JoVE Medicine serves as a connection between basic research and clinical applications. Articles may present medical procedures, case studies or clinical trial methodologies. Included studies are often modeled towards predictive, preventative, personalized, and practical approaches to treatment of disease. The goal of research methodologies in this section is to improve overall patient care and prognosis.
1Department of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Baylor College of Medicine
We describe a method to establish human enteroids from small intestinal crypts and colonoids from colon crypts collected from both surgical tissue and biopsies. In this methodological article, we present the culture modalities that are essential for the successful growth and maintenance of human enteroids and colonoids.
Published March 6, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Intestinal stem cells, 3-dimensional cell culture, human, small intestine, colon, biopsy, enteroids, minigut, epithelial organoids, in-vitro, colonoids, enterospheres
1Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Freiburg Medical Centre
The use of the masseteric nerve as donor nerve represents a single-stage alternative to the criterion standard two-stage procedure of cross-facial nerve grafting and free muscle transfer in facial paralysis. We provide a detailed description to safely perform this technique with a gracilis muscle transfer and discuss indications and limitations.
Published March 1, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, microsurgery, free microvascular tissue transfer, face, head, head and neck surgery, facial paralysis
1Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Missouri, 2Department of Communication Science and Disorders, University of Missouri, 3Department of Medicine, University of Missouri
This study successfully adapted human videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) methods for use with murine disease models for the purpose of facilitating translational dysphagia research.
Published March 1, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, mouse, murine, rodent, swallowing, deglutition, dysphagia, videofluoroscopy, radiation, iohexol, barium, palatability, taste, translational, disease models
1Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center, Göttingen, 2Department of Hematology/Oncology, Goethe University of Frankfurt, 3Bioanalytical Mass Spectrometry Group, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 4Bioanalytics, Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Medical Center, Göttingen, 5German Cancer Consortium, 6German Cancer Research Center
In-depth analyses of cancer cell proteomes facilitate identification of novel drug targets and diagnostic biomarkers. We describe an experimental workflow for quantitative analysis of (phospho-)proteomes in cancer cell subpopulations derived from liquid and solid tumors. This is achieved by combining cellular enrichment strategies with quantitative Super-SILAC-based mass spectrometry.
Published February 27, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Proteomics, solid tumors, leukemia, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE), laser-capture microdissection, spike-in SILAC, quantitative mass spectrometry
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 2Davis Heart & Lung Research Institute, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 3The Collaboration for Organ Perfusion, Protection, Engineering and Regeneration (COPPER) Laboratory, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 4Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 5Departments of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, Ohio State University, 6Advanced Lung Disease Program, Lung and Heart-Lung Transplant Programs, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 7Division of Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center
Ex-Vivo Lung Perfusion (EVLP) has allowed lung transplantation in humans to become more readily available by enabling the ability to assess organs and expand the donor pool. Here, we describe the development of a rat EVLP program and refinements that allow for a reproducible model for future expansion.
Published February 25, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, EVLP, VILI, tidal volume, PEEP, lung transplant, positive pressure ventilation
1Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 2Research and Development Services, Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center, 3Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois, Chicago
We present a surgical protocol detailing how to perform a cut or crush axotomy on the facial nerve in the mouse. The facial nerve axotomy can be employed to study the physiological response to nerve injury and test therapeutic techniques.
Published February 23, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neuroscience, neuron, motoneuron, mouse, axotomy, facial nerve, crush, nerve injury, nerve regeneration
1Department of Genetics and Development, Toronto Western Research Institute and Spinal Program, University Health Network, Krembil Neuroscience Centre, 2Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, 3Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto
Treating cervical spinal cord injury with both self-assembling peptides (SAP) and neural precursor cells (NPC), together with growth factors, is a promising approach to promote regeneration and recovery. A contusion/compression aneurysm clip rat model of cervical SCI and combined treatment involving SAP injection and NPC transplantation is established.
Published February 23, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Spinal cord injury (SCI), cervical trauma, aneurysm clip SCI model, intraspinal injection, stem cells, self-assembling peptides, neural precursor cells, growth factors
1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, 3Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan
Here we describe an efficient and versatile protocol to induce, monitor and analyze novel glioblastomas (GBM) using transposon DNA injected into the ventricles of neonatal mice. Cells of the subventricular zone, which take up the plasmid, transform, proliferate and generate tumors with histo-pathological characteristics of human GBM.
Published February 22, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Glioblastoma models, Sleeping Beauty transposase, subventricular zone, neonatal mice, cloning of novel transposons, genomic integration, GBM histology, GBM neurospheres.
1Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2Department of Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
This protocol describes how neural progenitor cells can be differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells, in order to yield a robust and replicative neural cell population, which may be used to identify the developmental pathways contributing to disease pathogenesis in many neurological disorders.
Published February 21, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Induced pluripotent stem cells, neural differentiation, neural progenitor cells, psychiatric disease, lentiviral transduction, neurosphere migration assay
1Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University
Although Candida infection models are available to study host immune resistance, a model to study T cell mediated immunopathology in the context of Candida infection is absent. Here we describe a method to establish Th17 immunopathology associated with oral Candida infection in immunodeficient mice.
Published February 18, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Th17, Treg, mouse model, oral inflammation, Candida, oral infection and immunopathology