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Chapter 20

Musculoskeletal System

What is the Skeletal System?
Overview The adult human skeleton comprises 206 bones that are connected through cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. The skeleton provides a rigid…
Bone Structure
Within the skeletal system, the structure of a bone, or osseous tissue, can be exemplified in a long bone, like the femur, where there are two types…
Joints
In the human body, joints are points of articulation—locations where bones meet. Types of Joints There are three main types. The…
Bone Remodeling
Even in the adult skeleton, bones are active tissues, continuously undergoing changes in architecture. This process, called bone remodeling, consists…
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
Skeletal muscles—striated tissues under the voluntary control of the somatic nervous system—are attached to bones through collagenous…
Classification of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Skeletal muscles consist of three main fiber types—one slow and two fast twitch—each distinct and adapted to a particular function based…
Muscle Contraction
A voluntary skeletal muscle contraction begins in the brain—as a conscious effort from the frontal lobe to the primary motor…
Cross-bridge Cycle
As muscle contracts, the overlap between the thin and thick filaments increases, decreasing the length of the sarcomere—the contractile unit of…
Motor Units
A motor unit refers to one motor neuron—located in the spinal cord—and the population of muscle fibers that it innervates. While every…
The Spinal Cord
The spinal cord is the body’s major nerve tract of the central nervous system, communicating afferent sensory information from the periphery to…
Nociception
Nociception, generally referred to as pain, is the process through which a noxious stimulus is transmitted through the peripheral and central nervous…
Subject-specific Musculoskeletal Model for Studying Bone Strain During Dynamic Motion
Bone stress injuries are common in sports and military trainings. Repetitive large ground impact forces during training could be the cause. It is…
Building Finite Element Models to Investigate Zebrafish Jaw Biomechanics
Skeletal morphogenesis occurs through tightly regulated cell behaviors during development; many cell types alter their behavior in response to…
Methods to Assess Subcellular Compartments of Muscle in <em>C. elegans</em>
Muscle is a dynamic tissue that responds to changes in nutrition, exercise, and disease state. The loss of muscle mass and function with disease and…

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