Heart failure models in vitro or in vivo
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Nanjing Medical University
Yihai Liu acquired a PhD and MD in Cardiology in Nanjing Medical University. He presently works in the Department of...
Heart failure is a clinical syndrome of cardiac insufficiency caused by various heart diseases and is also the final common pathway of many cardiovascular diseases. The successful establishment of animal models is the most important step in studying pathophysiological processes and molecular mechanisms. We want to summarize the current methods of heart failure and propose some new, stable, economical, and practical models. They are generally categorized into surgery operations (electrode implantation, arteriovenous fistula operation, heart valve destruction, transverse aortic constriction, and left anterior descending ligation), drug supplements (catecholamines, angiotensin, doxorubicin, and other cardiotoxic drugs) and genetic engineering (gene overexpression or silencing).