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JoVE Medicine
JoVE Medicine serves as a connection between basic research and clinical applications. Articles may present medical procedures, case studies or clinical trial methodologies. Included studies are often modeled towards predictive, preventative, personalized, and practical approaches to treatment of disease. The goal of research methodologies in this section is to improve overall patient care and prognosis.
 JoVE Medicine

In Vivo, Percutaneous, Needle Based, Optical Coherence Tomography of Renal Masses

1Department of Urology, Academic Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, 3Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center


JoVE 52574

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high resolution imaging technique that allows analysis of tissue specific optical properties providing the means for tissue differentiation. We developed needle based OCT, providing real-time imaging combined with on-the-spot tumor differentiation. This publication describes a method for percutaneous, needle based OCT of renal masses.

 JoVE Medicine

Glutamate and Hypoxia as a Stress Model for the Isolated Perfused Vertebrate Retina

1Centre for Ophthalmology, University Eye Hospital Tübingen


JoVE 52270

With this study, we introduce a standardized stress model for the isolated superfused bovine retina for future preclinical therapeutic testing. The effect of either hypoxia (pure N2) or glutamate stress (250 µM glutamate) on retinal function represented by a- and b-wave amplitudes was evaluated.

 JoVE Medicine

Mammosphere Formation Assay from Human Breast Cancer Tissues and Cell Lines

1Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London


JoVE 52671

Floating mammosphere assays can investigate the subset of stem-like breast cancer cells that survive in suspension conditions and show enhanced tumorigenesis when implanted into mice. This protocol provides a convenient in vitro measure of sphere-forming ability, a proxy for in vivo tumorigenesis, while facilitating analysis of the stem-associated transcriptional landscape.

 JoVE Medicine

Methods for Culturing Human Femur Tissue Explants to Study Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Metastatic Niche

1Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine


JoVE 52656

Protocols are described for studying breast cancer cell migration, proliferation and colonization in a human bone tissue explant model system.

 JoVE Medicine

A Simple Critical-sized Femoral Defect Model in Mice

1Institute for Regenerative Medicine at Scott & White Hospital, Texas A&M Health Science Center, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, 3Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Texas A&M Health Science Center


JoVE 52368

Animal models are frequently employed to mimic serious bone injury in biomedical research. Due to their small size, establishment of stabilized bone lesions in mice are beyond the capabilities of most research groups. Herein, we describe a simple method for establishing and analyzing experimental femoral defects in mice.

 JoVE Medicine

A Murine Model of Arterial Restenosis: Technical Aspects of Femoral Wire Injury

1Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health


JoVE 52561

The mouse femoral artery wire injury model of restenosis is technically challenging. In this protocol we show the key technical details essential for successfully performing wire injury to induce consistent neointima for studies of restenosis.

 JoVE Medicine

Assessing Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Species Barriers with an In Vitro Prion Protein Conversion Assay

1USGS National Wildlife Health Center, 2Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 3Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4Merial Veterinary Scholars Program, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 5Department of Neurology, University of British Columbia


JoVE 52522

Measuring the barrier to the interspecies transmission of prion diseases is challenging and typically involves animal challenges or biochemical assays. Here, we present an in vitro prion protein conversion assay with the ability to predict species barriers.

 JoVE Medicine

Non-invasive Assessment of the Efficacy of New Therapeutics for Intestinal Pathologies Using Serial Endoscopic Imaging of Live Mice

1The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute for Medical Research, 2The Department of Medical Biology, University of Melbourne, 3Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute


JoVE 52383

We describe methods for longitudinal monitoring of the efficacy of therapeutics for the treatment of colonic pathologies in mice using a rigid endoscope. This protocol can be readily used for the characterization of the therapeutic response of an individual tumor in live mice and also for monitoring potential disease relapse.

 JoVE Medicine

Establishment of Human Epithelial Enteroids and Colonoids from Whole Tissue and Biopsy

1Department of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Baylor College of Medicine


JoVE 52483

We describe a method to establish human enteroids from small intestinal crypts and colonoids from colon crypts collected from both surgical tissue and biopsies. In this methodological article, we present the culture modalities that are essential for the successful growth and maintenance of human enteroids and colonoids.

 JoVE Medicine

Single-stage Dynamic Reanimation of the Smile in Irreversible Facial Paralysis by Free Functional Muscle Transfer

1Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Freiburg Medical Centre


JoVE 52386

The use of the masseteric nerve as donor nerve represents a single-stage alternative to the criterion standard two-stage procedure of cross-facial nerve grafting and free muscle transfer in facial paralysis. We provide a detailed description to safely perform this technique with a gracilis muscle transfer and discuss indications and limitations.

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