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Articles by Gustavo Mostoslavsky in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Peripheral Blood Using the STEMCCA Lentiviral Vector

1Center for Regenerative Medicine (CReM), Boston University School of Medicine, 2Department of Hematology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3Center for Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

JoVE 4327

Here we show a simple and effective protocol for the generation of human iPSCs from 3-4 ml of peripheral blood using a single lentiviral reprogramming vector. Reprogramming of readily available blood cells promises to accelerate the utilization of iPSC technology by making it accessible to a broader research community.

Other articles by Gustavo Mostoslavsky on PubMed

The Efficiency of B Cell Receptor (BCR) Editing is Dependent on BCR Light Chain Rearrangement Status

Anti-DNA knock-in mice serve as models for studying B cell tolerance mechanisms to a ubiquitous antigen. We have constructed six strains of double transgenic (C57BL/6xBALB/c)F1 mice, each expressing an unmutated or somatically mutated anti-DNA heavy (H) chain, combined with one of three different light (L) chains, namely V(kappa)1-J(kappa)1, V(kappa)4-J(kappa)4 and V(kappa)8-J(kappa)5. In vitro analysis of the various Ig H/L chain combinations showed that all had a similar specificity for single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA, but that antibodies encoded by the mutated H chain had higher affinities for the autoantigen. None of the targeted mouse strains exhibited significant levels of serum anti-DNA activity. However, while B cells from mice carrying the V(kappa)1-J(kappa)1 transgenic L chains were tolerized almost exclusively by L chain receptor editing in an affinity-independent manner, the mice expressing V(kappa)8-J(kappa)5 L chains have utilized affinity-dependent clonal anergy as their sole mechanism of B cell tolerance. V(kappa)4-J(kappa)4 targeted mice exhibited an intermediate phenotype with respect to these two mechanisms of B cell tolerance. Our results suggest that receptor editing is the preferred mechanism of B cell tolerance and that the efficiency of L chain editing is directly related to the number of available J(kappa) segments on the expressed V(kappa) allele.

Critical Role for Hematopoietic Cell Kinase (Hck)-mediated Phosphorylation of Gab1 and Gab2 Docking Proteins in Interleukin 6-induced Proliferation and Survival of Multiple Myeloma Cells

Interleukin-6 (LI-6) is a known growth and survival factor in multiple myeloma via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling cascade. In this report we show that Grb2-associated binder (Gab) family adapter proteins Gab1 and Gab2 are expressed by multiple myeloma cells; and that interleukin-6 induces their tyrosine phosphorylation and association with downstream signaling molecules. We further demonstrate that these events are Src family tyrosine kinase-dependent and specifically identify the role of hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) as a new Gab family adapter protein kinase. Conversely, inhibition of Src family tyrosine kinases by the pyrazolopyrimidine PP2, as in kinase-inactive Hck mutants, significantly reduces IL-6-triggered activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and AKT-1, leading to significant reduction of multiple myeloma cell proliferation and survival. Taken together, these results delineate a key role for Hck-mediated phosphorylation of Gab1 and Gab2 docking proteins in IL-6-induced proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells and identify tyrosine kinases and downstream adapter proteins as potential new therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma.

Cytokine-induced Mobilization of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells Enhances Repair of Injured Arteries

The existence of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPCs) has previously been documented. These cells can be mobilized by cytokines and are recruited to sites of injury, where they may participate in tissue repair. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that mobilization of CEPCs by exogenous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhances repair of injured arteries by facilitating reendothelialization and inhibiting neointima development.

Efficiency of Transduction of Highly Purified Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Lentiviral and Oncoretroviral Vectors Under Conditions of Minimal in Vitro Manipulation

The development of leukemias in several children with severe combined immunodeficiency disease who were transplanted with retroviral vector-transduced bone marrow cells has renewed concerns about the risks associated with the random integration of proviral sequences into chromosomal DNA. One theoretical way to reduce the risks of insertional mutagenesis would be to employ transduction/transplantation protocols that minimize the total number of genetically modified cells and associated proviral integration "events" introduced into recipients. Toward this end, we have developed a transduction protocol that involves the short-term incubation of highly purified murine stem cells with high-titer recombinant lentivirus vectors in the presence of serum-free medium and the cytokines SCF and TPO. Competitive repopulation studies showed that stem cells transduced in this way possessed the same reconstitutive ability as fresh, unmanipulated cells. Animals transplanted with only 200-2000 transduced cells were efficiently reconstituted with the genetically modified cells, and most hematopoietic cells in the recipients expressed the transgene. In contrast, the use of high-titer oncoretroviral vectors in conjunction with the same transduction/transplantation protocol resulted in only low levels of gene marking in vivo. The use of a similar transduction/transplantation strategy in future clinical studies may offer distinct advantages over current protocols.

Treatment with a Laminin-derived Peptide Suppresses Lupus Nephritis

The role of DNA as the target for pathogenic lupus autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus is equivocal and renal damage may be due to cross-reactivity of lupus Abs with glomerular components. We have previously shown that lupus autoantibodies bind to the laminin component of the extracellular matrix. In the present work, we have analyzed the fine specificity of the interaction of pathogenic murine lupus autoantibodies with this molecule and the effect of inhibiting their binding to laminin during the course of the disease. We have found that pathogenic murine lupus autoantibodies react with a 21-mer peptide located in the globular part of the alpha-chain of laminin. Immunization of young lupus-prone mice with this peptide accelerated renal disease. Analysis of transgenic, congenic, and RAG-1(-/-) mice confirmed the importance of this epitope in the pathogenesis of lupus renal disease. We have synthesized a panel of peptides that cross-react with the anti-laminin Abs and have found that the binding of lupus autoantibodies to the extracellular matrix could be inhibited in vitro by some of these competitive peptides. Treatment of MRL/lpr/lpr mice with these peptides prevented Ab deposition in the kidneys, ameliorated renal disease, and prolonged survival of the peptide-treated mice. We suggest that laminin components can serve as the target for lupus Abs. The interaction with these Ags can explain both the tissue distribution and the immunopathological findings in lupus. Moreover, inhibition of autoantibody binding to the extracellular matrix can lead to suppression of disease.

Genomic Instability and Aging-like Phenotype in the Absence of Mammalian SIRT6

The Sir2 histone deacetylase functions as a chromatin silencer to regulate recombination, genomic stability, and aging in budding yeast. Seven mammalian Sir2 homologs have been identified (SIRT1-SIRT7), and it has been speculated that some may have similar functions to Sir2. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT6 is a nuclear, chromatin-associated protein that promotes resistance to DNA damage and suppresses genomic instability in mouse cells, in association with a role in base excision repair (BER). SIRT6-deficient mice are small and at 2-3 weeks of age develop abnormalities that include profound lymphopenia, loss of subcutaneous fat, lordokyphosis, and severe metabolic defects, eventually dying at about 4 weeks. We conclude that one function of SIRT6 is to promote normal DNA repair, and that SIRT6 loss leads to abnormalities in mice that overlap with aging-associated degenerative processes.

XRCC4 Suppresses Medulloblastomas with Recurrent Translocations in P53-deficient Mice

Inactivation of the XRCC4 nonhomologous end-joining factor in the mouse germ line leads to embryonic lethality, in association with apoptosis of newly generated, postmitotic neurons. We now show that conditional inactivation of the XRCC4 in nestin-expressing neuronal progenitor cells, although leading to no obvious phenotype in a WT background, leads to early onset of neuronally differentiated medulloblastomas (MBs) in a p53-deficient background. A substantial proportion of the XRCC4/p53-deficient MBs have high-level N-myc gene amplification, often intrachromosomally in the context of complex translocations or other alterations of chromosome 12, on which N-myc resides, or extrachromosomally within double minutes. In addition, most XRCC4/p53-deficient MBs harbor clonal translocations of chromosome 13, which frequently involve chromosome 6 as a partner. One copy of the patched gene (Ptc), which lies on chromosome 13, was deleted in all tested XRCC4/p53-deficient MBs in the context of translocations or interstitial deletions. In addition, Cyclin D2, a chromosome 6 gene, was amplified in a subset of tumors. Notably, amplification of Myc-family or Cyclin D2 genes and deletion of Ptc also have been observed in human MBs. We therefore conclude that, in neuronal cells of mice, the nonhomologous end-joining pathway plays a critical role in suppressing genomic instability that, in a p53-deficient background, routinely contributes to genesis of MBs with recurrent chromosomal alterations.

Exogenous Control of Mammalian Gene Expression Via Modulation of Translational Termination

Here, we describe a system for the exogenous control of gene expression in mammalian cells that relies on the control of translational termination. To achieve gene regulation, we modified protein-coding sequences by introduction of a translational termination codon just downstream from the initiator AUG codon. Translation of the resulting mRNA leads to potent reduction in expression of the desired gene product. Expression of the gene product can be controlled by treating cells that express the mRNA with either aminoglycoside antibiotics or several nonantibiotic compounds. We show that the extent of regulation of gene expression can be substantial (60-fold) and that regulation can be achieved in the case of a variety of different genes, in different cultured cell lines and in primary cells in vivo. This gene regulation strategy offers significant advantages over existing methods for controlling gene expression and should have both immediate experimental application and possible clinical application.

Complete Correction of Murine Artemis Immunodeficiency by Lentiviral Vector-mediated Gene Transfer

Artemis gene mutations are responsible for the development of a severe combined immunodeficiency [radiation-sensitive (RS) SCID] characterized by a severe B and T cell deficiency and a normal natural killer cell population. To establish the feasibility of a gene therapy approach to the treatment of RS-SCID, we generated a series of lentiviral vectors expressing human Artemis from different promoters and used them to transduce highly purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from Artemis knockout mice. HSCs transduced by the different viruses were transplanted into either lethally irradiated Rag-1-deficient animals or Artemis knockout mice treated with a nonmyeloablative dose of Busulfan. In both models, transplantation of HSCs transduced by a vector that used a murine phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter led to a complete functional correction of the immunodeficiency. Corrected animals displayed rescue of mature B cells with normal levels of serum immunoglobulins, together with complete rescue of the T cell compartment as evidenced by the presence of mature T lymphocytes in peripheral blood as well as normal values of thymocytes in thymus. Those B and T cells were capable of activation, as shown both by in vitro stimulation responses and in vivo after immune challenge. Overall, the results indicate that a gene therapy approach for RS-SCID involving the transplantation of genetically modified HSCs is indeed feasible. Furthermore, our studies suggest the possibility that nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens might be effectively used to promote engraftment of genetically modified cells in the case of diseases where standard irradiation-based myeloablative bone marrow transplantation protocols may prove problematic.

Consequences of Shb and C-Abl Interactions for Cell Death in Response to Various Stress Stimuli

The adaptor protein Shb has previously been shown to regulate apoptosis in response to cytokines and inhibitors of angiogenesis although the mechanisms governing these effects have remained obscure. We currently demonstrate interactions between Shb and c-Abl and that Shb regulates c-Abl kinase activity. The data suggest that c-Abl binds to tyrosine phosphorylated Shb via a concerted effort involving both the c-Abl SH3 and SH2 domains. The biological significance of the Shb/c-Abl interaction was presently tested in overexpression experiments and was found to promote hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. We also show by Shb knockdown experiments that Shb regulates c-Abl activity and modulates cell death in response to the genotoxic agent cisplatin and the endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducer tunicamycin. The findings are in agreement with the notion of Shb playing a pivotal role in modulating c-Abl pro-apoptotic signaling in response to various stress stimuli.

Isolation of Amniotic Stem Cell Lines with Potential for Therapy

Stem cells capable of differentiating to multiple lineages may be valuable for therapy. We report the isolation of human and rodent amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells that express embryonic and adult stem cell markers. Undifferentiated AFS cells expand extensively without feeders, double in 36 h and are not tumorigenic. Lines maintained for over 250 population doublings retained long telomeres and a normal karyotype. AFS cells are broadly multipotent. Clonal human lines verified by retroviral marking were induced to differentiate into cell types representing each embryonic germ layer, including cells of adipogenic, osteogenic, myogenic, endothelial, neuronal and hepatic lineages. Examples of differentiated cells derived from human AFS cells and displaying specialized functions include neuronal lineage cells secreting the neurotransmitter L-glutamate or expressing G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels, hepatic lineage cells producing urea, and osteogenic lineage cells forming tissue-engineered bone.

PPARalpha Deficiency in Inflammatory Cells Suppresses Tumor Growth

Inflammation in the tumor bed can either promote or inhibit tumor growth. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha is a central transcriptional suppressor of inflammation, and may therefore modulate tumor growth. Here we show that PPARalpha deficiency in the host leads to overt inflammation that suppresses angiogenesis via excess production of the endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-1 and prevents tumor growth. Bone marrow transplantation and granulocyte depletion show that PPARalpha expressing granulocytes are necessary for tumor growth. Neutralization of thrombospondin-1 restores tumor growth in PPARalpha-deficient mice. These findings suggest that the absence of PPARalpha activity renders inflammatory infiltrates tumor suppressive and, thus, may provide a target for inhibiting tumor growth by modulating stromal processes, such as angiogenesis.

Angiopoietin-1 Requires P190 RhoGAP to Protect Against Vascular Leakage in Vivo

Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), a ligand of the endothelium-specific receptor Tie-2, inhibits permeability in the mature vasculature, but the mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that Ang-1 signals Rho family GTPases to organize the cytoskeleton into a junction-fortifying arrangement that enhances the permeability barrier function of the endothelium. Ang-1 phosphorylates Tie-2 and its downstream effector phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. This induces activation of one endogenous GTPase, Rac1, and inhibition of another, RhoA. Loss of either part of this dual effect abrogates the cytoskeletal and anti-permeability actions of Ang-1, suggesting that coordinated GTPase regulation is necessary for the vessel-sealing effects of Ang-1. p190 RhoGAP, a GTPase regulatory protein, provides this coordinating function as it is phosphorylated by Ang-1 treatment, requires Rac1 activation, and is necessary for RhoA inhibition. Ang-1 prevents the cytoskeletal and pro-permeability effects of endotoxin but requires p190 RhoGAP to do so. Treatment with p190 RhoGAP small interfering RNA completely abolishes the ability of Ang-1 to rescue endotoxemia-induced pulmonary vascular leak and inflammation in mice. We conclude that Ang-1 prevents vascular permeability by regulating the endothelial cytoskeleton through coordinated and opposite effects on the Rho GTPases Rac1 and RhoA. By linking Rac1 activation and RhoA inhibition, p190 RhoGAP is critical to the protective effects of Ang-1 against endotoxin. These results provide mechanistic evidence that targeting the endothelium through Tie-2 may offer specific therapeutic strategies in life-threatening endotoxemic conditions such as sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Dual-promoter Lentiviral System Allows Inducible Expression of Noxious Proteins in Macrophages

In-depth studies of innate immunity require efficient genetic manipulation of macrophages, which is especially difficult in primary macrophages. We have developed a lentiviral system for inducible gene expression both in macrophage cell lines and in primary macrophages. A transgenic mouse strain C3H.TgN(SRA-rtTA) that expresses reverse tetracycline transactivator (rtTA) under the control of macrophage-specific promoter, a modified human Scavenger Receptor A (SRA) promoter was generated. For gene delivery, we constructed a dual-promoter lentiviral vector, in which expression of a "gene-of-interest" is driven by a doxycycline-inducible promoter and the expression of a selectable surface marker is driven by an independent constitutive promoter UBC. This vector is used for transduction of bone marrow-derived macrophage precursors. The transduced cells can be enriched to 95-99% purity using marker-specific monoclonal antibodies, expanded and differentiated into mature macrophages or myeloid dendritic cells. We also successfully used this approach for inducible protein expression in hard to transfect macrophage cell lines. Because many proteins, which are expressed by activated or infected macrophages, possess cytotoxic, anti-proliferative or pro-apoptotic activities, generation of stable macrophage cell lines that constitutively express those proteins is impossible. Our method will be especially useful to study immunity-related macrophage proteins in their physiological context during macrophage activation or infection.

Mitotic Spindle Destabilization and Genomic Instability in Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome

Deficiencies in the SBDS gene result in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome associated with leukemia predisposition. SBDS encodes a highly conserved protein previously implicated in ribosome biogenesis. Using human primary bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), lymphoblasts, and skin fibroblasts, we show that SBDS stabilized the mitotic spindle to prevent genomic instability. SBDS colocalized with the mitotic spindle in control primary BMSCs, lymphoblasts, and skin fibroblasts and bound to purified microtubules. Recombinant SBDS protein stabilized microtubules in vitro. We observed that primary BMSCs and lymphoblasts from SDS patients exhibited an increased incidence of abnormal mitoses. Similarly, depletion of SBDS by siRNA in human skin fibroblasts resulted in increased mitotic abnormalities and aneuploidy that accumulated over time. Treatment of primary BMSCs and lymphoblasts from SDS patients with nocodazole, a microtubule destabilizing agent, led to increased mitotic arrest and apoptosis, consistent with spindle destabilization. Conversely, SDS patient cells were resistant to taxol, a microtubule stabilizing agent. These findings suggest that spindle instability in SDS contributes to bone marrow failure and leukemogenesis.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Generation Using a Single Lentiviral Stem Cell Cassette

Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated using retroviral vectors expressing Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, and cMyc. Most prior studies have required multiple retroviral vectors for reprogramming, resulting in high numbers of genomic integrations in iPS cells and limiting their use for therapeutic applications. Here we describe the use of a single lentiviral vector expressing a "stem cell cassette" composed of the four transcription factors and a combination of 2A peptide and internal ribosome entry site technology, generating iPS cells from postnatal fibroblasts. iPS cells generated in this manner display embryonic stem cell-like morphology, express stem cell markers, and exhibit in vivo pluripotency, as evidenced by their ability to differentiate in teratoma assays and their robust contribution to mouse chimeras. Combining all factors into a single transcript achieves the most efficient reprogramming system to date and allows derivation of iPS cells with a single viral integration. The use of a single lentiviral vector for reprogramming represents a powerful laboratory tool and a significant step toward the application of iPS technology for clinical purposes.

A Mechanosensitive Transcriptional Mechanism That Controls Angiogenesis

Angiogenesis is controlled by physical interactions between cells and extracellular matrix as well as soluble angiogenic factors, such as VEGF. However, the mechanism by which mechanical signals integrate with other microenvironmental cues to regulate neovascularization remains unknown. Here we show that the Rho inhibitor, p190RhoGAP (also known as GRLF1), controls capillary network formation in vitro in human microvascular endothelial cells and retinal angiogenesis in vivo by modulating the balance of activities between two antagonistic transcription factors, TFII-I (also known as GTF2I) and GATA2, that govern gene expression of the VEGF receptor VEGFR2 (also known as KDR). Moreover, this new angiogenesis signalling pathway is sensitive to extracellular matrix elasticity as well as soluble VEGF. This is, to our knowledge, the first known functional cross-antagonism between transcription factors that controls tissue morphogenesis, and that responds to both mechanical and chemical cues.

Differentiation Stage Determines Potential of Hematopoietic Cells for Reprogramming into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

The reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells upon overexpression of the transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc is inefficient. It has been assumed that the somatic differentiation state provides a barrier for efficient reprogramming; however, direct evidence for this notion is lacking. Here, we tested the potential of mouse hematopoietic cells at different stages of differentiation to be reprogrammed into iPS cells. We show that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells give rise to iPS cells up to 300 times more efficiently than terminally differentiated B and T cells do, yielding reprogramming efficiencies of up to 28%. Our data provide evidence that the differentiation stage of the starting cell has a critical influence on the efficiency of reprogramming into iPS cells. Moreover, we identify hematopoietic progenitors as an attractive cell type for applications of iPS cell technology in research and therapy.

Excision of Reprogramming Transgenes Improves the Differentiation Potential of IPS Cells Generated with a Single Excisable Vector

The residual presence of integrated transgenes following the derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is highly undesirable. Here we demonstrate efficient derivation of iPS cells free of exogenous reprogramming transgenes using an excisable polycistronic lentiviral vector. A novel version of this vector containing a reporter fluorochrome allows direct visualization of vector excision in living iPS cells in real time. We find that removal of the reprogramming vector markedly improves the developmental potential of iPS cells and significantly augments their capacity to undergo directed differentiation in vitro. We further propose that methods to efficiently excise reprogramming transgenes with minimal culture passaging, such as those demonstrated here, are critical since we find that iPS cells may acquire chromosomal abnormalities, such as trisomy of chromosome 8, similar to embryonic stem cells after expansion in culture. Our findings illustrate an efficient method for the generation of transgene-free iPS cells and emphasize the potential beneficial effects that may result from elimination of integrated reprogramming factors. In addition, our results underscore the consequences of long-term culture that will need to be taken into account for the clinical application of iPS cells.

Reprogramming of Human Peripheral Blood Cells to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Experimental Approaches for the Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Derivation of autologous induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through direct reprogramming of easily accessible somatic cells holds the potential to transform the field of regenerative medicine. Since Takahashi and Yamanaka's groundbreaking study describing the generation of iPSCs by retroviral-mediated delivery of defined transcription factors, substantial progress has been made to improve both the efficiency and safety of the method. These advances have provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms of reprogramming and promise to accelerate the clinical translation of iPSC technology. Here, we summarize current reprogramming methodologies with a focus on the production of transgene-free or genetically unmanipulated iPSCs and highlight important technical details that ultimately may influence the biological properties of pluripotent stem cells.

Generation of Transgene-free Lung Disease-specific Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using a Single Excisable Lentiviral Stem Cell Cassette

The development of methods to achieve efficient reprogramming of human cells while avoiding the permanent presence of reprogramming transgenes represents a critical step toward the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) for clinical purposes, such as disease modeling or reconstituting therapies. Although several methods exist for generating iPSC free of reprogramming transgenes from mouse cells or neonatal normal human tissues, a sufficiently efficient reprogramming system is still needed to achieve the widespread derivation of disease-specific iPSC from humans with inherited or degenerative diseases. Here, we report the use of a humanized version of a single lentiviral "stem cell cassette" vector to accomplish efficient reprogramming of normal or diseased skin fibroblasts obtained from humans of virtually any age. Simultaneous transfer of either three or four reprogramming factors into human target cells using this single vector allows derivation of human iPSC containing a single excisable viral integration that on removal generates human iPSC free of integrated transgenes. As a proof of principle, here we apply this strategy to generate >100 lung disease-specific iPSC lines from individuals with a variety of diseases affecting the epithelial, endothelial, or interstitial compartments of the lung, including cystic fibrosis, α-1 antitrypsin deficiency-related emphysema, scleroderma, and sickle-cell disease. Moreover, we demonstrate that human iPSC generated with this approach have the ability to robustly differentiate into definitive endoderm in vitro, the developmental precursor tissue of lung epithelia.

Benefits of Utilizing Gene-modified IPSCs for Clinical Applications

Enhanced Reprogramming and Cardiac Differentiation of Human Keratinocytes Derived from Plucked Hair Follicles, Using a Single Excisable Lentivirus

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent an ideal cell source for future cell therapy and regenerative medicine. However, most iPSC lines described to date have been isolated from skin fibroblasts or other cell types that require harvesting by surgical intervention. Because it is desirable to avoid such intervention, an alternative cell source that can be readily and noninvasively isolated from patients and efficiently reprogrammed, is required. Here we describe a detailed and reproducible method to derive iPSCs from plucked human hair follicle keratinocytes (HFKTs). HFKTs were isolated from single plucked hair, then expanded and reprogrammed by a single polycistronic excisable lentiviral vector. The reprogrammed HFKTs were found to be very sensitive to human embryonic stem cell (hESC) growth conditions, generating a built-in selection with easily obtainable and very stable iPSCs. All emerging colonies were true iPSCs, with characteristics typical of human embryonic stem cells, differentiated into derivatives of all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Spontenaeouly differentiating functional cardiomyocytes (CMs) were successfully derived and characterized from these HFKT-iPSCs. The contracting CMs exhibited well-coordinated intracellular Ca²+ transients and contractions that were readily responsive to β-adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol. The introduction of Cre-recombinase to HFKT-iPSC clones was able to successfully excise the integrated vector and generate transgene-free HFKT-iPSC clone that could be better differentiated into contracting CMs, thereby revealing the desired cells for modeling human diseases. Thus, HFKTs are easily obtainable, and highly reprogrammed human cell source for all iPSC applications.

An ES-like Pluripotent State in FGF-dependent Murine IPS Cells

Recent data demonstrates that stem cells can exist in two morphologically, molecularly and functionally distinct pluripotent states; a naïve LIF-dependent pluripotent state which is represented by murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and an FGF-dependent primed pluripotent state represented by murine and rat epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). We find that derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) under EpiSC culture conditions yields FGF-dependent iPSCs from hereon called FGF-iPSCs) which, unexpectedly, display naïve ES-like/ICM properties. FGF-iPSCs display X-chromosome activation, multi-lineage differentiation, teratoma competence and chimera contribution in vivo. Our findings suggest that in 129 and Bl6 mouse strains, iPSCs can dominantly adopt a naive pluripotent state regardless of culture growth factor conditions. Characterization of the key molecular signalling pathways revealed FGF-iPSCs to depend on the Activin/Nodal and FGF pathways, while signalling through the JAK-STAT pathway is not required for FGF-iPS cell maintenance. Our findings suggest that in 129 and Bl6 mouse strains, iPSCs can dominantly adopt a naive pluripotent state regardless of culture growth factor conditions.

Application of Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cells in Periodontal Tissue Regeneration

Tissue engineering provides a new paradigm for periodontal tissue regeneration in which proper stem cells and effective cellular factors are very important. The objective of this study was, for the first time, to investigate the capabilities and advantages of periodontal tissue regeneration using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and enamel matrix derivatives (EMD). In this study the effect of EMD gel on iPS cells in vitro was first determined, and then tissue engineering technique was performed to repair periodontal defects in three groups: silk scaffold only; silk scaffold + EMD; and silk scaffold + EMD + iPS cells. EMD greatly enhanced the mRNA expression of Runx2 but inhibited the mRNA expression of OC and mineralization nodule formation in vitro. Transplantation of iPS cells showed higher expression levels of OC, Osx, and Runx2 genes, both 12 and 24 days postsurgery. At 24 days postsurgery in the iPS cell group, histological analysis showed much more new alveolar bone and cementum formation with regenerated periodontal ligament between them. The results showed the commitment role that EMD contributes in mesenchymal progenitors to early cells in the osteogenic lineage. iPS cells combined with EMD provide a valuable tool for periodontal tissue engineering, by promoting the formation of new cementum, alveolar bone, and normal periodontal ligament.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: a Novel Frontier in the Study of Human Primary Immunodeficiencies

The novel ability to epigenetically reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through the exogenous expression of transcription promises to revolutionize the study of human diseases.

Shb Deficient Mice Display an Augmented TH2 Response in Peripheral CD4+ T Cells

Shb, a ubiquitously expressed Src homology 2 domain-containing adaptor protein has previously been implicated in the signaling of various tyrosine kinase receptors including the TCR. Shb associates with SLP76, LAT and Vav, all important components in the signaling cascade governing T cell function and development. A Shb knockout mouse was recently generated and the aim of the current study was to address the importance of Shb deficiency on T cell development and function.

BCAR3/AND-34 Can Signal Independent of Complex Formation with CAS Family Members or the Presence of P130Cas

BCAR3 binds to the carboxy-terminus of p130Cas, a focal adhesion adapter protein. Both BCAR3 and p130Cas have been linked to resistance to anti-estrogens in breast cancer, Rac activation and cell motility. Using R743A BCAR3, a point mutant that has lost the ability to bind p130Cas, we find that BCAR3-p130Cas complex formation is not required for BCAR3-mediated anti-estrogen resistance, Rac activation or discohesion of epithelial breast cancer cells. Complex formation was also not required for BCAR3-induced lamellipodia formation in BALB/c-3T3 fibroblasts but was required for optimal BCAR3-induced motility. Although both wildtype and R743A BCAR3 induced phosphorylation of p130Cas and the related adapter protein HEF1/NEDD9, chimeric NSP3:BCAR3 experiments demonstrate that such phosphorylation does not correlate with BCAR3-induced anti-estrogen resistance or lamellipodia formation. Wildtype but not R743A BCAR3 induced lamellipodia formation and augmented cell motility in p130Cas(-/-) murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), suggesting that while p130Cas itself is not strictly required for these endpoints, complex formation with other CAS family members is, at least in cells lacking p130Cas. Overall, our work suggests that many, but not all, BCAR3-mediated signaling events in epithelial and mesenchymal cells are independent of p130Cas association. These studies also indicate that disruption of the BCAR3-p130Cas complex is unlikely to reverse BCAR3-mediated anti-estrogen resistance.

Tet1 and Tet2 Regulate 5-hydroxymethylcytosine Production and Cell Lineage Specification in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

TET family enzymes convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in DNA. Here, we show that Tet1 and Tet2 are Oct4-regulated enzymes that together sustain 5hmC in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and are induced concomitantly with 5hmC during reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells. ESCs depleted of Tet1 by RNAi show diminished expression of the Nodal antagonist Lefty1 and display hyperactive Nodal signaling and skewed differentiation into the endoderm-mesoderm lineage in embryoid bodies in vitro. In Fgf4- and heparin-supplemented culture conditions, Tet1-depleted ESCs activate the trophoblast stem cell lineage determinant Elf5 and can colonize the placenta in midgestation embryo chimeras. Consistent with these findings, Tet1-depleted ESCs form aggressive hemorrhagic teratomas with increased endoderm, reduced neuroectoderm, and ectopic appearance of trophoblastic giant cells. Thus, 5hmC is an epigenetic modification associated with the pluripotent state, and Tet1 functions to regulate the lineage differentiation potential of ESCs.

Critical-size Calvarial Bone Defects Healing in a Mouse Model with Silk Scaffolds and SATB2-modified IPSCs

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into mineralizing cells and thus have a great potential in application in engineered bone substitutes with bioactive scaffolds in regeneration medicine. In the current study we characterized and demonstrated the pluripotency and osteogenic differentiation of mouse iPSCs. To enhance the osteogenic differentiation of iPSCs, we then transduced the iPSCs with the potent transcription factor, nuclear matrix protein SATB2. We observed that in SATB2-overexpressing iPSCs there were increased mineral nodule formation and elevated mRNA levels of key osteogenic genes, osterix (OSX), Runx2, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN). Moreover, the mRNA levels of HoxA2 was reduced after SATB2 overexpression in iPSCs. The SATB2-overexpressing iPSCs were then combined with silk scaffolds and transplanted into critical-size calvarial bone defects created in nude mice. Five weeks post-surgery, radiological and micro-CT analysis revealed enhanced new bone formation in calvarial defects in SATB2 group. Histological analysis also showed increased new bone formation and mineralization in the SATB2 group. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that SATB2 facilitates the differentiation of iPSCs towards osteoblast-lineage cells by repressing HoxA2 and augmenting the functions of the osteoblast determinants Runx2, BSP and OCN.

Mouse ES and IPS Cells Can Form Similar Definitive Endoderm Despite Differences in Imprinted Genes

The directed differentiation of iPS and ES cells into definitive endoderm (DE) would allow the derivation of otherwise inaccessible progenitors for endodermal tissues. However, a global comparison of the relative equivalency of DE derived from iPS and ES populations has not been performed. Recent reports of molecular differences between iPS and ES cells have raised uncertainty as to whether iPS cells could generate autologous endodermal lineages in vitro. Here, we show that both mouse iPS and parental ES cells exhibited highly similar in vitro capacity to undergo directed differentiation into DE progenitors. With few exceptions, both cell types displayed similar surges in gene expression of specific master transcriptional regulators and global transcriptomes that define the developmental milestones of DE differentiation. Microarray analysis showed considerable overlap between the genetic programs of DE derived from ES/iPS cells in vitro and authentic DE from mouse embryos in vivo. Intriguingly, iPS cells exhibited aberrant silencing of imprinted genes known to participate in endoderm differentiation, yet retained a robust ability to differentiate into DE. Our results show that, despite some molecular differences, iPS cells can be efficiently differentiated into DE precursors, reinforcing their potential for development of cell-based therapies for diseased endoderm-derived tissues.

Concise Review: The Magic Act of Generating Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Many Rabbits in the Hat

Since the seminal discovery by Yamanaka et al. demonstrating that four transcription factors were capable of inducing nuclear reprogramming to a pluripotent state, a plethora of publications have followed aimed at improving the efficiency, simplicity, and safety of the original methodology that was based on the use of integrating retroviruses. A better understanding of the basic mechanisms behind reprogramming as well as an improvement in tissue culture conditions have allowed for the development of new tools based on different molecular approaches, such as excisable and nonintegrating vectors, RNA, proteins, and small compounds, among others. In most instances, a dynamic interplay exists between each method's efficiency of reprogramming versus overall safety, and these points need to be considered when choosing a particular approach. Regardless, the fast pace at which this field has advanced in recent years attracted many investigators to enter into the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) world and has made the process of nuclear reprogramming and iPSC generation a routine lab technique.

New Directions in Cellular Therapy of Cancer: a Summary of the Summit on Cellular Therapy for Cancer

A summit on cellular therapy for cancer discussed and presented advances related to the use of adoptive cellular therapy for melanoma and other cancers. The summit revealed that this field is advancing rapidly. Conventional cellular therapies, such as tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), are becoming more effective and more available. Gene therapy is becoming an important tool in adoptive cell therapy. Lymphocytes are being engineered to express high affinity T cell receptors (TCRs), chimeric antibody-T cell receptors (CARs) and cytokines. T cell subsets with more naïve and stem cell-like characteristics have been shown in pre-clinical models to be more effective than unselected populations and it is now possible to reprogram T cells and to produce T cells with stem cell characteristics. In the future, combinations of adoptive transfer of T cells and specific vaccination against the cognate antigen can be envisaged to further enhance the effectiveness of these therapies.

Clonal Allelic Predetermination of Immunoglobulin-κ Rearrangement

Although most genes are expressed biallelically, a number of key genomic sites--including immune and olfactory receptor regions--are controlled monoallelically in a stochastic manner, with some cells expressing the maternal allele and others the paternal allele in the target tissue. Very little is known about how this phenomenon is regulated and programmed during development. Here, using mouse immunoglobulin-κ (Igκ) as a model system, we demonstrate that although individual haematopoietic stem cells are characterized by allelic plasticity, early lymphoid lineage cells become committed to the choice of a single allele, and this decision is then stably maintained in a clonal manner that predetermines monoallelic rearrangement in B cells. This is accompanied at the molecular level by underlying allelic changes in asynchronous replication timing patterns at the κ locus. These experiments may serve to define a new concept of stem cell plasticity.

Impaired Intrinsic Immunity to HSV-1 in Human IPSC-derived TLR3-deficient CNS Cells

In the course of primary infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), children with inborn errors of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) immunity are prone to HSV-1 encephalitis (HSE). We tested the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of HSE involves non-haematopoietic CNS-resident cells. We derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the dermal fibroblasts of TLR3- and UNC-93B-deficient patients and from controls. These iPSCs were differentiated into highly purified populations of neural stem cells (NSCs), neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The induction of interferon-β (IFN-β) and/or IFN-λ1 in response to stimulation by the dsRNA analogue polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) was dependent on TLR3 and UNC-93B in all cells tested. However, the induction of IFN-β and IFN-λ1 in response to HSV-1 infection was impaired selectively in UNC-93B-deficient neurons and oligodendrocytes. These cells were also much more susceptible to HSV-1 infection than control cells, whereas UNC-93B-deficient NSCs and astrocytes were not. TLR3-deficient neurons were also found to be susceptible to HSV-1 infection. The rescue of UNC-93B- and TLR3-deficient cells with the corresponding wild-type allele showed that the genetic defect was the cause of the poly(I:C) and HSV-1 phenotypes. The viral infection phenotype was rescued further by treatment with exogenous IFN-α or IFN-β ( IFN-α/β) but not IFN-λ1. Thus, impaired TLR3- and UNC-93B-dependent IFN-α/β intrinsic immunity to HSV-1 in the CNS, in neurons and oligodendrocytes in particular, may underlie the pathogenesis of HSE in children with TLR3-pathway deficiencies.

The Evolving Field of Induced Pluripotency: Recent Progress and Future Challenges

The derivation of patient-specific pluripotent cell lines through the introduction of a few transcription factors into somatic cells has opened new avenues for the study and treatment of human disorders. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and their derivatives offer a unique platform for disease modeling, drug discovery and toxicology, as well as an invaluable source of cells for regenerative therapies. Here, we provide an overview of the various strategies currently available for iPSC generation, highlighting recent advances and discussing some of the challenges faced in harnessing the true potential of iPSCs for biomedical research and therapeutic applications. J. Cell. Physiol. 228: 267-275, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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