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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (21)

Articles by Paul Gadue in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Peripheral Blood Using the STEMCCA Lentiviral Vector

1Center for Regenerative Medicine (CReM), Boston University School of Medicine, 2Department of Hematology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3Center for Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia


JoVE 4327

Here we show a simple and effective protocol for the generation of human iPSCs from 3-4 ml of peripheral blood using a single lentiviral reprogramming vector. Reprogramming of readily available blood cells promises to accelerate the utilization of iPSC technology by making it accessible to a broader research community.

Other articles by Paul Gadue on PubMed

NK T Cell Precursors Exhibit Differential Cytokine Regulation and Require Itk for Efficient Maturation

NK T cells are a lymphocyte lineage that is selected by CD1d and is characterized by the ability to rapidly secrete large amounts of both IFN-gamma and IL-4 after TCR stimulation. Using reactivity to CD1d tetramers to define presumptive NK T cells, several NK T cell progenitor populations were characterized based upon NK marker expression and CD4 vs CD8 expression. The earliest populations were found to be negative for NK markers and could proliferate to IL-7, while mature NK T cells did not. The NK1.1(-) NK T cell progenitors were capable of up-regulating NK1.1 when transferred in vivo. Upon stimulation, the NK1.1(-) populations secrete IL-4, but little IFN-gamma. As the cells mature and up-regulate NK1.1, they acquire the ability to secrete IFN-gamma. Finally, the Tec family tyrosine kinase Itk is necessary for optimal NK1.1 up-regulation and hence final maturation of NK T cells. The itk(-/-) mice also display a progressive decrease in NK T cells in older animals, suggesting a further role in peripheral maintenance.

The Mer Receptor Tyrosine Kinase: Expression and Function Suggest a Role in Innate Immunity

The mer receptor tyrosine kinase mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and modulates cytokine production; it is also required for prevention of systemic autoimmune disease. Using a mer-specific antibody, we have confirmed the presence of mer on macrophages and now report its expression on NK cells, NKT cells, and dendritic cells (DC). We found that DC do not require mer for ingestion of apoptotic cells, as DC from mer-deficient mice phagocytose apoptotic cells normally. Mer was observed in splenic sections on cells outside follicular areas, probably representing DC and macrophages. Mer apparently participates in NKT-cell antigen-induced signaling, as NKT cells from mer-deficient mice evinced much lower cytokine production after in vivo alpha-galactosylceramide stimulation; this defect was intrinsic to the mer-deficient NKT cells. Taken together, these studies show mer expression on cells of the innate immune system. Mer, through its binding of lipid antigens, may not only mediate ingestion of apoptotic cells, but also signal events in NK cells, NKT cells, and DC.

Restoration of NK T Cell Development in Fyn-mutant Mice by a TCR Reveals a Requirement for Fyn During Early NK T Cell Ontogeny

NK T cells are a unique lymphocyte population that have developmental requirements distinct from conventional T cells. Mice lacking the tyrosine kinase Fyn have 5- to 10-fold fewer mature NK T cells. This study shows that Fyn-deficient mice have decreased numbers of NK1.1(-) NK T cell progenitors as well. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeling studies indicate that the NK T cells remaining in fyn(-/-) mice exhibit a similar turnover rate as wild-type cells. The fyn(-/-) NK T cells respond to alpha-galactosylceramide, a ligand recognized by NK T cells, and produce cytokines, but have depressed proliferative capacity. Transgenic expression of the NK T cell-specific TCR alpha-chain Valpha14Jalpha18 leads to a complete restoration of NK T cell numbers in fyn(-/-) mice. Together, these results suggest that Fyn may have a role before alpha-chain rearrangement rather than for positive selection or the peripheral upkeep of cell number. NK T cells can activate other lymphoid lineages via cytokine secretion. These secondary responses are impaired in Fyn-deficient mice, but occur normally in fyn mutants expressing the Valpha14Jalpha18 transgene. Because this transgene restores NK T cell numbers, the lack of secondary lymphocyte activation in the fyn-mutant mice is due to the decreased numbers of NK T cells present in the mutant, rather than an intrinsic defect in the ability of the other fyn(-/-) lymphoid populations to respond.

Germ Layer Induction from Embryonic Stem Cells

Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the potential to develop into all cell types of the adult body. This capability provides the basis for considering the ES cell system as a novel and unlimited source of cells for replacement therapies for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. Before the cell-based therapy potential of ES cells can be realized, a better understanding of the pathways regulating lineage-specific differentiation is required. Current studies suggest that the bone morphogenic protein, transforming growth factor-beta, Wnt, and fibroblast growth factor pathways that are required for gastrulation and germ layer induction in the embryo are also essential for differentiation of ES cells in culture. The current understanding of how these factors influence germ layer induction in both the embryo and in the ES cell differentiation system is addressed in this review.

Wnt and TGF-beta Signaling Are Required for the Induction of an in Vitro Model of Primitive Streak Formation Using Embryonic Stem Cells

The establishment of the primitive streak and its derivative germ layers, mesoderm and endoderm, are prerequisite steps in the formation of many tissues. To model these developmental stages in vitro, an ES cell line was established that expresses CD4 from the foxa2 locus in addition to GFP from the brachyury locus. A GFP-Bry(+) population expressing variable levels of CD4-Foxa2 developed upon differentiation of this ES cell line. Analysis of gene-expression patterns and developmental potential revealed that the CD4-Foxa2(hi)GFP-Bry(+) population displays characteristics of the anterior primitive streak, whereas the CD4-Foxa2(lo)GFP-Bry(+) cells resemble the posterior streak. Using this model, we were able to demonstrate that Wnt and TGF-beta/nodal/activin signaling simultaneously were required for the generation of the CD4-Foxa2(+)GFP-Bry(+) population. Wnt or low levels of activin-induced a posterior primitive streak population, whereas high levels of activin resulted in an anterior streak fate. Finally, sustained activin signaling was found to stimulate endoderm commitment from the CD4-Foxa2(+)GFP-Bry(+) ES cell population. These findings demonstrate that the early developmental events involved in germ-layer induction in the embryo are recapitulated in the ES cell model and uncover insights into the signaling pathways involved in the establishment of mesoderm and endoderm.

BMP-4 is Required for Hepatic Specification of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Definitive Endoderm

When differentiated in the presence of activin A in serum-free conditions, mouse embryonic stem cells efficiently generate an endoderm progenitor population defined by the coexpression of either Brachyury, Foxa2 and c-Kit, or c-Kit and Cxcr4. Specification of these progenitors with bone morphogenetic protein-4 in combination with basic fibroblast growth factor and activin A results in the development of hepatic populations highly enriched (45-70%) for cells that express the alpha-fetoprotein and albumin proteins. These cells also express transcripts of Afp, Alb1, Tat, Cps1, Cyp7a1 and Cyp3a11; they secrete albumin, store glycogen, show ultrastructural characteristics of mature hepatocytes, and are able to integrate into and proliferate in injured livers in vivo and mature into hepatocytes expressing dipeptidyl peptidase IV or fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase. Together, these findings establish a developmental pathway in embryonic stem cell differentiation cultures that leads to efficient generation of cells with an immature hepatocytic phenotype.

Identification and Targeting of the ROSA26 Locus in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

The derivation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells has opened new avenues for studies on human development and provided a potential source of cells for replacement therapy. To reveal the full potential of hES cells, it would be advantageous to be able to genetically alter them as is routinely done with mouse ES cells through homologous recombination. The mouse Rosa26 locus is particularly useful for genetic modification as it can be targeted with high efficiency and is expressed in most cell types tested. Here we report the identification of the human homolog of the mouse Rosa26 locus. We demonstrate targeting of a red-fluorescent protein (tdRFP) cDNA to this locus through homologous recombination and expression of this targeted reporter in multiple hES cell-derived lineages. Through recombinase-mediated cassette exchange, we show replacement of the tdRFP cDNA with other cDNAs, providing a cell line in which transgenes can be readily introduced into a broadly expressed locus.

Wnt, Activin, and BMP Signaling Regulate Distinct Stages in the Developmental Pathway from Embryonic Stem Cells to Blood

The embryonic stem cell differentiation system was used to define the roles of the Activin/Nodal, BMP, and canonical Wnt signaling pathways at three distinct developmental stages during hematopoietic ontogeny: induction of a primitive streak-like population, formation of Flk1(+) mesoderm, and induction of hematopoietic progenitors. Activin/Nodal and Wnt, but not BMP, signaling are required for the induction of the primitive streak. Although BMP is not required for primitive streak induction, it displays a strong posteriorizing effect on this population. All three signaling pathways regulate induction of Flk1(+) mesoderm. The specification of Flk1(+) mesoderm to the hematopoietic lineages requires VEGF and Wnt, but not BMP or Activin/Nodal signaling. Specifically, Wnt signaling is essential for commitment of the primitive erythroid, but not the definitive lineages. These findings highlight dynamic changes in signaling requirements during blood cell development and identify a role for Wnt signaling in the establishment of the primitive erythroid lineage.

Numb Mediates the Interaction Between Wnt and Notch to Modulate Primitive Erythropoietic Specification from the Hemangioblast

During embryonic development, the establishment of the primitive erythroid lineage in the yolk sac is a temporally and spatially restricted program that defines the onset of hematopoiesis. In this report, we have used the embryonic stem cell differentiation system to investigate the regulation of primitive erythroid development at the level of the hemangioblast. We show that the combination of Wnt signaling with inhibition of the Notch pathway is required for the development of this lineage. Inhibition of Notch signaling at this stage appears to be mediated by the transient expression of Numb in the hemangioblast-derived blast cell colonies. Activation of the Notch pathway was found to inhibit primitive erythropoiesis efficiently through the upregulation of inhibitors of the Wnt pathway. Together, these findings demonstrate that specification of the primitive erythroid lineage is controlled, in part, by the coordinated interaction of the Wnt and Notch pathways, and position Numb as a key mediator of this process.

Epidermal Cells Rev Up Reprogramming

Generation of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Cell Surface Molecules Expressed on Early Mouse Endoderm

The development of functional cell populations such as hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells from embryonic stem cell (ESC) is dependent on the efficient induction of definitive endoderm early in the differentiation process. To monitor definitive endoderm formation in mouse ESC differentiation cultures in a quantitative fashion, we generated a reporter cell line that expresses human CD25 from the Foxa3 locus and human CD4 from the Foxa2 locus. Induction of these reporter ESCs with high concentrations of activin A led to the development of a CD25-Foxa3+CD4-Foxa2+ population within 4-5 days of culture. Isolation and characterization of this population showed that it consists predominantly of definitive endoderm that is able to undergo hepatic specification under the appropriate conditions. To develop reagents that can be used for studies on endoderm development from unmanipulated ESCs, from induced pluripotent stem cells, and from the mouse embryo, we generated monoclonal antibodies against the CD25-Foxa3+CD4-Foxa2+ population. With this approach, we identified two antibodies that react specifically with endoderm from ESC cultures and from the early embryo. The specificity of these antibodies enables one to quantitatively monitor endoderm development in ESC differentiation cultures, to study endoderm formation in the embryo, and to isolate pure populations of culture- or embryo-derived endodermal cells.

Stem Cells Unscramble Yolk Sac Hematopoiesis

Klimchenko and colleagues use human embryonic stem cells to define a novel bipotential hematopoietic progenitor that gives rise to primitive (yolk sac-type) erythrocytes and megakaryocytes.

Transcriptional Competence and the Active Marking of Tissue-specific Enhancers by Defined Transcription Factors in Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

We reported previously that well-characterized enhancers but not promoters for typical tissue-specific genes, including the classic Alb1 gene, contain unmethylated CpG dinucleotides and evidence of pioneer factor interactions in embryonic stem (ES) cells. These properties, which are distinct from the bivalent histone modification domains that characterize the promoters of genes involved in developmental decisions, raise the possibility that genes expressed only in differentiated cells may need to be marked at the pluripotent stage. Here, we demonstrate that the forkhead family member FoxD3 is essential for the unmethylated mark observed at the Alb1 enhancer in ES cells, with FoxA1 replacing FoxD3 following differentiation into endoderm. Up-regulation of FoxD3 and loss of CpG methylation at the Alb1 enhancer accompanied the reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Studies of two genes expressed in specific hematopoietic lineages revealed that the establishment of enhancer marks in ES cells and iPS cells can be regulated both positively and negatively. Furthermore, the absence of a pre-established mark consistently resulted in resistance to transcriptional activation in the repressive chromatin environment that characterizes differentiated cells. These results support the hypothesis that pluripotency and successful reprogramming may be critically dependent on the marking of enhancers for many or all tissue-specific genes.

Generation of Transgene-free Lung Disease-specific Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using a Single Excisable Lentiviral Stem Cell Cassette

The development of methods to achieve efficient reprogramming of human cells while avoiding the permanent presence of reprogramming transgenes represents a critical step toward the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) for clinical purposes, such as disease modeling or reconstituting therapies. Although several methods exist for generating iPSC free of reprogramming transgenes from mouse cells or neonatal normal human tissues, a sufficiently efficient reprogramming system is still needed to achieve the widespread derivation of disease-specific iPSC from humans with inherited or degenerative diseases. Here, we report the use of a humanized version of a single lentiviral "stem cell cassette" vector to accomplish efficient reprogramming of normal or diseased skin fibroblasts obtained from humans of virtually any age. Simultaneous transfer of either three or four reprogramming factors into human target cells using this single vector allows derivation of human iPSC containing a single excisable viral integration that on removal generates human iPSC free of integrated transgenes. As a proof of principle, here we apply this strategy to generate >100 lung disease-specific iPSC lines from individuals with a variety of diseases affecting the epithelial, endothelial, or interstitial compartments of the lung, including cystic fibrosis, α-1 antitrypsin deficiency-related emphysema, scleroderma, and sickle-cell disease. Moreover, we demonstrate that human iPSC generated with this approach have the ability to robustly differentiate into definitive endoderm in vitro, the developmental precursor tissue of lung epithelia.

Liver Regeneration from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

A High-throughput Multiplexed Screening Assay for Optimizing Serum-free Differentiation Protocols of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Serum-free differentiation protocols of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer the ability to maximize reproducibility and to develop clinically applicable therapies. We developed a high-throughput, 96-well plate, four-color flow cytometry-based assay to optimize differentiation media cocktails and to screen a variety of conditions. We were able to differentiate hESCs to all three primary germ layers, screen for the effect of a range of activin A, BMP4, and VEGF concentrations on endoderm and mesoderm differentiation, and perform RNA-interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of a reporter gene during differentiation. Cells were seeded in suspension culture and embryoid bodies were induced to differentiate to the three primary germ layers for 6 days. Endoderm (CXCR4(+)KDR(-)), mesoderm (KDR(+)SSEA-3(-)), and ectoderm (SSEA-3(+)NCAM(+)) differentiation yields for H9 cells were 80 ± 11, 78 ± 7, and 41 ± 9%, respectively. Germ layer identities were confirmed by quantitative PCR. Activin A, BMP4, and bFGF drove differentiation, with increasing concentrations of activin A inducing higher endoderm yields and increasing BMP4 inducing higher mesoderm yields. VEGF drove lateral mesoderm differentiation. RNAi-mediated knockdown of constitutively expressed red fluorescent protein did not affect endoderm differentiation. This assay facilitates the development of serum-free protocols for hESC differentiation to target lineages and creates a platform for screening small molecules or RNAi during ESC differentiation.

Mouse ES and IPS Cells Can Form Similar Definitive Endoderm Despite Differences in Imprinted Genes

The directed differentiation of iPS and ES cells into definitive endoderm (DE) would allow the derivation of otherwise inaccessible progenitors for endodermal tissues. However, a global comparison of the relative equivalency of DE derived from iPS and ES populations has not been performed. Recent reports of molecular differences between iPS and ES cells have raised uncertainty as to whether iPS cells could generate autologous endodermal lineages in vitro. Here, we show that both mouse iPS and parental ES cells exhibited highly similar in vitro capacity to undergo directed differentiation into DE progenitors. With few exceptions, both cell types displayed similar surges in gene expression of specific master transcriptional regulators and global transcriptomes that define the developmental milestones of DE differentiation. Microarray analysis showed considerable overlap between the genetic programs of DE derived from ES/iPS cells in vitro and authentic DE from mouse embryos in vivo. Intriguingly, iPS cells exhibited aberrant silencing of imprinted genes known to participate in endoderm differentiation, yet retained a robust ability to differentiate into DE. Our results show that, despite some molecular differences, iPS cells can be efficiently differentiated into DE precursors, reinforcing their potential for development of cell-based therapies for diseased endoderm-derived tissues.

An Endothelial Cell Niche Induces Hepatic Specification Through Dual Repression of Wnt and Notch Signaling

Complex cross-talk between endoderm and the microenvironment is an absolute requirement to orchestrate hepatic specification and expansion. In the mouse, the septum transversum and cardiac mesoderm, through secreted bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) and fibroblast growth factors (FGF), respectively, instruct the adjacent ventral endoderm to become hepatic endoderm. Consecutively, endothelial cells promote expansion of the specified hepatic endoderm. By using a mouse reporter embryonic stem cell line, in which hCD4 and hCD25 were targeted to the Foxa2 and Foxa3 loci, we reconstituted an in vitro culture system in which committed endoderm cells coexpressing hCD4-Foxa2 and hCD25-Foxa3 were isolated and cocultured with endothelial cells in the presence of BMP4 and bFGF. In this culture setting, we provide mechanistic evidence that endothelial cells function not only to promote hepatic endoderm expansion but are also required at an earlier step for hepatic specification, at least in part through regulation of the Wnt and Notch pathways. Activation of Wnt and Notch by chemical or genetic approaches increases endoderm cell numbers but inhibits hepatic specification, and conversely, chemical inhibition of both pathways enhances hepatic specification and reduces proliferation. By using identical coculture conditions, we defined a similar dependence of endoderm harvested from embryos on endothelial cells to support their growth and hepatic specification. Our findings (1) confirm a conserved role of Wnt repression for mouse hepatic specification, (2) uncover a novel role for Notch repression in the hepatic fate decision, and (3) demonstrate that repression of Wnt and Notch signaling in hepatic endoderm is controlled by the endothelial cell niche.

High-throughput Screening Assay for Embryoid Body Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Serum-free human pluripotent stem cell media offer the potential to develop reproducible clinically applicable differentiation strategies and protocols. The vast array of possible growth factor and cytokine combinations for media formulations makes differentiation protocol optimization both labor and cost-intensive. This unit describes a 96-well plate, 4-color flow cytometry-based screening assay to optimize pluripotent stem cell differentiation protocols. We provide conditions both to differentiate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into the three primary germ layers, ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, and to utilize flow cytometry to distinguish between them. This assay exhibits low inter-well variability and can be utilized to efficiently screen a variety of media formulations, reducing cost, incubator space, and labor. Protocols can be adapted to a variety of differentiation stages and lineages.

Self-renewing Endodermal Progenitor Lines Generated from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

The use of human pluripotent stem cells for laboratory studies and cell-based therapies is hampered by their tumor-forming potential and limited ability to generate pure populations of differentiated cell types in vitro. To address these issues, we established endodermal progenitor (EP) cell lines from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Optimized growth conditions were established that allow near unlimited (>10(16)) EP cell self-renewal in which they display a morphology and gene expression pattern characteristic of definitive endoderm. Upon manipulation of their culture conditions in vitro or transplantation into mice, clonally derived EP cells differentiate into numerous endodermal lineages, including monohormonal glucose-responsive pancreatic β-cells, hepatocytes, and intestinal epithelia. Importantly, EP cells are nontumorigenic in vivo. Thus, EP cells represent a powerful tool to study endoderm specification and offer a potentially safe source of endodermal-derived tissues for transplantation therapies.

Trisomy 21-associated Defects in Human Primitive Hematopoiesis Revealed Through Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Patients with Down syndrome (trisomy 21, T21) have hematologic abnormalities throughout life. Newborns frequently exhibit abnormal blood counts and a clonal preleukemia. Human T21 fetal livers contain expanded erythro-megakaryocytic precursors with enhanced proliferative capacity. The impact of T21 on the earliest stages of embryonic hematopoiesis is unknown and nearly impossible to examine in human subjects. We modeled T21 yolk sac hematopoiesis using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Blood progenitor populations generated from T21 iPSCs were present at normal frequency and proliferated normally. However, their developmental potential was altered with enhanced erythropoiesis and reduced myelopoiesis, but normal megakaryocyte production. These abnormalities overlap with those of T21 fetal livers, but also reflect important differences. Our studies show that T21 confers distinct developmental stage- and species-specific hematopoietic defects. More generally, we illustrate how iPSCs can provide insight into early stages of normal and pathological human development.

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