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In JoVE (2)

Other Publications (10)

Articles by Jason A. Mills in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Peripheral Blood Using the STEMCCA Lentiviral Vector

1Center for Regenerative Medicine (CReM), Boston University School of Medicine, 2Department of Hematology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3Center for Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia


JoVE 4327

Here we show a simple and effective protocol for the generation of human iPSCs from 3-4 ml of peripheral blood using a single lentiviral reprogramming vector. Reprogramming of readily available blood cells promises to accelerate the utilization of iPSC technology by making it accessible to a broader research community.

 JoVE Biology

Efficient iPS Cell Generation from Blood Using Episomes and HDAC Inhibitors

1Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 2Division of Hematology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3Department of Pathology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia


JoVE 52009

Here we describe a protocol for generating human induced pluripotent stem cells from peripheral blood using an episome based reprogramming strategy and histone deacetylase inhibitors.

Other articles by Jason A. Mills on PubMed

Generation of Transgene-free Lung Disease-specific Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using a Single Excisable Lentiviral Stem Cell Cassette

The development of methods to achieve efficient reprogramming of human cells while avoiding the permanent presence of reprogramming transgenes represents a critical step toward the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) for clinical purposes, such as disease modeling or reconstituting therapies. Although several methods exist for generating iPSC free of reprogramming transgenes from mouse cells or neonatal normal human tissues, a sufficiently efficient reprogramming system is still needed to achieve the widespread derivation of disease-specific iPSC from humans with inherited or degenerative diseases. Here, we report the use of a humanized version of a single lentiviral "stem cell cassette" vector to accomplish efficient reprogramming of normal or diseased skin fibroblasts obtained from humans of virtually any age. Simultaneous transfer of either three or four reprogramming factors into human target cells using this single vector allows derivation of human iPSC containing a single excisable viral integration that on removal generates human iPSC free of integrated transgenes. As a proof of principle, here we apply this strategy to generate >100 lung disease-specific iPSC lines from individuals with a variety of diseases affecting the epithelial, endothelial, or interstitial compartments of the lung, including cystic fibrosis, α-1 antitrypsin deficiency-related emphysema, scleroderma, and sickle-cell disease. Moreover, we demonstrate that human iPSC generated with this approach have the ability to robustly differentiate into definitive endoderm in vitro, the developmental precursor tissue of lung epithelia.

Self-renewing Endodermal Progenitor Lines Generated from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

The use of human pluripotent stem cells for laboratory studies and cell-based therapies is hampered by their tumor-forming potential and limited ability to generate pure populations of differentiated cell types in vitro. To address these issues, we established endodermal progenitor (EP) cell lines from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Optimized growth conditions were established that allow near unlimited (>10(16)) EP cell self-renewal in which they display a morphology and gene expression pattern characteristic of definitive endoderm. Upon manipulation of their culture conditions in vitro or transplantation into mice, clonally derived EP cells differentiate into numerous endodermal lineages, including monohormonal glucose-responsive pancreatic β-cells, hepatocytes, and intestinal epithelia. Importantly, EP cells are nontumorigenic in vivo. Thus, EP cells represent a powerful tool to study endoderm specification and offer a potentially safe source of endodermal-derived tissues for transplantation therapies.

Trisomy 21-associated Defects in Human Primitive Hematopoiesis Revealed Through Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Patients with Down syndrome (trisomy 21, T21) have hematologic abnormalities throughout life. Newborns frequently exhibit abnormal blood counts and a clonal preleukemia. Human T21 fetal livers contain expanded erythro-megakaryocytic precursors with enhanced proliferative capacity. The impact of T21 on the earliest stages of embryonic hematopoiesis is unknown and nearly impossible to examine in human subjects. We modeled T21 yolk sac hematopoiesis using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Blood progenitor populations generated from T21 iPSCs were present at normal frequency and proliferated normally. However, their developmental potential was altered with enhanced erythropoiesis and reduced myelopoiesis, but normal megakaryocyte production. These abnormalities overlap with those of T21 fetal livers, but also reflect important differences. Our studies show that T21 confers distinct developmental stage- and species-specific hematopoietic defects. More generally, we illustrate how iPSCs can provide insight into early stages of normal and pathological human development.

AAV-mediated Gene Therapy for Choroideremia: Preclinical Studies in Personalized Models

Choroideremia (CHM) is an X- linked retinal degeneration that is symptomatic in the 1(st) or 2(nd) decade of life causing nyctalopia and loss of peripheral vision. The disease progresses through mid-life, when most patients become blind. CHM is a favorable target for gene augmentation therapy, as the disease is due to loss of function of a protein necessary for retinal cell health, Rab Escort Protein 1 (REP1).The CHM cDNA can be packaged in recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV), which has an established track record in human gene therapy studies, and, in addition, there are sensitive and quantitative assays to document REP1 activity. An animal model that accurately reflects the human condition is not available. In this study, we tested the ability to restore REP1 function in personalized in vitro models of CHM: lymphoblasts and induced pluripotent stems cells (iPSCs) from human patients. The initial step of evaluating safety of the treatment was carried out by evaluating for acute retinal histopathologic effects in normal-sighted mice and no obvious toxicity was identified. Delivery of the CHM cDNA to affected cells restores REP1 enzymatic activity and also restores proper protein trafficking. The gene transfer is efficient and the preliminary safety data are encouraging. These studies pave the way for a human clinical trial of gene therapy for CHM.

Ribosomal and Hematopoietic Defects in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Diamond Blackfan Anemia Patients

Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital disorder with erythroid (Ery) hypoplasia and tissue morphogenic abnormalities. Most DBA cases are caused by heterozygous null mutations in genes encoding ribosomal proteins. Understanding how haploinsufficiency of these ubiquitous proteins causes DBA is hampered by limited availability of tissues from affected patients. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of DBA patients carrying mutations in RPS19 and RPL5. Compared with controls, DBA fibroblasts formed iPSCs inefficiently, although we obtained 1 stable clone from each fibroblast line. RPS19-mutated iPSCs exhibited defects in 40S (small) ribosomal subunit assembly and production of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Upon induced differentiation, the mutant clone exhibited globally impaired hematopoiesis, with the Ery lineage affected most profoundly. RPL5-mutated iPSCs exhibited defective 60S (large) ribosomal subunit assembly, accumulation of 12S pre-rRNA, and impaired erythropoiesis. In both mutant iPSC lines, genetic correction of ribosomal protein deficiency via complementary DNA transfer into the "safe harbor" AAVS1 locus alleviated abnormalities in ribosome biogenesis and hematopoiesis. Our studies show that pathological features of DBA are recapitulated by iPSCs, provide a renewable source of cells to model various tissue defects, and demonstrate proof of principle for genetic correction strategies in patient stem cells.

Clonal Genetic and Hematopoietic Heterogeneity Among Human-induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for modeling human hematopoietic diseases. However, intrinsic variability in the capacities of different iPSC lines for hematopoietic development complicates comparative studies and is currently unexplained. We created and analyzed 3 separate iPSC clones from fibroblasts of 3 different normal individuals using a standardized approach that included excision of integrated reprogramming genes by Cre-Lox mediated recombination. Gene expression profiling and hematopoietic differentiation assays showed that independent lines from the same individual were generally more similar to one another than those from different individuals. However, one iPSC line (WT2.1) exhibited a distinctly different gene expression, proliferation rate, and hematopoietic developmental potential relative to all other iPSC lines. This "outlier" clone also acquired extensive copy number variations (CNVs) during reprogramming, which may be responsible for its divergent properties. Our data indicate how inherent and acquired genetic differences can influence iPSC properties, including hematopoietic potential.

High-level Transgene Expression in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Megakaryocytes: Correction of Glanzmann Thrombasthenia

Megakaryocyte-specific transgene expression in patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers a new approach to study and potentially treat disorders affecting megakaryocytes and platelets. By using a Gp1ba promoter, we developed a strategy for achieving a high level of protein expression in human megakaryocytes. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in iPSCs derived from two patients with Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT), an inherited platelet disorder caused by mutations in integrin αIIbβ3. Hemizygous insertion of Gp1ba promoter-driven human αIIb complementary DNA into the AAVS1 locus of iPSCs led to high αIIb messenger RNA and protein expression and correction of surface αIIbβ3 in megakaryocytes. Agonist stimulation of these cells displayed recovery of integrin αIIbβ3 activation. Our findings demonstrate a novel approach to studying human megakaryocyte biology as well as functional correction of the GT defect, offering a potential therapeutic strategy for patients with diseases that affect platelet function.

The Negative Impact of Wnt Signaling on Megakaryocyte and Primitive Erythroid Progenitors Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

The Wnt gene family consists of structurally related genes encoding secreted signaling molecules that have been implicated in many developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. Previously, we found that Wnt signaling is required for primitive or yolk sac-derived-erythropoiesis using the murine embryonic stem cell (ESC) system. Here, we examine the effect of Wnt signaling on the formation of early hematopoietic progenitors derived from human ESCs. The first hematopoietic progenitor cells in the human ESC system express the pan-hematopoietic marker CD41 and the erythrocyte marker, glycophorin A or CD235. We have developed a novel serum-free, feeder-free, adherent differentiation system that can efficiently generate large numbers of CD41+CD235+ cells. We demonstrate that this cell population contains progenitors not just for primitive erythroid and megakaryocyte cells but for the myeloid lineage as well and term this population the primitive common myeloid progenitor (CMP). Treatment of mesoderm-specified cells with Wnt3a led to a loss of hematopoietic colony-forming ability while the inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling with DKK1 led to an increase in the number of primitive CMPs. Canonical Wnt signaling also inhibits the expansion and/or survival of primitive erythrocytes and megakaryocytes, but not myeloid cells, derived from this progenitor population. These findings are in contrast to the role of Wnt signaling during mouse ESC differentiation and demonstrate the importance of the human ESC system in studying species-specific differences in development.

Utilization of the AAVS1 Safe Harbor Locus for Hematopoietic Specific Transgene Expression and Gene Knockdown in Human ES Cells

Human pluripotent stem cells offer a powerful system to study human biology and disease. Here, we report a system to both express transgenes specifically in ES cell derived hematopoietic cells and knockdown gene expression stably throughout the differentiation of ES cells. We characterize a CD43 promoter construct that when inserted into the AAVS1 "safe harbor" locus utilizing a zinc finger nuclease specifically drives GFP expression in hematopoietic cells derived from a transgenic ES cell line and faithfully recapitulates endogenous CD43 expression. In addition, using the same gene targeting strategy we demonstrate that constitutive expression of short hairpin RNAs within a microRNA backbone can suppress expression of PU.1, an important regulator of myeloid cell development. We show that PU.1 knockdown cell lines display an inhibition in myeloid cell formation and skewing towards erythroid development. Overall, we have generated a powerful system to track hematopoietic development from pluripotent stem cells and study gene function through hematopoietic specific gene expression and constitutive gene knockdown.

Hematopoietic Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells in Culture

This chapter describes a two-dimensional "monolayer" system for differentiating human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) into "primitive" hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) resembling those produced in vivo by the early embryonic yolk sac. This experimental system utilizes defined conditions without serum or feeder cells. Cytokines are added sequentially to stimulate the formation of mesoderm and its subsequent patterning to hematopoietic progenitors. The HPCs produced by this protocol have multi-lineage potential (erythroid, megakaryocyte, and myeloid) and can be isolated as a homogeneous population for use in standard hematopoietic studies including liquid expansion to mature lineages and colony assays. In addition, the HPCs can be cryopreserved for distribution or analysis at later times. The HPCs generated by this protocol have been used successfully to better define intrinsic variation in hematopoietic potential between different PSC lines and to model human hematopoietic diseases using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

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