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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (10)

Articles by George J. Murphy in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Peripheral Blood Using the STEMCCA Lentiviral Vector

1Center for Regenerative Medicine (CReM), Boston University School of Medicine, 2Department of Hematology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3Center for Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia


JoVE 4327

Here we show a simple and effective protocol for the generation of human iPSCs from 3-4 ml of peripheral blood using a single lentiviral reprogramming vector. Reprogramming of readily available blood cells promises to accelerate the utilization of iPSC technology by making it accessible to a broader research community.

Other articles by George J. Murphy on PubMed

Manipulation of Mouse Hematopoietic Progenitors by Specific Retroviral Infection

Previous studies have identified an enhancer 3' of the scl gene that can direct transgene expression to hematopoietic progenitors and stem cells. Here we use this enhancer to restrict expression of the avian leukosis virus receptor, TVA, to hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors in bone marrow and fetal liver and demonstrate that retroviral infection can be used to specifically introduce exogenous sequences. We show that a majority of CFU-S12 multipotential progenitor cells can be transduced in vitro. Uniquely, transduction of TVA+ progenitors with a retrovirus encoding a puromycin resistance gene allows selection and expansion of a multipotential hematopoietic progenitor population that can be superinfected with high efficiency. Using this system we show for the first time that v-Myb oncoproteins expressed from avian viruses can induce a leukemic transformation in the mouse. The phenotype of the transformed cells is similar to that which is seen in the chicken and is likewise dependent on the particular structure of v-Myb. This implies that the basic mechanisms of action of mutated transcription factors in the etiology of leukemia are conserved between birds and mammals.

LPAM (alpha 4 Beta 7 Integrin) is an Important Homing Integrin on Alloreactive T Cells in the Development of Intestinal Graft-versus-host Disease

Lymphocyte Peyer patch adhesion molecule (LPAM) or alpha(4)beta(7) integrin is expressed on lymphocytes and is responsible for T-cell homing into gut-associated lymphoid tissues through its binding to mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule (MAdCAM), which is present on high endothelial venules of mucosal lymphoid organs. We found in murine allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) models that recipients of alpha(4)beta(7)(-) donor T cells had significantly less graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) morbidity and mortality compared with recipients of alpha(4)beta(7)(+) donor T cells. A kinetic posttransplantation analysis of lymphocytes in the intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes demonstrated a delayed invasion of lower numbers of alpha(4)beta(7)(+) T cells in recipients of alpha(4)beta(7)(-) T cells compared with recipients of alpha(4)beta(7)(+) T cells. Histopathologic analysis of GVHD target organs revealed that recipients of alpha(4)beta(7)(-) T cells developed less GVHD of the intestines and liver, whereas there was no difference in cutaneous and thymic GVHD between recipients of alpha(4)beta(7)(-) or alpha(4)beta(7)(+) T cells. Finally, we found that in vivo GVT activity of alpha(4)beta(7)(-) donor T cells was preserved. We conclude that the alpha(4)beta(7) integrin is important for the invasion of alloreactive donor T cells into the gut and the subsequent development of intestinal GVHD and overall GVHD morbidity and mortality.

Manipulation of Gene Expression in Megakaryocytes

Using Retroviruses to Express Genes in Primary Megakaryocyte Lineage Cells

Exogenous Control of Mammalian Gene Expression Via Modulation of Translational Termination

Here, we describe a system for the exogenous control of gene expression in mammalian cells that relies on the control of translational termination. To achieve gene regulation, we modified protein-coding sequences by introduction of a translational termination codon just downstream from the initiator AUG codon. Translation of the resulting mRNA leads to potent reduction in expression of the desired gene product. Expression of the gene product can be controlled by treating cells that express the mRNA with either aminoglycoside antibiotics or several nonantibiotic compounds. We show that the extent of regulation of gene expression can be substantial (60-fold) and that regulation can be achieved in the case of a variety of different genes, in different cultured cell lines and in primary cells in vivo. This gene regulation strategy offers significant advantages over existing methods for controlling gene expression and should have both immediate experimental application and possible clinical application.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Generation Using a Single Lentiviral Stem Cell Cassette

Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated using retroviral vectors expressing Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, and cMyc. Most prior studies have required multiple retroviral vectors for reprogramming, resulting in high numbers of genomic integrations in iPS cells and limiting their use for therapeutic applications. Here we describe the use of a single lentiviral vector expressing a "stem cell cassette" composed of the four transcription factors and a combination of 2A peptide and internal ribosome entry site technology, generating iPS cells from postnatal fibroblasts. iPS cells generated in this manner display embryonic stem cell-like morphology, express stem cell markers, and exhibit in vivo pluripotency, as evidenced by their ability to differentiate in teratoma assays and their robust contribution to mouse chimeras. Combining all factors into a single transcript achieves the most efficient reprogramming system to date and allows derivation of iPS cells with a single viral integration. The use of a single lentiviral vector for reprogramming represents a powerful laboratory tool and a significant step toward the application of iPS technology for clinical purposes.

Excision of Reprogramming Transgenes Improves the Differentiation Potential of IPS Cells Generated with a Single Excisable Vector

The residual presence of integrated transgenes following the derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is highly undesirable. Here we demonstrate efficient derivation of iPS cells free of exogenous reprogramming transgenes using an excisable polycistronic lentiviral vector. A novel version of this vector containing a reporter fluorochrome allows direct visualization of vector excision in living iPS cells in real time. We find that removal of the reprogramming vector markedly improves the developmental potential of iPS cells and significantly augments their capacity to undergo directed differentiation in vitro. We further propose that methods to efficiently excise reprogramming transgenes with minimal culture passaging, such as those demonstrated here, are critical since we find that iPS cells may acquire chromosomal abnormalities, such as trisomy of chromosome 8, similar to embryonic stem cells after expansion in culture. Our findings illustrate an efficient method for the generation of transgene-free iPS cells and emphasize the potential beneficial effects that may result from elimination of integrated reprogramming factors. In addition, our results underscore the consequences of long-term culture that will need to be taken into account for the clinical application of iPS cells.

Amelioration of Emphysema in Mice Through Lentiviral Transduction of Long-lived Pulmonary Alveolar Macrophages

Directed gene transfer into specific cell lineages in vivo is an attractive approach for both modulating gene expression and correcting inherited mutations such as emphysema caused by human alpha1 antitrypsin (hAAT) deficiency. However, somatic tissues are mainly comprised of heterogeneous, differentiated cell lineages that can be short lived and difficult to specifically transfect. Here, we describe an intratracheally instilled lentiviral system able to deliver genes selectively to as many as 70% of alveolar macrophages (AMs) in the mouse lung. Following a single in vivo lentiviral transduction, genetically tagged AMs persisted in lung alveoli and expressed transferred genes for the lifetime of the adult mouse. A prolonged macrophage lifespan, rather than precursor cell proliferation, accounted for the surprisingly sustained presence of transduced AMs. We utilized this long-lived population to achieve localized secretion of therapeutic levels of hAAT protein in lung epithelial lining fluid. In an established mouse model of emphysema, lentivirally delivered hAAT ameliorated the progression of emphysema, as evidenced by attenuation of increased lung compliance and alveolar size. After 24 weeks of sustained gene expression, no humoral or cellular immune responses to hAAT protein were detected. Our results challenge the dogma that AMs are short lived and suggest that these differentiated cells may be a possible target cell population for in vivo gene therapy applications, including the sustained correction of hAAT deficiency.

Generation of Transgene-free Lung Disease-specific Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using a Single Excisable Lentiviral Stem Cell Cassette

The development of methods to achieve efficient reprogramming of human cells while avoiding the permanent presence of reprogramming transgenes represents a critical step toward the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) for clinical purposes, such as disease modeling or reconstituting therapies. Although several methods exist for generating iPSC free of reprogramming transgenes from mouse cells or neonatal normal human tissues, a sufficiently efficient reprogramming system is still needed to achieve the widespread derivation of disease-specific iPSC from humans with inherited or degenerative diseases. Here, we report the use of a humanized version of a single lentiviral "stem cell cassette" vector to accomplish efficient reprogramming of normal or diseased skin fibroblasts obtained from humans of virtually any age. Simultaneous transfer of either three or four reprogramming factors into human target cells using this single vector allows derivation of human iPSC containing a single excisable viral integration that on removal generates human iPSC free of integrated transgenes. As a proof of principle, here we apply this strategy to generate >100 lung disease-specific iPSC lines from individuals with a variety of diseases affecting the epithelial, endothelial, or interstitial compartments of the lung, including cystic fibrosis, α-1 antitrypsin deficiency-related emphysema, scleroderma, and sickle-cell disease. Moreover, we demonstrate that human iPSC generated with this approach have the ability to robustly differentiate into definitive endoderm in vitro, the developmental precursor tissue of lung epithelia.

Mouse ES and IPS Cells Can Form Similar Definitive Endoderm Despite Differences in Imprinted Genes

The directed differentiation of iPS and ES cells into definitive endoderm (DE) would allow the derivation of otherwise inaccessible progenitors for endodermal tissues. However, a global comparison of the relative equivalency of DE derived from iPS and ES populations has not been performed. Recent reports of molecular differences between iPS and ES cells have raised uncertainty as to whether iPS cells could generate autologous endodermal lineages in vitro. Here, we show that both mouse iPS and parental ES cells exhibited highly similar in vitro capacity to undergo directed differentiation into DE progenitors. With few exceptions, both cell types displayed similar surges in gene expression of specific master transcriptional regulators and global transcriptomes that define the developmental milestones of DE differentiation. Microarray analysis showed considerable overlap between the genetic programs of DE derived from ES/iPS cells in vitro and authentic DE from mouse embryos in vivo. Intriguingly, iPS cells exhibited aberrant silencing of imprinted genes known to participate in endoderm differentiation, yet retained a robust ability to differentiate into DE. Our results show that, despite some molecular differences, iPS cells can be efficiently differentiated into DE precursors, reinforcing their potential for development of cell-based therapies for diseased endoderm-derived tissues.

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