JoVE Medicine serves as a connection between basic research and clinical applications. Articles may present medical procedures, case studies or clinical trial methodologies. Included studies are often modeled towards predictive, preventative, personalized, and practical approaches to treatment of disease. The goal of research methodologies in this section is to improve overall patient care and prognosis.
1Department of Medicine and New Jersey Medical School Cancer Center, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
We developed an in vitro model of dormancy in the bone marrow for estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cells. The goal of this protocol is to demonstrate use of the model for the study of the molecular and cellular biology of dormancy and for generation of hypotheses for subsequent testing in vivo.
Published June 30, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Dormancy, Bone marrow stroma, FGF-2, Fibronectin, Breast cancer, Colony assay
1Vascular Biotechnology Laboratory, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute
The FeCl3 induced thrombosis model in mice is described herein. A method to monitor thrombus growth by intravital microscopy observation on a mesenteric vessel and by blood flow measurement in the carotid artery is presented.
Published June 29, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, thrombosis, ferric chloride, carotid artery, mesentery, vascular injury, intravital microscopy, doppler flow meter
1Department of Biology, Drexel University
This article describes a detailed protocol to produce a forebrain stab injury in adult mice. The stab injury induces severe reactive gliosis and glial scar formation which can be subsequently examined by standard immunohistochemistry methods.
Published June 29, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, forebrain stab, gliosis, reactive astrocyte, injury, neuroinflammation, glia
1Department of Molecular Microbiology and Center for Women's Infectious Disease Research, Washington University School of Medicine
The ability to model urinary tract infections (UTI) is crucial in order to be able to understand bacterial pathogenesis and spawn the development of novel therapeutics. This work’s goal is to demonstrate mouse models of experimental UTI and catheter associated UTI that recapitulate and predict findings seen in humans.
Published June 23, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Escherichia coli, UPEC, Enterococcus faecalis, uropathogenic, catheter, urinary tract infection, IBC, chronic cystitis
1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Mayo Clinic, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic
The use of ultra-high field MRI as a non-invasive way to obtain phenotypic information of rodent models for polycystic kidney disease and to monitor interventions is described. Compared with the traditional histological approach, MRI images can be acquired in vivo, allowing for longitudinal follow-up.
Published June 23, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Ultra-high field (UHF) MRI, rodent, phenotype, kidney, cysts, polycystic kidney disease (PKD), Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), Autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), progression, interventions, Total Kidney Volume (TKV).
1Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, 2School of Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, 3Cell & Tissue Imaging Center, St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital
Here, we describe a semi-invasive optical microscopy approach for the induction of a Rose Bengal photothrombotic clot in the somatosensory cortex of a mouse in vivo. The technical aspects of the imaging procedure are described from induction of a photothrombotic event to application and data collection.
Published June 23, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Rose Bengal, single vessel stroke, in vivo microscopy, lacunar stroke, photothrombosis, silent stroke
1Stem Cells & Cancer Group, Molecular Pathology Program, Spanish National Cancer Research Center, 2Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), 3Center for Stem Cells in Cancer & Ageing, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London
Pancreatic cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be expanded in vitro using the anchorage-independent sphere culture technique, which represents a powerful tool to study CSC biology and can serve as the first step to develop novel CSC-targeting therapies. Here the methodology for expanding, analyzing and targeting of pancreatic CSCs is provided.
Published June 20, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, cancer stem cells, spheres, metformin (met), metabolism
1Department of Ophthalmology, UPMC Eye Center, Eye and Ear Institute, Ophthalmology and Visual Science Research Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 2Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, 3The McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 4Deptartment of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh
Trabecular meshwork (TM) migration into Schlemm’s canal space can be induced by acute pressure elevation by ophthalmodynamometer, and observed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The goal of this method is to quantify the morphometric response of the living outflow tract to acute pressure elevation in living tissues in situ.
Published June 20, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Optical Coherence Tomography, Trabecular Meshwork, Biomechanics, Intraocular Pressure, Regulation, Aqueous Humor Outflow
1Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cavanagh Heart Center, Banner-University Medical Center, 2Mayo Medical School, Mayo Clinic, 3AF Solutions, Medtronic plc, 4Cardiology Division, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University
The goal of this study is to demonstrate the preferential location of transseptal puncture during a cryoballoon catheter ablation procedure for the treatment of atrial fibrillation.
Published June 15, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Atrial fibrillation, catheter ablation, cryoballoon, transseptal puncture, iatrogenic atrial septal defect
1Department of Physiology & Cell Biology, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, 2Institute of Organ Transplantation, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology
This article describes the measurement of murine left ventricular function via pressure/volume analysis at different heart rates.
Published June 14, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, murine, catheterization, contractility, PV loops, end-systolic pressure volume relationship, preload recruitable stroke work, NOS1