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# 4.1: Moment of a Force: Scalar Formulation

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### 4.1: Moment of a Force: Scalar Formulation

The moment of a force, also known as torque, measures the ability of the force to create rotational motion in a body about an axis. It is a vector quantity, meaning it has both magnitude and direction. This concept is used extensively in engineering, physics, and mechanics.

Consider a simple example of a flywheel being rotated about a point, O, by applying a force to it. In this case, the moment arm is the perpendicular distance between the point O and the line of action of the force. The magnitude of the moment is calculated by multiplying the magnitude of the force by the moment arm. This quantity has the unit of newton-meter (N-m).

The maximum moment occurs when the force applied is tangential to the flywheel, as it is perpendicular to the radius of the flywheel. The magnitude of the moment also increases with the magnitude of the applied force and the length of the moment arm.

The right-hand rule determines the direction of the moment. If the fingers of the right-hand curl in the direction of the rotational motion produced by the moment, then the thumb points in the direction of the moment. Conventionally, a positive moment denotes counterclockwise rotational motion, while a negative sign denotes clockwise rotational motion.

The moment of a force is essential for understanding the dynamics of machines and structures. It is a critical tool for analyzing and predicting the behavior of complex mechanical systems.