# Chapter 2
Vectors and Scalars

Many familiar physical quantities can be specified completely by giving a single number and the appropriate unit. For example, "a class period…

To define some physical quantities, there is a need to specify both magnitude as well as direction. For example, when the U.S. Coast Guard dispatches…

The Cartesian coordinate system is a very convenient tool to use when describing the displacements and velocities of objects and the forces acting on…

Spherical coordinate systems are preferred over Cartesian, polar, or cylindrical coordinates for systems with spherical symmetry. For example, to…

It is cumbersome to find the magnitudes of vectors using the parallelogram rule or using the graphical method to perform mathematical operations like…

The scalar multiplication of two vectors is known as the scalar or dot product. As the name indicates, the scalar product of two vectors results in a…

Two vectors can be multiplied using a scalar product or a vector product. The resultant of a scalar product is scalar, while with vector products,…

In mathematics and physics, the gradient and del operator are fundamental concepts used to describe the behavior of functions and fields in space.…

The first order operators using the del operator include the gradient, divergence and curl. Certain combinations of first order operators on a scalar…

A line integral for a vector field is defined as the integral of the dot product of a vector function with an infinitesimal displacement vector along…

## High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry Near Surfaces

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Multi-dimensional and transient flows play a key role in many areas of science, engineering, and health sciences but are often not well understood.…

The transport of mass, momentum, and energy in fluid flows is ultimately determined by spatiotemporal distributions of the fluid velocity field.1…