JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Faculty of Medicine, Rappaport Institute, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 2The Pharmacy and Biochemistry Institute, Johannes Gutenberg University
This protocol describes the preparation of a synthetic tRNA substrate for the Entamoeba histolytica DNA/tRNA methyltransferase 2 (Dnmt2) homolog Ehmeth and the measure of its methyltransferase activity. This experimental approach can be used for investigating the activity of other Dnmt2 proteins.
Published October 19, 2010. Keywords: Immunology, tRNA, methylation, DNA methyltransferase 2, Entamoeba histolytica
1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago
We describe a method for microarray analysis to determine relative aminoacylation levels of all tRNAs from S. cerivisiae.
Published June 18, 2010. Keywords: Cellular Biology, tRNA, aminoacylation, charging, microarray, S. cerevisiae
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama Huntsville, 2Department of Biology, Stanford University
A major impediment to biochemical analyses of ribosomes containing nascent peptidyl-tRNAs has been the presence of other ribosomes in the same samples, ribosomes not involved in the translation of the specific mRNA sequence being analyzed. We developed a simple methodology to purify, exclusively, the ribosomes containing the nascent peptidyl-tRNA of interest.
Published February 25, 2011. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Ribosome stalling, ribosome isolation, peptidyl-tRNA, in vitro translation, RNA chemical modification, puromycin, antibiotics.
1Department of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 2Department of Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology, 3Synthetic Biology Center, Department of Bioengineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 4School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota
This five-day protocol outlines all steps, equipment, and supplemental software necessary for creating and running an efficient endogenous Escherichia coli based TX-TL cell-free expression system from scratch. With reagents, the protocol takes 8 hours or less to setup a reaction, collect, and process data.
Published September 16, 2013. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Bioengineering, Synthetic Biology, Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic, Molecular Biology, control theory, TX-TL, cell-free expression, in vitro, transcription-translation, cell-free protein synthesis, synthetic biology, systems biology, Escherichia coli cell extract, biological circuits, biomolecular breadboard
1Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University
PAD4 is an enzyme responsible for the conversion of peptidyl-arginine to peptidyl-citrulline. Dysregulation of PAD4 has been implicated in a number of human diseases. A facile and high-throughput compatible fluorescence based PAD4 assay is described.
Published November 5, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, PAD4, PADI4, citrullination, arginine, post-translational modification, HTS, assay, fluorescence, citrulline
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 2Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 3Shared Resource-DNA/RNA Peptide, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope
Several 2’-Fluoro RNA aptamers against HIV-1Ba-L gp120 with nanomole affinity are isolated from a RNA library by in vitro SELEX procedure. A new dual inhibitory function anti-gp120 aptamer-siRNA chimera is created and shows considerable promise for systemic anti-HIV therapy.
Published June 23, 2011. Keywords: Immunology, SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment), RNA aptamer, HIV-1 gp120, RNAi (RNA interference), siRNA (small interfering RNA), cell-type specific delivery
1Department of Evolutionary Functional Genomics, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, 2Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
We describe a modified DIG in situ hybridization protocol, which is fast and applicable on a wide range of plant species including Norway spruce. With just a few adjustments, including altered RNase treatment and proteinase K concentration, the protocol may be used in studies of different tissues and species.
Published April 17, 2009. Keywords: Plant Biology, RNA, expression analysis, Norway spruce, Arabidopsis, rapeseed, conifers
1Department of Neurology and Committee on Neurobiology, The University of Chicago Medical Center, 2Department of Neurology, The University of Chicago Medical Center
Migraine and its transformation to chronic migraine are immense healthcare burdens in need of improved treatment options. We seek to define how neural immune signaling modulates the susceptibility to migraine, modeled in vitro using spreading depression in hippocampal slice cultures, as a means to develop novel therapeutic targets.
Published June 13, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, innate immunity, hormesis, microglia, T-cells, hippocampus, slice culture, gene expression, laser dissection microscopy, real-time qPCR, interferon-gamma
1Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Signal Transduction, The Rockefeller University
We genetically-encode the unnatural amino acid, p-azido-L-phenylalanine at various targeted positions in GPCRs and show the versatility of the azido group in different applications. These include a targeted photocrosslinking technology to identify residues in the ligand-binding pocket of a GPCR, and site-specific bioorthogonal modification of GPCRs with a peptide-epitope tag or fluorescent probe.
Published September 13, 2013. Keywords: Genetics, Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled, Protein Engineering, Signal Transduction, Biochemistry, Unnatural amino acid, site-directed mutagenesis, G protein-coupled receptor, targeted photocrosslinking, bioorthogonal labeling, targeted epitope tagging
1Department of Biochemistry / Analytics, caprotec bioanalytics GmbH, 2Institute of Organic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University
Capture Compounds are trifunctional small molecules to reduce the complexity of the proteome by functional reversible small molecule-protein interaction followed by photo-crosslinking and purification. Here we use a Capture Compound with S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine-binding as selectivity function to isolate methyltransferases from an Escherichia coli whole cell lysate and identify them by MS.
Published December 20, 2010. Keywords: Biochemistry, Capture Compound, photo-crosslink, small molecule-protein interaction, methyltransferase, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, SAH, S-adenosyl-l-methionine, SAM, functional proteomics, LC-MS/MS