropathy, even in pre-diabetic patients. This study was designed to explore the contribution of dyslipidemia in neuropathy.
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System : JPNS. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20021567
Emerging data establish dyslipidemia as a significant contributor to the development of diabetic neuropathy. In this review, we discuss how separate metabolic imbalances, including hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, converge on mechanisms leading to oxidative stress in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. We conclude with suggestions for novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or reverse diabetes-induced nerve degeneration.
Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Fission in Axons in Cell Culture and Animal Models of Diabetic Neuropathy
Acta Neuropathologica. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20473509
Mitochondrial-mediated oxidative stress in response to high glucose is proposed as a primary cause of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neuron injury in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. In the present study, we report a greater number of mitochondria in both myelinated and unmyelinated dorsal root axons in a well-established model of murine diabetic neuropathy. No similar changes were seen in younger diabetic animals without neuropathy or in the ventral motor roots of any diabetic animals. These findings led us to examine mitochondrial biogenesis and fission in response to hyperglycemia in the neurites of cultured DRG neurons. We demonstrate overall mitochondrial biogenesis via increases in mitochondrial transcription factors and increases in mitochondrial DNA in both DRG neurons and axons. However, this process occurs over a longer time period than a rapidly observed increase in the number of mitochondria in DRG neurites that appears to result, at least in part, from mitochondrial fission. We conclude that during acute hyperglycemia, mitochondrial fission is a prominent response, and excessive mitochondrial fission may result in dysregulation of energy production, activation of caspase 3, and subsequent DRG neuron injury. During more prolonged hyperglycemia, there is evidence of compensatory mitochondrial biogenesis in axons. Our data suggest that an imbalance between mitochondrial biogenesis and fission may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy.
Nature Reviews. Neurology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21912405
In patients with diabetes, nerve injury is a common complication that leads to chronic pain, numbness and substantial loss of quality of life. Good glycemic control can decrease the incidence of diabetic neuropathy, but more than half of all patients with diabetes still develop this complication. There is no approved treatment to prevent or halt diabetic neuropathy, and only symptomatic pain therapies, with variable efficacy, are available. New insights into the mechanisms leading to the development of diabetic neuropathy continue to point to systemic and cellular imbalances in metabolites of glucose and lipids. In the PNS, sensory neurons, Schwann cells and the microvascular endothelium are vulnerable to oxidative and inflammatory stress in the presence of these altered metabolic substrates. This Review discusses the emerging cellular mechanisms that are activated in the diabetic milieu of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and impaired insulin signaling. We highlight the pathways to cellular injury, thereby identifying promising therapeutic targets, including mitochondrial function and inflammation.