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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (24)
- Developmental Biology
- Analytical Chemistry
- Chemistry & Biology
- Analytical Chemistry
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Journal of Structural Biology
- Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP
- Journal of Lipid Research
- Journal of Proteome Research
- Journal of Proteome Research
- Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
- Analytical Chemistry
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Analytical Biochemistry
- Journal of Biomolecular Techniques : JBT
- Analytical Chemistry
- Journal of Bacteriology
- Cell Host & Microbe
- Journal of Proteome Research
- Clinical Chemistry
Articles by H. Ewa Witkowska in JoVE
A Lectin HPLC Method to Enrich Selectively-glycosylated Peptides from Complex Biological Samples
Eric Johansen1, Birgit Schilling2, Michael Lerch1, Richard K. Niles1, Haichuan Liu1, Bensheng Li2, Simon Allen1, Steven C. Hall1, H. Ewa Witkowska1, Fred E. Regnier3, Bradford W. Gibson2, Susan J. Fisher1, Penelope M. Drake1
1Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco - UCSF, 2Buck Institute for Age Research, 3Department of Chemistry, Purdue University
Lectin-conjugated POROS beads were employed for HPLC. Glycopeptide standards served as positive and negative controls. MARS-14 depleted, trypsin-digested human plasma was chromatographed and flow-through (FT) and bound fractions collected for ESI-LC-MS/MS analyses. Glycopeptides were enriched in the bound fraction as compared to FT.
Other articles by H. Ewa Witkowska on PubMed
Developmental Biology. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12618133
Hemoglobin switching is a complex process by which distinct globin chains are produced during stages of development. In an effort to characterize the process of hemoglobin switching in the zebrafish model system, we have isolated and characterized several embryonic globin genes. The embryonic and adult globin genes are found in clusters in a head-to-head configuration. One cluster of embryonic and adult genes is localized to linkage group 3, whereas another embryonic cluster is localized on linkage group 12. Several embryonic globin genes demonstrate an erythroid-specific pattern of expression early during embryogenesis and later are downregulated as definitive hematopoiesis occurs. We utilized electrospray mass spectroscopy to correlate globin genes and protein expression in developing embryonic red cells. The mutation, zinfandel, has a hypochromic microcytic anemia as an embryo, but later recovers in adulthood. The zinfandel gene maps to linkage group 3 near the major globin gene locus, strongly suggesting that zinfandel represents an embryonic globin defect. Our studies are the first to systematically evaluate the embryonic globins in the zebrafish and will ultimately be useful in evaluating zebrafish mutants with defects in hemoglobin production and switching.
Analytical Chemistry. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12918997
Desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) tandem time-of-flight (TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) provides high accuracy and significant fragmentation information, particularly in the characterization of biomolecules. DIOS TOF/TOF offers a high-throughput surface-based ionization platform as well as complete fragmentation through high collision energies. The absence of matrix interference in DIOS allows for the MS and MS/MS analysis of small molecules well below m/z 300. In addition, sample preparation is minimal, and the DIOS chips can be stored and reanalyzed for fragmentation information or accurate mass measurements. The combined benefits of robustness, minimal sample preparation, good sensitivity, high throughput, and sequencing capability make DIOS TOF/TOF a powerful tool for small molecule characterization and protein identification.
Chemistry & Biology. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15610851
The role of the beta-ketoacyl synthase domains in dimerization of the 2505 residue subunits of the multifunctional animal FAS has been evaluated by a combination of crosslinking and characterization of several truncated forms of the protein. Polypeptides containing only the N-terminal 971 residues can form dimers, but polypeptides lacking only the N-terminal 422 residue beta-ketoacyl synthase domain cannot. FAS subunits can be crosslinked with spacer lengths as short as 6 A, via cysteine residues engineered near the N terminus of the full-length polypeptides. The proximity of the N-terminal beta-ketoacyl synthase domains and their essential role in dimerization is consistent with a revised model for the FAS in which a head-to-head arrangement of two coiled subunits facilitates functional interactions between the dimeric beta-ketoacyl synthase and the acyl carrier protein domains of either subunit.
Toward Defining the Human Parotid Gland Salivary Proteome and Peptidome: Identification and Characterization Using 2D SDS-PAGE, Ultrafiltration, HPLC, and Mass Spectrometry
Biochemistry. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15723531
Saliva plays many biological roles, from lubrication and digestion to regulating bacterial and leukocyte adhesion. To understand the functions of individual components and families of molecules, it is important to identify as many salivary proteins as possible. Toward this goal, we used a proteomic approach as the first step in a global analysis of this important body fluid. We collected parotid saliva as the ductal secretion from three human donors and separated the protein components by two-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE). Proteins in gel spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting, and the results were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry of selected peptides. Complementing this approach we used ultrafiltration to prepare a low-molecular-weight fraction of parotid saliva, which was analyzed directly or after reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation by using mass spectrometric approaches. MS analyses of 2D SDS-PAGE spots revealed known components of saliva, including cystatins, histatins, lysozyme, and isoforms and/or fragments of alpha-amylase, albumin, and proline-rich proteins. We also discovered novel proteins, such as several isoforms of Zn-alpha-2-glycoprotein and secretory actin-binding protein. MS analyses of the ultrafiltrate showed that the low-molecular-weight fraction of parotid saliva was peptide-rich, with novel fragments of proline-rich proteins and histatins in abundance. Experiments using Candida albicans as the test organism showed that at least one of the novel peptides had antifungal activity. Our results show that saliva is a rich source of proteins and peptides that are potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets.
Assessing the Effects of Diurnal Variation on the Composition of Human Parotid Saliva: Quantitative Analysis of Native Peptides Using ITRAQ Reagents
Analytical Chemistry. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16053308
Changes in salivary composition correlate with disease susceptibility, disease state, or both. However, use of saliva for diagnostic purposes is complicated by the gland-specific effects of circadian rhythm or diurnal variation. We recently characterized a suite of peptides in the < or =10-kDa fraction of human parotid saliva that included many novel species. In this study, we used novel iTRAQ labeling chemistry to investigate possible diurnal effects on peptide generation. We collected samples produced by gustatory stimulation as the ductal secretions at four time points under conditions that minimized proteolysis, pooled them according to collection time, and isolated the LMW fractions. Samples collected at each collection time were derivatized with a different isobaric iTRAQ reagent. The labeled samples were combined, separated by reversed-phase HPLC, co-spotted with matrix on MALDI targets, and analyzed by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. With this approach, we achieved relative quantification of the parotid peptides at four time points. In several cases, abundance during the day changed dramatically. iTRAQ tagging improved the efficiency of MS/MS fragmentation, which in turn allowed the identification of several novel peptides. Our results demonstrated both the utility of this method and the importance of diurnal effects on the composition of the human parotid saliva peptidome.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17030807
APOBEC3G (A3G) and related deoxycytidine deaminases are potent intrinsic antiretroviral factors. A3G is expressed either as an enzymatically active low-molecular-mass (LMM) form or as an enzymatically inactive high-molecular-mass (HMM) ribonucleoprotein complex. Resting CD4 T cells exclusively express LMM A3G, where it functions as a powerful postentry restriction factor for HIV-1. Activation of CD4 T cells promotes the recruitment of LMM A3G into 5- to 15-MDa HMM complexes whose function is unknown. Using tandem affinity purification techniques coupled with MS, we identified Staufen-containing RNA-transporting granules and Ro ribonucleoprotein complexes as specific components of HMM A3G complexes. Analysis of RNAs in these complexes revealed Alu and small Y RNAs, two of the most prominent nonautonomous mobile genetic elements in human cells. These retroelement RNAs are recruited into Staufen-containing RNA-transporting granules in the presence of A3G. Retrotransposition of Alu and hY RNAs depends on the reverse transcriptase machinery provided by long interspersed nucleotide elements 1 (L1). We now show that A3G greatly inhibits L1-dependent retrotransposition of marked Alu retroelements not by inhibiting L1 function but by sequestering Alu RNAs in cytoplasmic HMM A3G complexes away from the nuclear L1 enzymatic machinery. These findings identify nonautonomous Alu and hY retroelements as natural cellular targets of A3G and highlight how different forms of A3G uniquely protect cells from the threats posed by exogenous retroviruses (LMM A3G) and endogenous retroelements (HMM A3G).
Journal of Structural Biology. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17400475
Pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductatse (PFOR) carries out the central step in oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. We have purified this enzyme from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) as part of a systematic characterization of as many multiprotein complexes as possible for this organism, and the three-dimensional structure of this enzyme has been determined by a combination of electron microscopy (EM), single particle image analysis, homology modeling and computational molecular docking. Our results show that the 1MDa DvH PFOR complex is a homo-octomer, or more precisely, a tetramer of the dimeric form of the related enzyme found in Desulfovibrio africanus (Da), with which it shares a sequence identity of 69%. Our homology model of the DvH PFOR dimer is based on the Da PFOR X-ray structure. Docking of this model into our 17A resolution EM-reconstruction of negatively stained DvH PFOR octomers strongly suggests that the difference in oligomerization state for the two species is due to the insertion of a single valine residue (Val383) within a surface loop of the DvH enzyme. This study demonstrates that the strategy of intermediate resolution EM reconstruction coupled to homology modeling and docking can be powerful enough to infer the functionality of single amino acid residues.
The Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Proteomics Research Group 2006 Study: Relative Protein Quantitation
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17513294
The determination of differences in relative protein abundance is a critical aspect of proteomics research that is increasingly used to answer diverse biological questions. The Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Proteomics Research Group 2006 study was a quantitative proteomics project in which the aim was to determine the identity and the relative amounts of eight proteins in two mixtures. There are numerous methodologies available to study the relative abundance of proteins between samples, but to date, there are few examples of studies that have compared these different approaches. For the 2006 Proteomics Research Group study, there were 52 participants who used a wide variety of gel electrophoresis-, HPLC-, and mass spectrometry-based methods for relative quantitation. The quantitative data arising from this study were evaluated along with several other experimental details relevant to the methodologies used.
Journal of Lipid Research. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17308333
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a major protein component of cholesterol-transporting lipoprotein particles in the central nervous system and in plasma. Polymorphisms of apoE are associated with cardiovascular disease and with a predisposition to Alzheimer's disease and other forms of neurodegeneration. For full biological activity, apoE must be bound to a lipoprotein particle. Complexes of apoE and phospholipid mimic many of these activities. In contrast to a widely accepted discoidal model of apoA-I bound to dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, which is based on solution studies, an X-ray diffraction study of apoE bound to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) indicated that apoE*DPPC particles are quasi-spheroidal and that the packing of the phospholipid core is similar to a micelle. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, we show that apoE*DPPC particles in solution are ellipsoidal and that the shape of the phospholipid core is compatible with a twisted-bilayer model. The proposed model is consistent with the results of mass spectrometric analysis of products of limited proteolysis. These revealed that the nonlipid-bound regions of apoE in the particle are consistent with an alpha-helical hairpin.
A Mass Spectrometry-based Strategy for Detecting and Characterizing Endogenous Proteinase Activities in Complex Biological Samples
Proteomics. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18186022
Endogenous proteinases in biological fluids such as human saliva produce a rich peptide repertoire that reflects a unique combination of enzymes, substrates, and inhibitors/activators. Accordingly, this subproteome is an interesting source of biomarkers for disease processes that either directly or indirectly involve proteolysis. However, the relevant proteinases, typically very low abundance molecules, are difficult to classify and identify. We hypothesized that a sensitive technique for monitoring accumulated peptide products in an unbiased, global manner would be very useful for detecting and profiling proteolytic activities in complex biological samples. Building on the longstanding use of 18O isotope-based approaches for the classification of proteolytic and other enzymatic processes we devised a new method for evaluating endogenous proteinases. Specifically, we showed that upon ex vivo incubation endogenous proteinases in human parotid saliva introduced 18O from isotopically enriched water into the C-terminal carboxylic groups of their peptide products. Subsequent peptide sequence determination and inhibitor profiling enabled the detection of discrete subsets of proteolytic products that were generated by different enzymes. As a proof-of-principle we used one of these fingerprints to identify the relevant activity as tissue kallikrein. We termed this technique PALeO. Our results suggest that PALeO is a rapid and highly sensitive method for globally assessing proteinase activities in complex biological samples.
A "tagless" Strategy for Identification of Stable Protein Complexes Genome-wide by Multidimensional Orthogonal Chromatographic Separation and ITRAQ Reagent Tracking
Journal of Proteome Research. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18336004
Tandem affinity purification is the principal method for purifying and identifying stable protein complexes system-wide in whole cells. Although highly effective, this approach is laborious and impractical in organisms where genetic manipulation is not possible. Here, we propose a novel "tagless" strategy that combines multidimensional separation of endogenous complexes with mass spectrometric monitoring of their composition. In this procedure, putative protein complexes are identified based on the comigration of collections of polypeptides through multiple orthogonal separation steps. We present proof-of-principle evidence for the feasibility of key aspects of this strategy. A majority of Escherichia coli proteins are shown to remain in stable complexes during fractionation of a crude extract through three chromatographic steps. We also demonstrate that iTRAQ reagent-based tracking can quantify relative migration of polypeptides through chromatographic separation media. LC MALDI MS and MS/MS analysis of the iTRAQ-labeled peptides gave reliable relative quantification of 37 components of 13 known E. coli complexes: 95% of known complex components closely co-eluted and 57% were automatically grouped by a prototype computational clustering method. With further technological improvements in each step, we believe this strategy will dramatically improve the efficiency of the purification and identification of protein complexes in cells.
The Proteomes of Human Parotid and Submandibular/sublingual Gland Salivas Collected As the Ductal Secretions
Journal of Proteome Research. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18361515
Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications--914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva--were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19003977
Existing data indicate that sleep-wakefulness is an essential behavior. The biological function(s) of sleep, however, remains unknown, due, in part, to the lack of information available at the intracellular level. Preliminary microarray analyses show that changes in behavioral state influence regional mRNA profiles; however, the impact of sleep on protein signatures is virtually unexplored. In these studies, cortical protein profiles were examined after timed bouts of spontaneous sleep-wakefulness. Within minutes of each behavioral state examined, a small number of spots showing unique expression were detected. Mass spectroscopy analyses of sleep- and wake-related spots identified proteins associated with multiple functional categories. Two sleep-associated proteins were further validated using a sleep deprivation paradigm. We found preliminary evidence for two different post-transcriptional mechanisms-one (GAPDH) in which the amount of protein was increased in the recovery sleep following prolonged waking, while the other (actin) suggested that post-translational modifications may underlie sleep. The similarities between the effects of sleep on both protein and mRNA profiles indicate that dynamic intracellular changes underlie sleep-wake states and are consistent with roles for sleep in multiple biological functions.
Analytical Chemistry. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19243188
In enzymatic (18)O-labeling strategies for quantitative proteomics, the exchange of carboxyl oxygens at low pH is a common, undesired side reaction. We asked if acid-catalyzed back exchange could interfere with quantitation and whether the reaction itself could be used as method for introducing (18)O label into peptides. Several synthetic peptides were dissolved in dilute acid containing 50% (v/v) H(2)(18)O and incubated at room temperature. Aliquots were removed over a period of 3 weeks and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). (18)O-incorporation ratios were determined by linear regression analysis that allowed for multiple stable-isotope incorporations. At low pH, peptides exchanged their carboxyl oxygen atoms with the aqueous solvent. The isotope patterns gradually shifted to higher masses until they reached the expected binomial distribution at equilibrium after approximately 11 days. Reaction rates were residue- and sequence-specific. Due to its slow nature, the acid-catalyzed back exchange is expected to minimally interfere with enzymatic (18)O-labeling studies provided that storage and analysis conditions minimize low-pH exposure times. On its own, acid-catalyzed (18)O labeling is a general tagging strategy that is an alternative to the chemical, metabolic, and enzymatic isotope-labeling schemes currently used in quantitative proteomics.
The Sodium-hydrogen Exchanger NHE1 is an Akt Substrate Necessary for Actin Filament Reorganization by Growth Factors
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19622752
The kinase Akt mediates signals from growth factor receptors for increased cell proliferation, survival, and migration, which contribute to the positive effects of Akt in cancer progression. Substrates are generally inhibited when phosphorylated by Akt; however, we show phosphorylation of the plasma membrane sodium-hydrogen exchanger NHE1 by Akt increases exchanger activity (H(+) efflux). Our data fulfill criteria for NHE1 being a bona fide Akt substrate, including direct phosphorylation in vitro, using mass spectrometry and Akt phospho-substrate antibodies to identify Ser(648) as the Akt phosphorylation site and loss of increased exchanger phosphorylation and activity by insulin and platelet-derived growth factor in fibroblasts expressing a mutant NHE1-S648A. How Akt induces actin cytoskeleton remodeling to promote cell migration and tumor cell metastasis is unclear, but disassembly of actin stress fibers by platelet-derived growth factor and insulin and increased proliferation in growth medium are inhibited in fibroblasts expressing NHE1-S648A. We predict that other functions shared by Akt and NHE1, including cell growth and survival, might be regulated by increased H(+) efflux.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19805340
An unbiased survey has been made of the stable, most abundant multi-protein complexes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) that are larger than Mr approximately 400 k. The quaternary structures for 8 of the 16 complexes purified during this work were determined by single-particle reconstruction of negatively stained specimens, a success rate approximately 10 times greater than that of previous "proteomic" screens. In addition, the subunit compositions and stoichiometries of the remaining complexes were determined by biochemical methods. Our data show that the structures of only two of these large complexes, out of the 13 in this set that have recognizable functions, can be modeled with confidence based on the structures of known homologs. These results indicate that there is significantly greater variability in the way that homologous prokaryotic macromolecular complexes are assembled than has generally been appreciated. As a consequence, we suggest that relying solely on previously determined quaternary structures for homologous proteins may not be sufficient to properly understand their role in another cell of interest.
A Lectin Affinity Workflow Targeting Glycosite-specific, Cancer-related Carbohydrate Structures in Trypsin-digested Human Plasma
Analytical Biochemistry. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20705048
Glycans are cell-type-specific, posttranslational protein modifications that are modulated during developmental and disease processes. As such, glycoproteins are attractive biomarker candidates. Here, we describe a mass spectrometry-based workflow that incorporates lectin affinity chromatography to enrich for proteins that carry specific glycan structures. As increases in sialylation and fucosylation are prominent among cancer-associated modifications, we focused on Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) and Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL), lectins which bind sialic acid- and fucose-containing structures, respectively. Fucosylated and sialylated glycopeptides from human lactoferrin served as positive controls, and high-mannose structures from yeast invertase served as negative controls. The standards were spiked into Multiple Affinity Removal System (MARS) 14-depleted, trypsin-digested human plasma from healthy donors. Samples were loaded onto lectin columns, separated by HPLC into flow-through and bound fractions, and treated with peptide: N-glycosidase F to remove N-linked glycans. The deglycosylated peptide fractions were interrogated by ESI HPLC-MS/MS. We identified a total of 122 human plasma glycoproteins containing 247 unique glycosites. Importantly, several of the observed glycoproteins (e.g., cadherin 5 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) typically circulate in plasma at low nanogram per milliliter levels. Together, these results provide mass spectrometry-based evidence of the utility of incorporating lectin-separation platforms into cancer biomarker discovery pipelines.
The ABRF Proteomics Research Group Studies: Educational Exercises for Qualitative and Quantitative Proteomic Analyses
Proteomics. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21394914
Resource (core) facilities have played an ever-increasing role in furnishing the scientific community with specialized instrumentation and expertise for proteomics experiments in a cost-effective manner. The Proteomics Research Group (PRG) of the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) has sponsored a number of research studies designed to enable participants to try new techniques and assess their capabilities relative to other laboratories analyzing the same samples. Presented here are results from three PRG studies representing different samples that are typically analyzed in a core facility, ranging from simple protein identification to targeted analyses, and include intentional challenges to reflect realistic studies. The PRG2008 study compares different strategies for the qualitative characterization of proteins, particularly the utility of complementary methods for characterizing truncated protein forms. The use of different approaches for determining quantitative differences for several target proteins in human plasma was the focus of the PRG2009 study. The PRG2010 study explored different methods for determining specific constituents while identifying unforeseen problems that could account for unanticipated results associated with the different samples, and included (15) N-labeled proteins as an additional challenge. These studies provide a valuable educational resource to research laboratories and core facilities, as well as a mechanism for establishing good laboratory practices.
Journal of Biomolecular Techniques : JBT. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21455478
A major challenge for core facilities is determining quantitative protein differences across complex biological samples. Although there are numerous techniques in the literature for relative and absolute protein quantification, the majority is nonroutine and can be challenging to carry out effectively. There are few studies comparing these technologies in terms of their reproducibility, accuracy, and precision, and no studies to date deal with performance across multiple laboratories with varied levels of expertise. Here, we describe an Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) Proteomics Research Group (PRG) study based on samples composed of a complex protein mixture into which 12 known proteins were added at varying but defined ratios. All of the proteins were present at the same concentration in each of three tubes that were provided. The primary goal of this study was to allow each laboratory to evaluate its capabilities and approaches with regard to: detection and identification of proteins spiked into samples that also contain complex mixtures of background proteins and determination of relative quantities of the spiked proteins. The results returned by 43 participants were compiled by the PRG, which also collected information about the strategies used to assess overall performance and as an aid to development of optimized protocols for the methodologies used. The most accurate results were generally reported by the most experienced laboratories. Among laboratories that used the same technique, values that were closer to the expected ratio were obtained by more experienced groups.
Automated Iterative MS/MS Acquisition: a Tool for Improving Efficiency of Protein Identification Using a LC-MALDI MS Workflow
Analytical Chemistry. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21761829
We have developed an information-dependent, iterative MS/MS acquisition (IMMA) tool for improving MS/MS efficiency, increasing proteome coverage, and shortening analysis time for high-throughput proteomics applications based on the LC-MALDI MS/MS platform. The underlying principle of IMMA is to limit MS/MS analyses to a subset of molecular ions that are likely to identify a maximum number of proteins. IMMA reduces redundancy of MS/MS analyses by excluding from the precursor ion peak lists proteotypic peptides derived from the already identified proteins and uses a retention time prediction algorithm to limit the degree of false exclusions. It also increases the utilization rate of MS/MS spectra by removing "low value" unidentifiable targets like nonpeptides and peptides carrying large loads of modifications, which are flagged by their "nonpeptide" excess-to-nominal mass ratios. For some samples, IMMA increases the number of identified proteins by ∼20-40% when compared to the data dependent methods. IMMA terminates an MS/MS run at the operator-defined point when "costs" (e.g., time of analysis) start to overrun "benefits" (e.g., number of identified proteins), without prior knowledge of sample contents and complexity. To facilitate analysis of closely related samples, IMMA's inclusion list functionality is currently under development.
Evidence-based Annotation of Transcripts and Proteins in the Sulfate-reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio Vulgaris Hildenborough
Journal of Bacteriology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21840973
We used high-resolution tiling microarrays and 5' RNA sequencing to identify transcripts in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a model sulfate-reducing bacterium. We identified the first nucleotide position for 1,124 transcripts, including 54 proteins with leaderless transcripts and another 72 genes for which a major transcript initiates within the upstream protein-coding gene, which confounds measurements of the upstream gene's expression. Sequence analysis of these promoters showed that D. vulgaris prefers -10 and -35 boxes different from those preferred by Escherichia coli. A total of 549 transcripts ended at intrinsic (rho-independent) terminators, but most of the other transcripts seemed to have variable ends. We found low-level antisense expression of most genes, and the 5' ends of these transcripts mapped to promoter-like sequences. Because antisense expression was reduced for highly expressed genes, we suspect that elongation of nonspecific antisense transcripts is suppressed by transcription of the sense strand. Finally, we combined the transcript results with comparative analysis and proteomics data to make 505 revisions to the original annotation of 3,531 proteins: we removed 255 (7.5%) proteins, changed 123 (3.6%) start codons, and added 127 (3.7%) proteins that had been missed. Tiling data had higher coverage than shotgun proteomics and hence led to most of the corrections, but many errors probably remain. Our data are available at http://genomics.lbl.gov/supplemental/DvHtranscripts2011/.
Peptides Released by Physiological Cleavage of Semen Coagulum Proteins Form Amyloids That Enhance HIV Infection
Cell Host & Microbe. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22177559
Semen serves as a vehicle for HIV and promotes sexual transmission of the virus, which accounts for the majority of new HIV cases. The major component of semen is the coagulum, a viscous structure composed predominantly of spermatozoa and semenogelin proteins. Due to the activity of the semen protease PSA, the coagulum is liquefied and semenogelins are cleaved into smaller fragments. Here, we report that a subset of these semenogelin fragments form amyloid fibrils that greatly enhance HIV infection. Like SEVI, another amyloid fibril previously identified in semen, the semenogelin fibrils exhibit a cationic surface and enhance HIV virion attachment and entry. Whereas semen samples from healthy individuals greatly enhance HIV infection, semenogelin-deficient semen samples from patients with ejaculatory duct obstruction are completely deficient in enhancing activity. Semen thus harbors distinct amyloidogenic peptides derived from different precursor proteins that commonly enhance HIV infection and likely contribute to HIV transmission.
A Lectin Chromatography/mass Spectrometry Discovery Workflow Identifies Putative Biomarkers of Aggressive Breast Cancers
Journal of Proteome Research. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22309216
We used a lectin chromatography/MS-based approach to screen conditioned medium from a panel of luminal (less aggressive) and triple negative (more aggressive) breast cancer cell lines (n = 5/subtype). The samples were fractionated using the lectins Aleuria aurantia (AAL) and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), which recognize fucose and sialic acid, respectively. The bound fractions were enzymatically N-deglycosylated and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. In total, we identified 533 glycoproteins, ~90% of which were components of the cell surface or extracellular matrix. We observed 1011 unique glycosites, 100 of which were solely detected in ≥3 triple negative lines. Statistical analyses suggested that a number of these glycosites were triple negative-specific and thus potential biomarkers for this tumor subtype. An analysis of RNAseq data revealed that approximately half of the mRNAs encoding the protein scaffolds that carried potential biomarker glycosites were upregulated in triple negative vs. luminal cell lines, and that a number of genes encoding fucosyl- or sialyltransferases were differentially expressed between the two subtypes, suggesting that alterations in glycosylation may also drive candidate identification. Notably, the glycoproteins from which these putative biomarker candidates were derived are involved in cancer-related processes. Thus, they may represent novel therapeutic targets for this aggressive tumor subtype.
Clinical Chemistry. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22140214