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 JoVE Biology

Measuring Blood Pressure in Mice using Volume Pressure Recording, a Tail-cuff Method

1, 1, 1, 1

1Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Kentucky

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    Summary

    The CODA 8-Channel High Throughput Non-Invasive Blood Pressure system measures the blood pressure in up to 8 mice or rats simultaneously. This tail-cuff system uses Volume Pressure Recording (VPR) to measure the blood pressure by determining the tail blood volume.

    Date Published: 5/15/2009, Issue 27; doi: 10.3791/1291

    Cite this Article

    Daugherty, A., Rateri, D., Hong, L., Balakrishnan, A. Measuring Blood Pressure in Mice using Volume Pressure Recording, a Tail-cuff Method. J. Vis. Exp. (27), e1291, doi:10.3791/1291 (2009).

    Abstract

    The CODA 8-Channel High Throughput Non-Invasive Blood Pressure system measures the blood pressure in up to 8 mice or rats simultaneously. The CODA tail-cuff system uses Volume Pressure Recording (VPR) to measure the blood pressure by determining the tail blood volume. A specially designed differential pressure transducer and an occlusion tail-cuff measure the total blood volume in the tail without the need to obtain the individual pulse signal. Special attention is afforded to the length of the occlusion cuff in order to derive the most accurate blood pressure readings. VPR can easily obtain readings on dark-skinned rodents, such as C57BL6 mice and is MRI compatible. The CODA system provides you with measurements of six (6) different blood pressure parameters; systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, mean blood pressure, tail blood flow, and tail blood volume. Measurements can be made on either awake or anesthetized mice or rats. The CODA system includes a controller, laptop computer, software, cuffs, animal holders, infrared warming pads, and an infrared thermometer There are seven different holder sizes for mice as small as 8 grams to rats as large as 900 grams.

    Protocol

    1. Equipment Set-up
      1. Select an area in the lab where the room temperature is at or above 20°C.
      2. Avoid locations near air conditioning vents and/or loud noise.
      3. Avoid exposing the animal to odors that may cause irritation and/or stress, such as perfume, cologne, chemicals, and cleaners.
      4. Turn on the CODA Controller.
      5. Turn on the Warming Platform and set to Level 3. If room temperature is above 25°C, start on Levels 1 or 2.
      6. Controller Diagnostics Test
        1. Open the CODA Software.
        2. Select the CODA Device by clicking on it.
        3. Click on “Test Selected Device”.
        4. Select the cuffs and channels to test and click “Test”.
        5. After the test is complete, close the Device Test window.
    2. Software Set-up
      1. Manage Personnel and Animals
        1. Manage Personnel
          1. Select Tools > Manage Personnel.
          2. Click on “Researcher 1” to change the name.
          3. Click on subsequent rows to add additional researchers.
          4. Click on “Technicians Tab” to modify or add technicians.
          5. Click on “Specimens Tab” to name the animal for easy identification and to select the animal type; rat or mouse.
          6. Click on “Animals Tab” to alter the animal type and sensitivity.
      2. New Experiment
        1. Select File > New > Experiment
        2. Begin a New Experiment
          1. Enter the Experiment Name.
          2. Select the Key Researcher.
          3. Select a Begin Date and click “Next”.
        3. Basic Session Info
          1. Enter the Session Name
          2. Set “Acclimation Cycles” to 5. If you prefer not to include acclimation cycles, set to zero. To assist with acclimating the animal to the holder and cuffs, add additional cycles to your experiment and run the experiment for 5 consecutive days.
          3. Set “Number of Sets” to 1.
          4. Set “Time Between Sets” to 30 seconds for multiple sets
          5. Set “Cycles per Set” to 20 cycles.
          6. Set “Time Between Cycles” to 5 seconds and click “Next”.
      3. Specimen Selection
        1.  
          1. Select the specimen from the specimen pool and assign it to the first available channel and click “Next”.
        2. Session Parameters
          1. Set “Maximum Occlusion Pressure” to 250mmHg.
          2. Set “Deflation Time” to 20 seconds for mice, 15 seconds for rats.
          3. Set “Minimum Volume” to 15ul.
          4. Set “Display Style” to One Channel per Graph.
          5. Add additional Researchers and Technicians and click “Next”.
        3. Session Script
          1. Review the Session Script and click “Next”.
          2. Do not select Finish until you complete the Animal Preparation section.
    3. Animal Preparation
      1. Animal Set-up
        1. Animal Holder
          1. To train and improve animal acclimation, add additional cycles to your experiment and run the experiment for five consecutive days. You also can assist with acclimation by placing the animal in the holder for 15 minutes for 3 consecutive days prior to the actual study.
          2. Place each animal in a holder by picking up the animal by the tail and gently placing the animal into the rear of the holder which faces the open end of the nose cone. Note: the size of animal in relation to the size of the selected holder. The animal should be able to freely enter the holder.
          3. Carefully secure the rear hatch to the holder by turning the red screw cap on the rear hatch. Care should be taken to avoid pinching the tail or any other body parts while securing the rear hatch.
          4. Slide the nose cone toward the rear hatch, limiting the movement of the animal. The nose cone should be in a position to limit the animal from turning around while inside the holder.
          5. Place the holder onto the warming platform in the designated position. If testing the same group of animals over a period of time, be sure to rotate the holder position on the warming platform to improve consistency and accuracy of your BP measurements. Allow the animal at least 5-minutes to acclimate to the holder.
          6. Do not touch or handle the animal while inside the holder.  The increased contact could irritate the animal.
          7. Never leave the animal in the holders unattended.
        2. Cuff Placement
          1. Thread the tail through the “Occlusion Cuff.” Place this cuff as close to the base of the tail as possible without force.
          2. Secure the “Occlusion Cuff Tubing” in the notch on the top rear of the holder.
          3. Thread the tail through the “VPR Cuff”, placing it within 2mm of the “Occlusion Cuff”.
          4. Secure the “VPR Cuff Tubing” in the notch on the top rear of the holder.
          5. Attach the cuffs to the CODA Controller.
        3. Animal Temperature
          1. Allow the animal at least 5-minutes to thermoregulate.
          2. Record the temperature of the animal frequently with an infrared thermometer. The animal temperature should be 32 to 35°C.
    4. Experiment
      1. Begin Experiment
        1. Click “Finish” and the experiment will begin immediately.
      2. End Experiment
        1. Animal
          1. Immediately remove the animal from the cuffs and holder.
          2. Return the animal to their cage after the “Simple Session Summary Report” is displayed.
        2. Data Collection
          1. After completion of the last cycle the accepted cycles will be automatically displayed in spreadsheet format within the CODA application, click on the “Export to Excel” button.
          2. Select the folder to place the file in, name the file and click “Save”.
          3. Open the Excel application and click on “Open”.
          4. View all file types to display the “.csv file saved”, click on the file.
        3. Data Processing
          1. There are several ways to process the data within the Excel file. A common practice is to obtain the average and standard deviation.
          2. Delete measurements if the standard deviation is greater than 30.
          3. Additionally, rejected cycles may be viewed and the entire database can be easily exported to Excel. Consult the User’s Manual for additional information.

    Disclosures

    The authors have nothing to disclose.

    Comments

    10 Comments

    Do you have any idea how dŒs this system compares with similar product from other vendors like Harvard Apparatus?
    Reply

    Posted by: AnonymousAugust 31, 2009, 12:53 PM

    We have used the Kent and Visitech machines. The bottomline is that no system is perfect and they are highly operator dependent. We have found the Kent machines require more training (for humans and mice!) but the data is more better quality and more similar to telemetry.
    Reply

    Posted by: AnonymousSeptember 5, 2009, 1:58 PM

    why most of the time reading in this experiment shows fail tail volume?
    Reply

    Posted by: AnonymousNovember 16, 2009, 4:34 AM

    is this Available in the philippines
    Reply

    Posted by: AnonymousFebruary 9, 2012, 7:45 AM

    Yes it is, please contact sales@kentscientific.com to obtain a quote.
    Reply

    Posted by: AnonymousFebruary 9, 2012, 8:43 AM

    1) We do stroke surgery. Can we measure the blood pressure continuosly during 1 hour surgery.If not can we measure blood pressure at different time point during the surgery.If i have to measure blood pressure at different time point during the surgery, then do i have to set up the cuff placement on the base of the tail again everytime.

    ²)In the protocol, occlusion cuff has to placed as close to the base of the tail as possible.During the mice stroke surgery, we insert the rectal probe into the anus. would the placement of the occlusion cuff interfere with the placement of the rectal probe into the anus. we would not use the animal holder because our animals are anesthesized for the stroke surgery.
    Reply

    Posted by: Varun k.May 8, 2012, 3:21 PM

    1)What is the purpose of thermal regulation of the animal?During the stroke surgery, our animals are maintianed at 37 celsius. In our case, do we need to thermoregulate the animals at 3² celsius for measuring blood pressure.Will the maintainance of body temperature at 37 cel interfere the accuracy of the measurement of blood pressure.
    Reply

    Posted by: AnonymousMay 8, 2012, 4:20 PM

    Good Day sir/mam,
    We are having our research problem about the feasibility of okra extract as therapy to hypertension. and our experimental subject is mice. therefore,i would like to ask if where can we avail this equipment in the Philippines? thank you for more suggestions just contact me at this email dvanirish@yahoo.com thank you.!
    Reply

    Posted by: van d.July 3, 2012, 7:26 AM

    I am a pharmacy student one of University in Indonesia.
    I'm doing research studies (to pass on degree) about antihypertensive using CODA system.
    I've followed the procedure properly.
    But, why the time reading in this experiment always shows fail tail volume?
    Thank you for more suggestions please contact me at this email nadyanovyani@gmail.com.
    Thanks a lot..
    Reply

    Posted by: Nadya N.March 27, 2013, 8:14 PM

    I am a pharmacy student from Padjadjaran University in Indonesia.
    I'm doing research studies (to pass on degree) about antihypertensive using CODA system. the first time I used this device, it could work very well. the device could read the blood pressure and said "OK". but after a couple of days, it couldn't work very well. everytime I used this device, it always said "fail tail volume" even though I have followed the procedure properly and the rats I used in this experiment are in good condition (no smell and no noise). So, I would like to ask you how to solve this problem.This is the first time our faculty use this device and I would really appreciate it if you could give me the reply as soon as possible. Thanking you in advance.
    Sincerenly
    Nadya
    Reply

    Posted by: Nadya N.March 28, 2013, 2:31 AM

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