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In JoVE (1)
- Determination of Molecular Structures of HIV Envelope Glycoproteins using Cryo-Electron Tomography and Automated Sub-tomogram Averaging
Other Publications (7)
Articles by Darrell E. Hurt in JoVE
Determination of Molecular Structures of HIV Envelope Glycoproteins using Cryo-Electron Tomography and Automated Sub-tomogram Averaging
Joel R. Meyerson1,2, Tommi A. White1, Donald Bliss3, Amy Moran3, Alberto Bartesaghi1, Mario J. Borgnia1, M. Jason V. de la Cruz1, David Schauder1, Lisa M. Hartnell1, Rachna Nandwani1,4, Moez Dawood5, Brianna Kim6, Jun Hong Kim7, John Sununu8, Lisa Yang9, Siddhant Bhatia10, Carolyn Subramaniam1, Darrell E. Hurt11, Laurent Gaudreault12, Sriram Subramaniam1
1Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 2The Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, 3National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 4Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5William Fremd High School, 6University of Virginia, 7Duke University, 8Yale University, 9University of Notre Dame, 10Washington University in St. Louis, 11Bioinformatics and Computational Biosciences Branch, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 12Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology
The protocol describes a high-throughput approach to determining structures of membrane proteins using cryo-electron tomography and 3D image processing. It covers the details of specimen preparation, data collection, data processing and interpretation, and concludes with the production of a representative target for the approach, the HIV-1 Envelope glycoprotein. These computational procedures are designed in a way that enables researchers and students to work remotely and contribute to data processing and structural analysis.
Other articles by Darrell E. Hurt on PubMed
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16406782
Therapeutic agents brequinar sodium and leflunomide (Arava) work by binding in a hydrophobic tunnel formed by a highly variable N-terminus of family 2 dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH). The X-ray crystallographic structure of an analog of brequinar bound to human DHODH was determined. In silico screening of a library of compounds suggested another subset of brequinar analogs that do not inhibit human DHODH as potentially effective inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum DHODH.
Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Biological Crystallography. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16510978
Membrane-associated dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is an antimalarial therapeutic target without an effective inhibitor. Studies on human DHODH (HsDHODH) led to a structural mechanistic model in which respiratory quinones bind in a tunnel formed by the highly variable N-terminus that leads to the flavin mononucleotide-binding site. The therapeutic agents leflunomide (Arava) and brequinar sodium inhibit HsDHODH by binding in this tunnel. Plasmodium falciparum DHODH (PfDHODH) and HsDHODH have markedly different sensitivities to the two drugs. To understand the structural basis of this differential sensitivity and begin a structure-based drug-design cycle for PfDHODH inhibitors, the three-dimensional structure (2.4 Angstroms, R = 20.1%) of PfDHODH bound to the active metabolite of leflunomide was determined by X-ray crystallography. Comparison of the structures of HsDHODH and PfDHODH reveals a completely different binding mode for the same inhibitor in these two catalytically identical enzymes and explains the previously observed species-specific preferential binding. Because no effective inhibitors have been described for PfDHODH, this structure provides critical insight for the design of potential antimalarials.
Characterization of a Protective Escherichia Coli-expressed Plasmodium Falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 3 Indicates a Non-linear, Multi-domain Structure
Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19073223
Immunization with a recombinant yeast-expressed Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) protected Aotus nancymai monkeys against a virulent challenge infection. Unfortunately, the production process for this yeast-expressed material was not optimal for human trials. In an effort to produce a recombinant MSP3 protein in a scaleable manner, we expressed and purified near-full-length MSP3 in Escherichia coli (EcMSP3). Purified EcMSP3 formed non-globular dimers as determined by analytical size-exclusion HPLC with in-line multi-angle light scatter and quasi-elastic light scatter detection and velocity sedimentation (R(h) 7.6+/-0.2nm and 6.9nm, respectively). Evaluation by high-resolution atomic force microscopy revealed non-linear asymmetric structures, with beaded domains and flexible loops that were recognized predominantly as dimers, although monomers and larger multimers were observed. The beaded substructure corresponds to predicted structural domains, which explains the velocity sedimentation results and improves the conceptual model of the protein. Vaccination with EcMSP3 in Freund's adjuvant-induced antibodies that recognized native MSP3 in parasitized erythrocytes by an immunofluorescence assay and gave delayed time to treatment in a group of Aotus monkeys in a virulent challenge infection with the FVO strain of P. falciparum. Three of the seven monkeys vaccinated with EcMSP3 had low peak parasitemias. EcMSP3, which likely mimics the native MSP3 structure located on the merozoite surface, is a viable candidate for inclusion in a multi-component malaria vaccine.
Structure of the Plasmodium Falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein, a Leading Malaria Vaccine Candidate
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19633296
The Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) is critical for sporozoite function and invasion of hepatocytes. Given its critical nature, a phase III human CSP malaria vaccine trial is ongoing. The CSP is composed of three regions as follows: an N terminus that binds heparin sulfate proteoglycans, a four amino acid repeat region (NANP), and a C terminus that contains a thrombospondin-like type I repeat (TSR) domain. Despite the importance of CSP, little is known about its structure. Therefore, recombinant forms of CSP were produced by expression in both Escherichia coli (Ec) and then refolded (EcCSP) or in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (PpCSP) for structural analyses. To analyze the TSR domain of recombinant CSP, conformation-dependent monoclonal antibodies that recognized unfixed P. falciparum sporozoites and inhibited sporozoite invasion of HepG2 cells in vitro were identified. These monoclonal antibodies recognized all recombinant CSPs, indicating the recombinant CSPs contain a properly folded TSR domain structure. Characterization of both EcCSP and PpCSP by dynamic light scattering and velocity sedimentation demonstrated that both forms of CSP appeared as highly extended proteins (R(h) 4.2 and 4.58 nm, respectively). Furthermore, high resolution atomic force microscopy revealed flexible, rod-like structures with a ribbon-like appearance. Using this information, we modeled the NANP repeat and TSR domain of CSP. Consistent with the biochemical and biophysical results, the repeat region formed a rod-like structure about 21-25 nm in length and 1.5 nm in width. Thus native CSP appears as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored, flexible rod-like protein on the sporozoite surface.
Noncoding RNA Gas5 is a Growth Arrest- and Starvation-associated Repressor of the Glucocorticoid Receptor
Science Signaling. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20124551
The availability of nutrients influences cellular growth and survival by affecting gene transcription. Glucocorticoids also influence gene transcription and have diverse activities on cell growth, energy expenditure, and survival. We found that the growth arrest-specific 5 (Gas5) noncoding RNA, which is abundant in cells whose growth has been arrested because of lack of nutrients or growth factors, sensitized cells to apoptosis by suppressing glucocorticoid-mediated induction of several responsive genes, including the one encoding cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2. Gas5 bound to the DNA-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) by acting as a decoy glucocorticoid response element (GRE), thus competing with DNA GREs for binding to the GR. We conclude that Gas5 is a "riborepressor" of the GR, influencing cell survival and metabolic activities during starvation by modulating the transcriptional activity of the GR.
A Novel Point Mutation in Helix 10 of the Human Glucocorticoid Receptor Causes Generalized Glucocorticoid Resistance by Disrupting the Structure of the Ligand-binding Domain
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20335448
Generalized glucocorticoid resistance syndrome is a rare familial or sporadic condition characterized by partial insensitivity to glucocorticoids, caused by mutations in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene. Most of the reported cases are adults, demonstrating symptoms associated with mineralocorticoid and/or adrenal androgen excess caused by compensatively increased secretion of the adrenocorticotropic hormone.
PLoS Pathogens. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21124818
Antigenic drift in the influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) is responsible for seasonal reformulation of influenza vaccines. Here, we address an important and largely overlooked issue in antigenic drift: how does the number and location of glycosylation sites affect HA evolution in man? We analyzed the glycosylation status of all full-length H1 subtype HA sequences available in the NCBI influenza database. We devised the "flow index" (FI), a simple algorithm that calculates the tendency for viruses to gain or lose consensus glycosylation sites. The FI predicts the predominance of glycosylation states among existing strains. Our analyses show that while the number of glycosylation sites in the HA globular domain does not influence the overall magnitude of variation in defined antigenic regions, variation focuses on those regions unshielded by glycosylation. This supports the conclusion that glycosylation generally shields HA from antibody-mediated neutralization, and implies that fitness costs in accommodating oligosaccharides limit virus escape via HA hyperglycosylation.