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Vitelline Membrane: The plasma membrane of the egg.
 JoVE Developmental Biology

Dual Labeling of Neural Crest Cells and Blood Vessels Within Chicken Embryos Using ChickGFP Neural Tube Grafting and Carbocyanine Dye DiI Injection

1Birth Defects Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, 2Blizard Institute, Centre for Digestive Diseases, Queen Mary University of London, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, 3Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam

JoVE 52514

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Technique to Target Microinjection to the Developing Xenopus Kidney

1Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Research Center, University of Texas McGovern Medical School, 2Program in Genes & Development, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 3Program in Cell & Regulatory Biology, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 4Department of Genetics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

JoVE 53799

 Science Education: Essentials of Biology 2

Chick ex ovo Culture

JoVE Science Education

One strength of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) as a model organism for developmental biology is that the embryo develops outside the female and is easily accessible for experimental manipulation. Many techniques allow scientists to examine chicken embryos inside the eggshell (in ovo), but embryonic access can be limited at later stages of development. Fortunately, chicks can also be cultured ex ovo, or outside of the eggshell. The major advantage to ex ovo culture is greater access to tissues that might otherwise be obstructed by the shell or the orientation of the chick within the egg, especially for embryos in later stages of development. There are two principle strategies to ex ovo culture: whole yolk culture and explant culture. During whole yolk culture, the eggshell is cracked and the contents are transferred to a simple housing vessel. However, in explant culture methods, the embryo is excised from the yolk and mounted in the housing vessel to maintain membrane tension, which is important for normal development. Basic protocols for whole-yolk and explant techniques will be provided in this video, along with a discussion of the pros and cons of culturing chicks outside of the shell. Finally, experimental applications of ex ovo culture will be discussed, demonstrating how this

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Identification of Critical Conditions for Immunostaining in the Pea Aphid Embryos: Increasing Tissue Permeability and Decreasing Background Staining

1Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, 2Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, 3Research Center for Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine, National Taiwan University, 4Genome and Systems Biology Degree Program, National Taiwan University and Academia Sinica

JoVE 53883

 Science Education: Essentials of Biology 2

Development of the Chick

JoVE Science Education

The chicken embryo (Gallus gallus domesticus) provides an economical and accessible model for developmental biology research. Chicks develop rapidly and are amenable to genetic and physiological manipulations, allowing researchers to investigate developmental pathways down to the cell and molecular levels.

This video review of chick development begins by describing the process of egg fertilization and formation within the chicken reproductive tract. Next, the most commonly used chick staging nomenclature, the Hamburger Hamilton staging series, is introduced. Major events in chick development are then outlined, including the dramatic cellular movements known as gastrulation that form the three major cell layers: The ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Cells from these layers go on to generate all the tissues within the organism, as well as extraembryonic membranes, which are necessary for the transport of gases, nutrients, and wastes within the eggshell. To conclude the discussion, some exciting techniques will be presented as strategies for studying chick development in greater detail.

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 JoVE Developmental Biology

Isolation of Murine Embryonic Hemogenic Endothelial Cells

1Departments of Medicine, Genetics and Biomedical Engineering, Yale Cardiovascular Research Center, Vascular Biology and Therapeutics Program, Yale Stem Cell Center, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 3Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine

JoVE 54150

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