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Что такое экспрессия гена?
Gene expression is the process in which DNA directs the synthesis of functional products, that is, proteins. Cells can regulate gene expression…
Строение РНК:
The basic structure of RNA consists of a five-carbon sugar and one of four nitrogenous bases. Although most RNA is single-stranded, it can form…
Стабильность РНК
Intact DNA strands can be found in fossils, while scientists sometimes struggle to keep RNA intact under laboratory conditions. The structural…
Бактериальная РНК-полимераза и транскрипция
Unlike eukaryotes, bacteria use a single RNA Polymerase (RNAP) to transcribe all genes. The different subunits of bacterial RNAPhave distinct…
Bacterial Transcription
RNA polymerase (RNAP) carries out DNA-dependent RNA synthesis in both bacteria and eukaryotes. Bacteria do not have a membrane-bound nucleus. So,…
Типы РНК
Three main types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These RNAs perform…
Транскрипт
Transcription is the process of synthesizing RNA from a DNA sequence by RNA polymerase. It is the first step in producing a protein from a gene…
Факторы транскрипции
Tissue-specific transcription factors contribute to diverse cellular functions in mammals. For example, the gene for beta globin, a major component…
Эукариотические РНК-полимеразы
RNA Polymerase (RNAP) is conserved in all animals, with bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic RNAPs sharing significant sequence, structural, and…
Transcription Initiation
Initiation is the first step of transcription in eukaryotes. Prokaryotic RNA Polymerase (RNAP) can bind to the template DNA and start transcribing.…
Дополнительные белки РНК-полимеразы II
Proteins that regulate transcription can do so either via direct contact with RNA Polymerase or through indirect interactions facilitated by…
Факторы удлинения транскрипции
Transcription elongation is a dynamic process that alters depending upon the sequence heterogeneity of the DNA being transcribed. Hence, it is not…
Процессинг пре-мРНК
In eukaryotic cells, transcripts made by RNA polymerase are modified and processed before exiting the nucleus. Unprocessed RNA is called precursor…
Сплайсинг РНК
The process in which eukaryotic RNA is edited prior to protein translation is called splicing. It removes regions that do not code for proteins and…
Альтернативный сплайсинг РНК
Alternative RNA splicing is the regulated splicing of exons and introns to produce different mature mRNAs from a single pre-mRNA. Unlike in…
Структура хроматина регулирует процессинг пре-мРНК
In eukaryotic cells, nascent mRNA transcripts need to undergo many post-transcriptional modifications to reach the cell cytoplasm and translate into…
Ядерный экспорт мРНК
Before mRNAs are exported to the cytoplasm, it is crucial to check each mRNA for structural and functional integrity. Eukaryotic cells use several…
Синтез рибосомной РНК
Ribosome synthesis is a highly complex and coordinated process involving more than 200 assembly factors. The synthesis and processing of ribosomal…
Синтез трансферной РНК
One of the unique features of tRNA is the presence of modified bases. In some tRNAs, modified bases account for nearly 20% of the total bases in the…
Ядрышко
The nucleolus is the most prominent substructure of the nucleus. When it was first discovered, it was considered to be an isolated organelle that…
Дополнительные субъядерные структуры
The eukaryotic nucleus is a double membrane-bound organelle that contains nearly all of the cell’s genetic material in the form of chromosomes.…
РНК предсказание вторичной Структура Использование высоких-пропускная способность SHAPE
Understanding the function of RNA involved in biological processes requires a thorough knowledge of RNA structure. Toward this end, the methodology…
Искусственные РНК-полимераза II Удлинение Комплексы для вскрытия co-транскрипционной РНК обработки событий
Eukaryotic mRNA synthesis is a complex biochemical process requiring transcription of a DNA template into a precursor RNA by the multi-subunit enzyme…
Быстрое Синтез и скрининг Химически активированных факторов транскрипции с GFP основе Репортеры
Synthetic biology aims to rationally design and build synthetic circuits with desired quantitative properties, as well as provide tools to…

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