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In JoVE (1)
- Determination of Molecular Structures of HIV Envelope Glycoproteins using Cryo-Electron Tomography and Automated Sub-tomogram Averaging
Other Publications (7)
Articles by Donald Bliss in JoVE
Determination of Molecular Structures of HIV Envelope Glycoproteins using Cryo-Electron Tomography and Automated Sub-tomogram Averaging
Joel R. Meyerson1,2, Tommi A. White1, Donald Bliss3, Amy Moran3, Alberto Bartesaghi1, Mario J. Borgnia1, M. Jason V. de la Cruz1, David Schauder1, Lisa M. Hartnell1, Rachna Nandwani1,4, Moez Dawood5, Brianna Kim6, Jun Hong Kim7, John Sununu8, Lisa Yang9, Siddhant Bhatia10, Carolyn Subramaniam1, Darrell E. Hurt11, Laurent Gaudreault12, Sriram Subramaniam1
1Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 2The Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, 3National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 4Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5William Fremd High School, 6University of Virginia, 7Duke University, 8Yale University, 9University of Notre Dame, 10Washington University in St. Louis, 11Bioinformatics and Computational Biosciences Branch, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 12Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology
The protocol describes a high-throughput approach to determining structures of membrane proteins using cryo-electron tomography and 3D image processing. It covers the details of specimen preparation, data collection, data processing and interpretation, and concludes with the production of a representative target for the approach, the HIV-1 Envelope glycoprotein. These computational procedures are designed in a way that enables researchers and students to work remotely and contribute to data processing and structural analysis.
Other articles by Donald Bliss on PubMed
Three-dimensional Electron Microscopic Imaging of Membrane Invaginations in Escherichia Coli Overproducing the Chemotaxis Receptor Tsr
Journal of Bacteriology. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15262942
Electron tomography is a powerful method for determining the three-dimensional structures of large macromolecular assemblies, such as cells, organelles, and multiprotein complexes, when crystallographic averaging methods are not applicable. Here we used electron tomographic imaging to determine the molecular architecture of Escherichia coli cells engineered to overproduce the bacterial chemotaxis receptor Tsr. Tomograms constructed from fixed, cryosectioned cells revealed that overproduction of Tsr led to formation of an extended internal membrane network composed of stacks and extended tubular structures. We present an interpretation of the tomogram in terms of the packing arrangement of Tsr using constraints derived from previous X-ray and electron-crystallographic studies of receptor clusters. Our results imply that the interaction between the cytoplasmic ends of Tsr is likely to stabilize the presence of the membrane networks in cells overproducing Tsr. We propose that membrane invaginations that are potentially capable of supporting axial interactions between receptor clusters in apposing membranes could also be present in wild-type E. coli and that such receptor aggregates could play an important role in signal transduction during bacterial chemotaxis.
Cryoelectron Tomographic Analysis of an HIV-neutralizing Protein and Its Complex with Native Viral Gp120
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17599917
Identifying structural determinants of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) neutralization is an important component of rational drug and vaccine design. We used cryoelectron tomography and atomic force microscopy to characterize the structure of an extremely potent HIV-neutralizing protein, D1D2-Ig alpha tp (abbreviated as D1D2-IgP), a polyvalent antibody construct that presents dodecameric CD4 in place of the Fab regions. We show that D1D2-IgP has a novel structure, displaying greater flexibility of its antibody arms than the closely related IgM. Using simian immunodeficiency virus in complex with D1D2-IgP, we present unequivocal evidence that D1D2-IgP can cross-link surface spikes on the same virus and on neighboring viruses. The observed binding to the viral envelope spikes is the result of specific CD4-gp120 interaction, because binding was not observed with MICA-IgP, a construct that is identical to D1D2-IgP except that major histocompatibility complex Class I-related Chain A (MICA) replaces the CD4 moiety. CD4-mediated binding was also associated with a significantly elevated proportion of ruptured viruses. The ratio of inactivated to CD4-liganded gp120-gp41 spikes can be much greater than 1:1, because all gp120-gp41 spikes on the closely apposed surfaces of cross-linked viruses should be incapable of accessing the target cell surface and mediating entry, as a result of inter-virus spike cross-linking. These results implicate flexibility rather than steric bulk or polyvalence per se as a structural explanation for the extreme potency of D1D2-IgP and thus suggest polyvalence presented on a flexible scaffold as a key design criterion for small molecule HIV entry inhibitors.
Journal of Structural Biology. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19116171
Understanding the hierarchical organization of molecules and organelles within the interior of large eukaryotic cells is a challenge of fundamental interest in cell biology. We are using ion-abrasion scanning electron microscopy (IA-SEM) to visualize this hierarchical organization in an approach that combines focused ion-beam milling with scanning electron microscopy. Here, we extend our previous studies on imaging yeast cells to image subcellular architecture in human melanoma cells and melanocytes at resolutions as high as approximately 6 and approximately 20 nm in the directions parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the direction of ion-beam milling. The 3D images demonstrate the striking spatial relationships between specific organelles such as mitochondria and membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, and the distribution of unique cellular components such as melanosomes. We also show that 10nm-sized gold particles and quantum dot particles with 7 nm-sized cores can be detected in single cross-sectional images. IA-SEM is thus a useful tool for imaging large mammalian cells in their entirety at resolutions in the nanometer range.
Ion-abrasion Scanning Electron Microscopy Reveals Surface-connected Tubular Conduits in HIV-infected Macrophages
PLoS Pathogens. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19779568
HIV-1-containing internal compartments are readily detected in images of thin sections from infected cells using conventional transmission electron microscopy, but the origin, connectivity, and 3D distribution of these compartments has remained controversial. Here, we report the 3D distribution of viruses in HIV-1-infected primary human macrophages using cryo-electron tomography and ion-abrasion scanning electron microscopy (IA-SEM), a recently developed approach for nanoscale 3D imaging of whole cells. Using IA-SEM, we show the presence of an extensive network of HIV-1-containing tubular compartments in infected macrophages, with diameters of approximately 150-200 nm, and lengths of up to approximately 5 microm that extend to the cell surface from vesicular compartments that contain assembling HIV-1 virions. These types of surface-connected tubular compartments are not observed in T cells infected with the 29/31 KE Gag-matrix mutant where the virus is targeted to multi-vesicular bodies and released into the extracellular medium. IA-SEM imaging also allows visualization of large sheet-like structures that extend outward from the surfaces of macrophages, which may bend and fold back to allow continual creation of viral compartments and virion-lined channels. This potential mechanism for efficient virus trafficking between the cell surface and interior may represent a subversion of pre-existing vesicular machinery for antigen capture, processing, sequestration, and presentation.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20624966
The efficiency of HIV infection is greatly enhanced when the virus is delivered at conjugates between CD4+ T cells and virus-bearing antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages or dendritic cells via specialized structures known as virological synapses. Using ion abrasion SEM, electron tomography, and superresolution light microscopy, we have analyzed the spatial architecture of cell-cell contacts and distribution of HIV virions at virological synapses formed between mature dendritic cells and T cells. We demonstrate the striking envelopment of T cells by sheet-like membrane extensions derived from mature dendritic cells, resulting in a shielded region for formation of virological synapses. Within the synapse, filopodial extensions emanating from CD4+ T cells make contact with HIV virions sequestered deep within a 3D network of surface-accessible compartments in the dendritic cell. Viruses are detected at the membrane surfaces of both dendritic cells and T cells, but virions are not released passively at the synapse; instead, virus transfer requires the engagement of T-cell CD4 receptors. The relative seclusion of T cells from the extracellular milieu, the burial of the site of HIV transfer, and the receptor-dependent initiation of virion transfer by T cells highlight unique aspects of cell-cell HIV transmission.
Journal of Bacteriology. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21148724
We present a cryo-electron tomographic analysis of the three-dimensional architecture of a strain of the Gram-negative bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus in which endogenous MreB2 was replaced with monomeric teal fluorescent protein (mTFP)-labeled MreB2. In contrast to wild-type Bdellovibrio cells that predominantly displayed a compact nucleoid region, cells expressing mTFP-labeled MreB2 displayed a twisted spiral organization of the nucleoid. The more open structure of the MreB2-mTFP nucleoids enabled clear in situ visualization of ribosomes decorating the periphery of the nucleoid. Ribosomes also bordered the edges of more compact nucleoids from both wild-type cells and mutant cells. Surprisingly, MreB2-mTFP localized to the interface between the spiral nucleoid and the cytoplasm, suggesting an intimate connection between nucleoid architecture and MreB arrangement. Further, in contrast to wild-type cells, where a single tight chemoreceptor cluster localizes close to the single polar flagellum, MreB2-mTFP cells often displayed extended chemoreceptor arrays present at one or both poles and displayed multiple or inaccurately positioned flagella. Our findings provide direct structural evidence for spiral organization of the bacterial nucleoid and suggest a possible role for MreB in regulation of nucleoid architecture and localization of the chemotaxis apparatus.