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Chapter 2

Biochemistry of the Cell

The Periodic Table and Organismal Elements
Elements are the smallest units of matter that cannot be broken down further by chemical processes. There are 118 known elements, but not all of…
Functional Groups
Functional groups are a group of atoms with characteristic properties, which when linked to the carbon skeleton of a molecule, alter the properties…
Polymers
The word polymer is derived from the Greek words “poly” which means “many” and “mer” which means…
What are Lipids?
Lipids are a group of structurally and functionally diverse organic compounds that are insoluble in water. Certain classes of lipids, such as fats,…
Structure of Lipids
Lipids include a diverse group of compounds that are largely nonpolar in nature. This is because they are hydrocarbons that include mostly nonpolar…
Chemistry of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are an essential part of the diet in humans and animals. Grains, fruits, and vegetables are natural sources of carbohydrates that…
What are Nucleic Acids?
Nucleic acids are long chains of nucleotides linked together by phosphodiester bonds. There are two types of nucleic acids: deoxyribonucleic acid,…
Intermolecular Forces
Atoms and molecules interact through bonds (or forces): intramolecular and intermolecular. The forces are electrostatic as they arise from…
Noncovalent Attractions in Biomolecules
Noncovalent attractions are associations within and between molecules that influence the shape and structural stability of complexes. These…
pH
The potential for a solution to donate or accept hydrogen ions determines whether it is an acid or a base. Acidic solutions donate protons, whereas…
Hydrolysis of ATP
The bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can be broken through the addition of water, releasing one or two phosphate groups in an exergonic process…
Automated Modular High Throughput Exopolysaccharide Screening Platform Coupled with Highly Sensitive Carbohydrate Fingerprint Analysis
Many microorganisms are capable of producing and secreting exopolysaccharides (EPS), which have important implications in medical fields, food…
Biochemical and High Throughput Microscopic Assessment of Fat Mass in <em>Caenorhabditis Elegans</em>
The nematode C. elegans has emerged as an important model for the study of conserved genetic pathways regulating fat metabolism as it relates to…
High-throughput, Automated Extraction of DNA and RNA from Clinical Samples using TruTip Technology on Common Liquid Handling Robots
TruTip is a simple nucleic acid extraction technology whereby a porous, monolithic binding matrix is inserted into a pipette tip. The geometry of…

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