Federal University of Ceará, Brazil
Human papilloma virus (HPV) plays a fundamental role in carcinogenesis of several forms of cancer by subverting an effective immune response. There are more than 100 known HPV genotypes, of which, 13 can cause cancer of the cervix and are also associated with various anogenital cancers and cancers of the head and neck. Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm among women throughout the world in both developed and developing countries. It has been demonstrated that HPV types 16 and 18 are capable of immortalizing normal breast epithelium. The identification of HPV as a major cause of breast cancer implies that implementation of interventions against the viral agent should prevent the disease(s). HPV positive tumors have a favorable prognosis, approximately 80% 5-year overall survival., but early diagnosis is crucial. There are many protocols to identify HPV, including commercial and in house assays. In this collection, we present the standardized protocols for the detection of HPV from several types of breast samples. We will share how to extract DNA and genotype from different samples, including formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and nipple aspirate. This collection will promote access to existing methods and encourage clinicians in the early identification of HPV. It will also facilitate a network for researchers to collaborate and compile knowledge on this disease.