JoVE Medicine serves as a connection between basic research and clinical applications. Articles may present medical procedures, case studies or clinical trial methodologies. Included studies are often modeled towards predictive, preventative, personalized, and practical approaches to treatment of disease. The goal of research methodologies in this section is to improve overall patient care and prognosis.
1Department of Medicine/Cardiology, Gazes Cardiac Research Institute, Medical University of South Carolina, 2Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Medical University of South Carolina
The isolated rat heart is an enduring model for ischemia reperfusion injury. Here, we describe the process of harvesting the beating heart from a rat via in situ aortic cannulation, Langendorff perfusion of the heart, simulated ischemia-reperfusion injury, and infarct staining to confirm the extent of ischemic insult.
Published July 27, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Ischemia reperfusion, isolated heart, cardiac preconditioning, infarct staining, histone deacetylase, cardiac function
1Physical Therapy Program and Integrative Physiology of Exercise Laboratory, Department of Health Care Sciences, Wayne State University, 2Sports Medicine and Physical Therapy, MEDSPORT, University of Michigan Health System, 3Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fullerton
This protocol describes the electromyographic fatigue threshold which demarcates between nonfatiguing and fatiguing exercise workloads. This information could be used to develop a more individualized training program.
Published July 27, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Electrodes, Exercise physiology, Motor control, Neuromuscular fatigue, Noninvasive, and Quadriceps femoris
1Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, West Virginia University, 2Animal Models and Imaging Facility, West Virginia University, 3Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University
This protocol describes the application of high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) for imaging mouse cervical lymph nodes. This technique optimizes visualization and quantification of cervical lymph node morphology, volume and blood flow. Image-guided biopsy of cervical lymph nodes and processing of lymph tissue for histological evaluation is also demonstrated.
Published July 25, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Ultrasound, cervical lymphnode, mouse, imaging, animal model, anatomy, mapping.
1Department of Biology, Syracuse University
Selective damage of human leukemia cells can be achieved through a novel approach of applying low frequency ultrasound both with and without chemotherapeutic pretreatment of leukemic and normal hematopoietic cells.
Published July 22, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Sonodynamic therapy, Low frequency ultrasound, Cancer, Leukemia, Sonosensitizers
1Department of Bioengineering, Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Missouri
Photothrombosis is a minimally invasive and highly reproducible procedure to induce focal ischemia in the spinal cord and serves as a model of spinal cord injury in mice.
Published July 16, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Spinal cord injury, photothrombosis, Rose Bengal, ischemia, epi-fluorescent microscopy, reactive gliosis, infarct, paraplegia
1Department of Cancer Imaging and Metabolism, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute
We describe a high-throughput drug sensitivity assay for primary multiple myeloma cells. It consists of a reconstruction of the bone marrow microenvironment (including extracellular matrix and stroma) in multi-well plates, and a non-invasive method for longitudinal quantification of cell viability.
Published July 15, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Multiple myeloma, drug sensitivity, evolution of drug resistance, computational modeling, decision support system, personalized medicine
1Multi Organ Transplant Program, Department of Surgery, Toronto General Hospital, 2Division of Nephrology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, 3Department of General, Visceral & Transplant Surgery, University Medical Center Mainz, 4Department of Abdominal, Vascular & Transplant Surgery, Merheim Medical Center Cologne, 5Laboratory Medicine & Pathobiology, Toronto General Hospital, 6Departments of Surgery (Urology) & Physiology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, 7Developmental & Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto
The severe organ shortage has resulted in increased use of marginal kidney grafts for transplantation. This has triggered interest in alternative storage methods, since marginal grafts especially tolerate cold storage poorly. The technique of normothermic ex vivo kidney perfusion (NEVKP) represents a novel preservation method for kidney grafts prior to transplantation.…
Published July 15, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Kidney transplantation, organ shortage, organ preservation, normothermic ex vivo kidney perfusion (NEVKP), cold storage (CS), hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP), standard criteria donor (SCD), extended criteria donor (ECD), donation after circulatory death (DCD), marginal graft, delayed graft function (DGF), primary non function (PNF)
1Institute of Applied Physics, Italian National Research Council, 2U.O. Oculistica, Nuovo Ospedale Santo Stefano
An all laser procedure is proposed in the endothelial transplant. The surgical technique is based on the use of a femtosecond laser to prepare the donor tissue. Laser welding technique is then used to secure the donor endothelium in the correct position.
Published July 6, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Endothelium, laser welding, femtosecond laser, corneal transplantation, diode laser, Indocyanine Green, donor tissue thickness, optical coherence tomography
1Department of Surgery and Surgical Specialties, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico di Modena, 2Department of Clinical Microbiology, Universtity of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 3Sanypet S.p.a, 4AIRMO Center Milan
We describe a simple approach for diagnosis of halitosis in dogs as well as a dietary approach for its management. This protocol may be extended to the management of halitosis in humans in the near future.
Published July 6, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, halitosis, dietary supplement, dogs, portable gas chromatograph, human, clinical practice
1Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Georgia Regents University, 2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3Vascular Biology Center, Georgia Regents University
Pressure myography is used to assess vasoactivity of small arteries that develop sustained constriction when pressurized. This manuscript provides a detailed protocol to assess in isolated segments of small mesenteric arteries from rats, vasoactivity and the effect of intraluminal pressure on vascular diameter.
Published July 6, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Mesenteric Artery, Superior, Arterioles, Muscle, Smooth, Vascular, Hypertension, Hypotension, Pressure myography, myogenic tone, myogenic response, resistance arteries