JoVE Medicine serves as a connection between basic research and clinical applications. Articles may present medical procedures, case studies or clinical trial methodologies. Included studies are often modeled towards predictive, preventative, personalized, and practical approaches to treatment of disease. The goal of research methodologies in this section is to improve overall patient care and prognosis.
1Department of Urology, Academic Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, 3Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high resolution imaging technique that allows analysis of tissue specific optical properties providing the means for tissue differentiation. We developed needle based OCT, providing real-time imaging combined with on-the-spot tumor differentiation. This publication describes a method for percutaneous, needle based OCT of renal masses.
Published March 30, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Optical Coherence Tomography, OCT, Optical frequency domain imaging, OFDI, Optical biopsy, Needle based, Percutaneous, Renal mass, Kidney tumor, Kidney cancer.
1Centre for Ophthalmology, University Eye Hospital Tübingen
With this study, we introduce a standardized stress model for the isolated superfused bovine retina for future preclinical therapeutic testing. The effect of either hypoxia (pure N2) or glutamate stress (250 µM glutamate) on retinal function represented by a- and b-wave amplitudes was evaluated.
Published March 22, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Glutamate, Hypoxia, retinal toxicity, electroretinogram, intraocular toxicity, superfused retina
1Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London
Floating mammosphere assays can investigate the subset of stem-like breast cancer cells that survive in suspension conditions and show enhanced tumorigenesis when implanted into mice. This protocol provides a convenient in vitro measure of sphere-forming ability, a proxy for in vivo tumorigenesis, while facilitating analysis of the stem-associated transcriptional landscape.
Published March 22, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, breast cancer, cancer stem cell, CSC, BCSC, tumorsphere, mammosphere, tumorigenesis, self-renewal.
1Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine
Protocols are described for studying breast cancer cell migration, proliferation and colonization in a human bone tissue explant model system.
Published March 15, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Metastatic niche, bone microenvironment, breast cancer metastasis, human bone, osteotropism, ex vivo model, explant culture system, bioluminescence imaging
1Institute for Regenerative Medicine at Scott & White Hospital, Texas A&M Health Science Center, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, 3Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Texas A&M Health Science Center
Animal models are frequently employed to mimic serious bone injury in biomedical research. Due to their small size, establishment of stabilized bone lesions in mice are beyond the capabilities of most research groups. Herein, we describe a simple method for establishing and analyzing experimental femoral defects in mice.
Published March 15, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Bone injury model, critical sized defect, mice, femur, tissue engineering, comparative medicine, medullary pin.
1Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
The mouse femoral artery wire injury model of restenosis is technically challenging. In this protocol we show the key technical details essential for successfully performing wire injury to induce consistent neointima for studies of restenosis.
Published March 10, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Restenosis, Neointimal Hyperplasia, Mouse Femoral Artery, Wire Injury Model
1USGS National Wildlife Health Center, 2Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 3Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4Merial Veterinary Scholars Program, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 5Department of Neurology, University of British Columbia
Measuring the barrier to the interspecies transmission of prion diseases is challenging and typically involves animal challenges or biochemical assays. Here, we present an in vitro prion protein conversion assay with the ability to predict species barriers.
Published March 10, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Prion, species barrier, conversion, immunoblotting, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, interspecies transmission
1The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute for Medical Research, 2The Department of Medical Biology, University of Melbourne, 3Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute
We describe methods for longitudinal monitoring of the efficacy of therapeutics for the treatment of colonic pathologies in mice using a rigid endoscope. This protocol can be readily used for the characterization of the therapeutic response of an individual tumor in live mice and also for monitoring potential disease relapse.
Published March 10, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, cancer, colitis, colon, endoscopy, mucosa, therapy.
1Department of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Baylor College of Medicine
We describe a method to establish human enteroids from small intestinal crypts and colonoids from colon crypts collected from both surgical tissue and biopsies. In this methodological article, we present the culture modalities that are essential for the successful growth and maintenance of human enteroids and colonoids.
Published March 6, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Intestinal stem cells, 3-dimensional cell culture, human, small intestine, colon, biopsy, enteroids, minigut, epithelial organoids, in-vitro, colonoids, enterospheres
1Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Freiburg Medical Centre
The use of the masseteric nerve as donor nerve represents a single-stage alternative to the criterion standard two-stage procedure of cross-facial nerve grafting and free muscle transfer in facial paralysis. We provide a detailed description to safely perform this technique with a gracilis muscle transfer and discuss indications and limitations.
Published March 1, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, microsurgery, free microvascular tissue transfer, face, head, head and neck surgery, facial paralysis