JoVE Medicine serves as a connection between basic research and clinical applications. Articles may present medical procedures, case studies or clinical trial methodologies. Included studies are often modeled towards predictive, preventative, personalized, and practical approaches to treatment of disease. The goal of research methodologies in this section is to improve overall patient care and prognosis.
1Institute of Applied Physics, Italian National Research Council, 2U.O. Oculistica, Nuovo Ospedale Santo Stefano
An all laser procedure is proposed in the endothelial transplant. The surgical technique is based on the use of a femtosecond laser to prepare the donor tissue. Laser welding technique is then used to secure the donor endothelium in the correct position.
Published July 6, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Endothelium, laser welding, femtosecond laser, corneal transplantation, diode laser, Indocyanine Green, donor tissue thickness, optical coherence tomography
1Department of Surgery and Surgical Specialties, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico di Modena, 2Department of Clinical Microbiology, Universtity of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 3Sanypet S.p.a, 4AIRMO Center Milan
We describe a simple approach for diagnosis of halitosis in dogs as well as a dietary approach for its management. This protocol may be extended to the management of halitosis in humans in the near future.
Published July 6, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, halitosis, dietary supplement, dogs, portable gas chromatograph, human, clinical practice
1Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Georgia Regents University, 2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3Vascular Biology Center, Georgia Regents University
Pressure myography is used to assess vasoactivity of small arteries that develop sustained constriction when pressurized. This manuscript provides a detailed protocol to assess in isolated segments of small mesenteric arteries from rats, vasoactivity and the effect of intraluminal pressure on vascular diameter.
Published July 6, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Mesenteric Artery, Superior, Arterioles, Muscle, Smooth, Vascular, Hypertension, Hypotension, Pressure myography, myogenic tone, myogenic response, resistance arteries
1Department of Medicine and New Jersey Medical School Cancer Center, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
We developed an in vitro model of dormancy in the bone marrow for estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cells. The goal of this protocol is to demonstrate use of the model for the study of the molecular and cellular biology of dormancy and for generation of hypotheses for subsequent testing in vivo.
Published June 30, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Dormancy, Bone marrow stroma, FGF-2, Fibronectin, Breast cancer, Colony assay
1Vascular Biotechnology Laboratory, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute
The FeCl3 induced thrombosis model in mice is described herein. A method to monitor thrombus growth by intravital microscopy observation on a mesenteric vessel and by blood flow measurement in the carotid artery is presented.
Published June 29, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, thrombosis, ferric chloride, carotid artery, mesentery, vascular injury, intravital microscopy, doppler flow meter
1Department of Biology, Drexel University
This article describes a detailed protocol to produce a forebrain stab injury in adult mice. The stab injury induces severe reactive gliosis and glial scar formation which can be subsequently examined by standard immunohistochemistry methods.
Published June 29, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, forebrain stab, gliosis, reactive astrocyte, injury, neuroinflammation, glia
1Department of Molecular Microbiology and Center for Women's Infectious Disease Research, Washington University School of Medicine
The ability to model urinary tract infections (UTI) is crucial in order to be able to understand bacterial pathogenesis and spawn the development of novel therapeutics. This work’s goal is to demonstrate mouse models of experimental UTI and catheter associated UTI that recapitulate and predict findings seen in humans.
Published June 23, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Escherichia coli, UPEC, Enterococcus faecalis, uropathogenic, catheter, urinary tract infection, IBC, chronic cystitis
1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Mayo Clinic, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic
The use of ultra-high field MRI as a non-invasive way to obtain phenotypic information of rodent models for polycystic kidney disease and to monitor interventions is described. Compared with the traditional histological approach, MRI images can be acquired in vivo, allowing for longitudinal follow-up.
Published June 23, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Ultra-high field (UHF) MRI, rodent, phenotype, kidney, cysts, polycystic kidney disease (PKD), Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), Autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), progression, interventions, Total Kidney Volume (TKV).
1Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, 2School of Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, 3Cell & Tissue Imaging Center, St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital
Here, we describe a semi-invasive optical microscopy approach for the induction of a Rose Bengal photothrombotic clot in the somatosensory cortex of a mouse in vivo. The technical aspects of the imaging procedure are described from induction of a photothrombotic event to application and data collection.
Published June 23, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Rose Bengal, single vessel stroke, in vivo microscopy, lacunar stroke, photothrombosis, silent stroke
1Stem Cells & Cancer Group, Molecular Pathology Program, Spanish National Cancer Research Center, 2Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), 3Center for Stem Cells in Cancer & Ageing, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London
Pancreatic cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be expanded in vitro using the anchorage-independent sphere culture technique, which represents a powerful tool to study CSC biology and can serve as the first step to develop novel CSC-targeting therapies. Here the methodology for expanding, analyzing and targeting of pancreatic CSCs is provided.
Published June 20, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, cancer stem cells, spheres, metformin (met), metabolism