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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (9)
Articles by Malene Urbanus in JoVE
Competitive Genomic Screens of Barcoded Yeast Libraries
Andrew M. Smith*1,2, Tanja Durbic*2,3, Julia Oh*4, Malene Urbanus1,2, Michael Proctor5, Lawrence E. Heisler2,3, Guri Giaever2,6, Corey Nislow1,2,3
1Banting and Best Department of Medical Research and Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, 2Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, 3Donnelly Sequencing Centre, University of Toronto, 4Genetics and Molecular Biology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, 5Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, 6Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto
We have developed comprehensive, unbiased genome-wide screens to understand gene-drug and gene-environment interactions. Methods for screening these mutant collections are presented.
Other articles by Malene Urbanus on PubMed
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11821429
YidC was recently shown to play an important role in the assembly of inner membrane proteins (IMPs) both in conjunction with and separate from the Sec-translocon. Little is known about the biogenesis and structural and functional properties of YidC, itself a polytopic IMP. Here we analyze the targeting and membrane integration of YidC using in vivo and in vitro approaches. The combined data indicate that YidC is targeted by the signal recognition particle and inserts at the SecAYEG-YidC translocon early during biogenesis, unlike its mitochondrial homologue Oxa1p. In addition, YidC is shown to be relatively abundant compared with other components involved in IMP assembly and is predominantly localized at the poles of the cell.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12107184
YidC has been identified recently as an evolutionary conserved factor that is involved in the integration of inner membrane proteins (IMPs) in Escherichia coli. The discovery of YidC has inspired the reevaluation of membrane protein assembly pathways in E. coli. In this study, we have analyzed the role of YidC in membrane integration of a widely used model IMP, leader peptidase (Lep). Site-directed photocross-linking experiments demonstrate that both YidC and SecY contact nascent Lep very early during biogenesis, at only 50-amino acid nascent chain length. At this length the first transmembrane domain (TM), which acquires a type I topology, is not even fully exposed outside the ribosome. The pattern of interactions appears dependent on the position of the cross-linking probe in the nascent chain. Upon elongation, nascent Lep remains close to YidC and comes into contact with lipids as well. Our results suggest a role for YidC in both the reception and lipid partitioning of type I TMs.
Signal Recognition Particle (SRP)-mediated Targeting and Sec-dependent Translocation of an Extracellular Escherichia Coli Protein
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12466262
Hemoglobin protease (Hbp) is a hemoglobin-degrading protein that is secreted by a human pathogenic Escherichia coli strain via the autotransporter mechanism. Little is known about the earliest steps in autotransporter secretion, i.e. the targeting to and translocation across the inner membrane. Here, we present evidence that Hbp interacts with the signal recognition particle (SRP) and the Sec-translocon early during biogenesis. Furthermore, Hbp requires a functional SRP targeting pathway and Sec-translocon for optimal translocation across the inner membrane. SecB is not required for targeting of Hbp but can compensate to some extent for the lack of SRP. Hbp is synthesized with an unusually long signal peptide that is remarkably conserved among a subset of autotransporters. We propose that these autotransporters preferentially use the co-translational SRP/Sec route to avoid adverse effects of the exposure of their mature domains in the cytoplasm.
Detection of Cross-links Between FtsH, YidC, HflK/C Suggests a Linked Role for These Proteins in Quality Control Upon Insertion of Bacterial Inner Membrane Proteins
FEBS Letters. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18387365
Little is known about the quality control of proteins upon integration in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. Here, we demonstrate that YidC and FtsH are adjacent to a nascent, truncated membrane protein using in vitro photo cross-linking. YidC plays a critical but poorly understood role in the biogenesis of E. coli inner membrane proteins (IMPs). FtsH functions as a membrane chaperone and protease. Furthermore, we show that FtsH and its modulator proteins HflK and HflC copurify with tagged YidC and, vice versa, that YidC copurifies with tagged FtsH. These results suggest that FtsH and YidC have a linked role in the quality control of IMPs.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21863492
The automated cell, compound and environment screening system (ACCESS) was developed as an automated platform for chemogenomic research. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a number of genomic screens rely on the modulation of gene dose to determine the mode of action of bioactive compounds or the effects of environmental/compound perturbations. These and other phenotypic experiments have been shown to benefit from high-resolution growth curves and a highly automated controlled environment system that enables a wide range of multi-well assays that can be run over many days without any manual intervention. Furthermore, precise control of drug dosing, timing of drug exposure, and precise timing of cell harvesting at specific generation times are important for optimal results. Some of these benefits include the ability to derive fine distinctions between growth rates of mutant strains (1) and the discovery of novel compounds and drug targets (2). The automation has also enabled large-scale screening projects with over 100,000 unique compounds screened to date including a thousand genome-wide screens (3). The ACCESS system also has a diverse set of software tools to enable users to set up, run, annotate, and evaluate complex screens with minimal training.
A Systems Biology Approach Reveals the Role of a Novel Methyltransferase in Response to Chemical Stress and Lipid Homeostasis
PLoS Genetics. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22028670
Using small molecule probes to understand gene function is an attractive approach that allows functional characterization of genes that are dispensable in standard laboratory conditions and provides insight into the mode of action of these compounds. Using chemogenomic assays we previously identified yeast Crg1, an uncharacterized SAM-dependent methyltransferase, as a novel interactor of the protein phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin. In this study we used a combinatorial approach that exploits contemporary high-throughput techniques available in Saccharomyces cerevisiae combined with rigorous biological follow-up to characterize the interaction of Crg1 with cantharidin. Biochemical analysis of this enzyme followed by a systematic analysis of the interactome and lipidome of CRG1 mutants revealed that Crg1, a stress-responsive SAM-dependent methyltransferase, methylates cantharidin in vitro. Chemogenomic assays uncovered that lipid-related processes are essential for cantharidin resistance in cells sensitized by deletion of the CRG1 gene. Lipidome-wide analysis of mutants further showed that cantharidin induces alterations in glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid abundance in a Crg1-dependent manner. We propose that Crg1 is a small molecule methyltransferase important for maintaining lipid homeostasis in response to drug perturbation. This approach demonstrates the value of combining chemical genomics with other systems-based methods for characterizing proteins and elucidating previously unknown mechanisms of action of small molecule inhibitors.
Chemistry & Biology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22035796
Preselection of compounds that are more likely to induce a phenotype can increase the efficiency and reduce the costs for model organism screening. To identify such molecules, we screened ~81,000 compounds in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified ~7500 that inhibit cell growth. Screening these growth-inhibitory molecules across a diverse panel of model organisms resulted in an increased phenotypic hit-rate. These data were used to build a model to predict compounds that inhibit yeast growth. Empirical and in silico application of the model enriched the discovery of bioactive compounds in diverse model organisms. To demonstrate the potential of these molecules as lead chemical probes, we used chemogenomic profiling in yeast and identified specific inhibitors of lanosterol synthase and of stearoyl-CoA 9-desaturase. As community resources, the ~7500 growth-inhibitory molecules have been made commercially available and the computational model and filter used are provided.
Nature Chemical Biology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22057127
The DAF-9 cytochrome P450 is a key regulator of dauer formation, developmental timing and longevity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we describe the first identified chemical inhibitor of DAF-9 and the first reported small-molecule tool that robustly induces dauer formation in typical culture conditions. This molecule (called dafadine) also inhibits the mammalian ortholog of DAF-9(CYP27A1), suggesting that dafadine can be used to interrogate developmental control and longevity in other animals.
Nature Chemical Biology. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22337098