JoVE Medicine serves as a connection between basic research and clinical applications. Articles may present medical procedures, case studies or clinical trial methodologies. Included studies are often modeled towards predictive, preventative, personalized, and practical approaches to treatment of disease. The goal of research methodologies in this section is to improve overall patient care and prognosis.
1Section of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 2Surgical Research Laboratory, Department of Surgery, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 3Center of Engineering in Medicine/Surgical Services, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Shriners Burns Hospital, 4Division of Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Here we present a protocol describing oxygenated ex situ machine perfusion of donor liver grafts. This article contains a step by step protocol to procure and prepare the liver graft for machine perfusion, prepare the perfusion fluid, prime the perfusion machine and perform oxygenated normothermic machine perfusion of the liver graft.
Published May 26, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Machine perfusion, liver transplantation, preservation, normothermic, hypothermic, human donor liver
1Department of Electrophysiology, Heart Center, University of Leipzig
Radiation exposure is an underestimated risk in complex ablation procedures. Here, we describe a protocol to significantly decrease fluoroscopy time and dosage for both the patient and the lab staff by using a novel non-fluoroscopic catheter visualization system.
Published May 26, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Fluoroscopy, ablation, radiation exposure, atrial fibrillation, 3D mapping, electrophysiology
1University/ BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, The Queen's Medical Research Institute
Ex vivo analysis of arterial lesions from animal models of cardiovascular disease classically relies on histological and immunohistochemical techniques. These provide 2-dimensional measurements in 3-dimensional lesions. This manuscript describes the generation of arterial lesions for quantitative analysis in 3-dimensions using optical projection tomography.
Published May 26, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, neointima, mouse femoral artery, atherosclerosis, brachiocephalic trunk, optical projection tomography
1Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, 2Ophthalmology, University of Southern California
The goal of this protocol is to show an effective technique to isolate whole, intact vitreous core and cortex from post mortem enucleated porcine eyes.
Published May 24, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Vitreous Humor, Dissection, Vitreous core, Vitreous cortex, Medicine, Eye, vitreodynamics, drug delivery, diffusion
1Section of Interventional Pulmonology, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University
We describe the novel use of electromagnetic navigational guided transthoracic needle aspiration for the pathologic assessment of human lung nodules.
Published May 23, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Lung nodule, Electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy, Transthoracic needle aspiration.
1Department of Baker Institute for Animal Health, Cornell University, 2Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School
Here, we document the use of the soft agar colony formation assay to test the effects of a peptidylarginine deiminase (PADI) enzyme inhibitor, BB-Cl-amidine, on breast cancer tumorigenicity in vitro.
Published May 20, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Peptidylarginine deiminase enzymes, breast cancer, soft agar assay, cellular transformation, cancer therapies
1Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
The goal of this protocol is to study breast tumorigenesis. With this technique, mouse mammary tumors are removed and primary cells are prepared from tumors. A lung extraction protocol is included for studying lung metastasis. Furthermore, another protocol for analyzing mouse embryonic fibroblasts from the mouse embryo is included.
Published May 20, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Tumor, breast, lung, primary, MEF, embryo, fibroblasts, cancer, cell, mouse
1Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University
We describe a protocol for aortic interposition grafting in mice. The goal of the protocol is to provide a model with which to study pathological processes and therapeutic strategies relevant to alloimmune reactions in arteries and the resultant arterial changes that contribute to organ transplant failure.
Published May 17, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Transplantation, Vascular rejection, Transplant arteriosclerosis, Artery, Aorta
1The Perinatal Research Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy following perinatal asphyxia can be studied using animal models. We demonstrate the procedures necessary for establishing a piglet model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
Published May 16, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Piglet, swine, neonatal, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), asphyxia, hypoxia, amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG), neuroscience, brain injury
1Sargent College, Boston University
Here we demonstrate the most efficient methods for freezing, embedding, cryosectioning, and staining of muscle biopsies to avoid freezing artifacts.
Published May 15, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, skeletal muscle, frozen sections, formaldehyde fixed paraffin embedded sections, cryosectioning, immunohistochemistry, mid belly