JoVE Medicine serves as a connection between basic research and clinical applications. Articles may present medical procedures, case studies or clinical trial methodologies. Included studies are often modeled towards predictive, preventative, personalized, and practical approaches to treatment of disease. The goal of research methodologies in this section is to improve overall patient care and prognosis.
1Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, The Royal Childrens Hospital, 2Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, 3Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Clayton
The goal of this protocol is to isolate lymphatic endothelial cells lining human lymphatic malformation cyst-like vessels and foreskins using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Subsequent cell culturing and expansion of these cells permits a new level of experimental sophistication for genetic, proteomic, functional and cell differentiation studies.
Published May 1, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, lymphatic endothelial cell, lymphatic malformation, flow cytometric sorting, cell culture, cell surface markers
1Division of Molecular Pathology, The Institute of Cancer Research, 2Division of Cancer Therapeutics, The Institute of Cancer Research
Invasion of surrounding normal tissues is a defining characteristic of malignant tumors. We provide here a simple, semi-automated micro-plate assay of invasion into a natural 3D biomatrix that has been exemplified with a number of models of advanced human cancers.
Published May 1, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, invasion, metastasis, 3D, tumor spheroids, extracellular matrix, imaging, high-throughput, drug development.
1Department of Internal Medicine V, Innsbruck Medical University, 2Oncotyrol GmbH, 3Tyrolean Cancer Research Institute, 4Division of Vascular Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute
Human multiple myeloma (MM) cells require the supportive microenvironment of mesenchymal cells and extracellular matrix components for survival and proliferation. We established an in vivo chicken embryo model with engrafted human myeloma and mesenchymal cells to study effects of cancer drugs on tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis.
Published May 1, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, CAM, angiogenesis, mesenchymal cells, multiple myeloma, GFP, 3- dimensional tissue culture, xenografts, tumor
1Center for Engineering in Medicine, Dept. of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Transplant Center, Dept. of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Section of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen
We describe a method of ex vivo machine perfusion of human liver grafts at subnormothermic temperature (21 °C).
Published April 27, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Liver, transplantation, organ preservation, subnormothermic, machine perfusion, viability
1Resuscitation Institute, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science
This article describes a rat model of electrically-induced ventricular fibrillation and resuscitation by chest compression, ventilation, and delivery of electrical shocks that simulates an episode of sudden cardiac arrest and conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The model enables gathering insights on the pathophysiology of cardiac arrest and exploration of new resuscitation strategies.
Published April 26, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Hemodynamics, Myocardial ischemia, Rats, Reperfusion, Ventilation, Ventricular fibrillation, Ventricular function, Translational medical research
1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Davis, 2Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Shriners Hospitals for Children (Northern California)
Spinal cord injury models should be highly reproducible. We demonstrate that the calibrated forceps compression model of spinal cord injury is an easy to use surgical method for generating reproducible injuries to the murine spinal cord.
Published April 24, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, SCI, compression model, compression injury, modified forceps, laminectomy, neurological deficit, murine spinal cord, reproducible animal model, reproducible deficit
1Department of Cell Stress Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, 2Department of Pharmaceutical, Social and Administrative Sciences, School of Pharmacy, D'Youville College
This video article describes a modified in vitro method to examine the role of hormones, cytokines and/or growth factors in driving cancer cell invasion.
Published April 24, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, hormone, cytokine, growth factor, migration, invasion, collagen, cancer
1Department of Therapeutics, Institut de la Vision, Sorbonne Universtés, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR_S 968, 2INSERM, U968, 3CNRS, UMR_7210
To investigate the blood-retinal barrier permeability and the inner limiting membrane integrity in animal models of retinal disease, we used several adeno-associated virus (AAV) variants as tools to label retinal neurons and glia. Virus mediated reporter gene expression is then used as an indicator of retinal barrier permeability.
Published April 19, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Blood-Retinal Barrier (BRB), Inner Limiting Membrane (ILM), Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV)
1Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 3Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham
The goal of this protocol is to apply dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for orthotopic pancreatic tumor xenografts in mice. DCE-MRI is a non-invasive method to analyze microvasculature in a target tissue, and useful to assess vascular response in a tumor following a novel therapy.
Published April 18, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Imaging, Cancer, Pancreas, Mouse, Xenograft, DCE-MRI
1Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Cancer Genomics Centre and Centre for Biomedical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Academic Medical Center, 3Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, Academic Medical Center, 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 5Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, 6Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Center
Dupuytren’s disease (DD) is a fibroproliferative disease of the palm of the hand. Here, we present a protocol to culture resection specimens from DD in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Such short-term culture system allows preservation of the 3D structure and molecular properties of the fibrotic tissue.
Published April 18, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Fibrosis, Dupuytren's disease, TGFβ, 3D culture system, Compound screen, Extracellular matrix