JoVE Medicine serves as a connection between basic research and clinical applications. Articles may present medical procedures, case studies or clinical trial methodologies. Included studies are often modeled towards predictive, preventative, personalized, and practical approaches to treatment of disease. The goal of research methodologies in this section is to improve overall patient care and prognosis.
1Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 3Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham
The goal of this protocol is to apply dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for orthotopic pancreatic tumor xenografts in mice. DCE-MRI is a non-invasive method to analyze microvasculature in a target tissue, and useful to assess vascular response in a tumor following a novel therapy.
Published April 18, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Imaging, Cancer, Pancreas, Mouse, Xenograft, DCE-MRI
1Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Cancer Genomics Centre and Centre for Biomedical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Academic Medical Center, 3Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, Academic Medical Center, 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 5Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, 6Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Center
Dupuytren’s disease (DD) is a fibroproliferative disease of the palm of the hand. Here, we present a protocol to culture resection specimens from DD in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Such short-term culture system allows preservation of the 3D structure and molecular properties of the fibrotic tissue.
Published April 18, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Fibrosis, Dupuytren's disease, TGFβ, 3D culture system, Compound screen, Extracellular matrix
1Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 2Palo Alto Institute for Research and Education, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, 3Laboratory of Immunology and Vascular Biology, Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine
This protocol describes a method for the detailed evaluation of leukocyte subsets within the tumor microenvironment in a mouse tumor model. Chemerin-expressing B16 melanoma cells were implanted subcutaneously into syngeneic mice. Cells from the tumor microenvironment were then stained and analyzed by flow cytometry, allowing for detailed leukocyte subset analyses.
Published April 13, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Chemerin, tumor microenvironment, leukocyte subsets, NK cells, chemoattractant, melanoma, leukocyte, migration, immunophenotype
1Department of Cancer Biology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, 2Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, 3Sanofi US, 4Institute of Applied Cancer Science, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center
Telomere and telomerase play essential roles in ageing and tumorigenesis. The goal of this protocol is to show how to generate two murine inducible telomerase knock-in alleles and how to utilize them in the studies of tissue degeneration/regeneration and cancer.
Published April 13, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Telomerase, Telomere, mTERT-ER, LSL-mTERT, Ageing, Cancer, Neural Stem Cells
1Cardiac Muscle Research Laboratory, Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan
Coronary flow reserve (CFR) is useful for assessment of myocardial oxygen demand and evaluation of cardiovascular risk. This study establishes a step-by-step transthoracic Doppler echocardiographic (TTDE) method for longitudinal monitoring of the changes in CFR, as measured from coronary artery in mice, under the experimental pressure overload of aortic banding.
Published April 13, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Coronary flow reserve, Doppler echocardiography, non-invasive methodology, use of animals in research, pressure overload, aortic banding
1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Streptococcus pneumoniae forms discrete non-purulent microscopic lesions in the heart. Outlined is the protocol for a murine model of cardiac microlesion formation. Instruction is provided on microlesion visualization using microscopy, discrimination between early and late microlesions, and methods to detect cardiac remodeling in hearts of convalescent animals.
Published April 7, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Streptococcus pneumoniae, pneumonia, bacteremia, heart failure, invasion, cardiac microlesion, abscess, fluorescent microscopy
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University in St. Louis, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University
This manuscript provides a protocol for implanting telemeters in the mouse for the purpose of measuring intrauterine pressures during pregnancy.
Published April 6, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Intrauterine pressure, telemetry, pregnancy, mouse, uterus, in vivo recording, preterm labor, reproductive
1Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center, Hamburg, 2Institute of Immunology, University Medical Center, Hamburg, 3University Cancer Center Hamburg, University Medical Center, Hamburg, 4Department of Oncology and Hematology, University Medical Center, Hamburg
This protocol outlines the steps required to perform ex vivo validation of in vivo near-infrared fluorescence xenograft imaging experiments in mice using fluorophore labelled nanobodies and conventional antibodies.
Published April 6, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Nanobody, antibody, VHH, fluorescence imaging, molecular imaging, xenograft, animal model
1Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of South Florida, 2Department of Surgery, University of South Florida, 3Wound Recovery and Hyperbaric Medicine Center, Kent Memorial Hospital
The rat, due to its size, availability, and rather docile behavior, has been utilized as a research model for many years. The goal of this protocol is to utilize the rat as an ischemic skin wound healing model to provide valuable insight into the pathophysiology of chronic wounds.
Published April 1, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Wound Healing, ischemia, rat, animal model, chronic wounds, laser Doppler, bipedicled flap
1Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, 2The Biomedical Research Centre, University of British Columbia, 3Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Neuromuscular Disease Unit, VHHSC
We describe a protocol whereby busulfan conditioning permits the bone marrow of a recipient mouse to be replaced with bone marrow cells from donor mice ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein, in the absence of irradiation. This technique is useful to study bone marrow cell accumulation in the central nervous system.
Published April 1, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, busulfan, bone marrow transplantation, myelosuppressive conditioning, chimerism, hematopoietic stem cells, immunobiology, flow cytometry