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Chapter 20

Musculoskeletal System

What is the Skeletal System?
The adult human skeleton comprises 206 bones that are connected through cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. The skeleton provides a rigid framework…
Bone Structure
Within the skeletal system, the structure of a bone, or osseous tissue, can be exemplified in a long bone, like the femur, where there are two types…
Joints
Joints, also called articulations or articular surfaces, are points at which ligaments or other tissues connect adjacent bones. Joints permit…
Bone Remodeling
Bone remodeling is a continuous and balanced process of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. In adults, it helps…
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
Skeletal muscle is the most abundant type of muscle in the body. Tendons are the connective tissue that attaches skeletal muscle to bones. Skeletal…
Classification of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Skeletal muscles continuously produce ATP to provide the energy that enables muscle contractions. Skeletal muscle fibers can be categorized as type…
Muscle Contraction
In skeletal muscles, acetylcholine is released by nerve terminals at the motor end plate-the point of synaptic communication between motor neurons…
Cross-bridge Cycle
As muscle contracts, the overlap between the thin and thick filaments increases, decreasing the length of the sarcomere—the contractile unit of…
Motor Units
A motor unit consists of two main components: a single efferent motor neuron (i.e., a neuron that carries impulses away from the central nervous…
The Spinal Cord
The spinal cord is the body’s major nerve tract of the central nervous system, communicating afferent sensory information from the periphery to…
Nociception
Nociception—the ability to feel pain—is essential for an organism’s survival and overall well-being. Noxious stimuli such as…
Subject-specific Musculoskeletal Model for Studying Bone Strain During Dynamic Motion
Bone stress injuries are common in sports and military trainings. Repetitive large ground impact forces during training could be the cause. It is…
Building Finite Element Models to Investigate Zebrafish Jaw Biomechanics
Skeletal morphogenesis occurs through tightly regulated cell behaviors during development; many cell types alter their behavior in response to…
Methods to Assess Subcellular Compartments of Muscle in <em>C. elegans</em>
Muscle is a dynamic tissue that responds to changes in nutrition, exercise, and disease state. The loss of muscle mass and function with disease and…

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