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Chapter 6

Cell Signaling

Bacterial Signaling
Overview At times, a group of bacteria behaves like a community. To achieve this, they engage in quorum sensing, the perception of higher cell…
Yeast Signaling
Overview Yeasts are single-celled organisms, but unlike bacteria, they are eukaryotes—cells that have a nucleus. Cell signaling in yeast is…
Contact-dependent Signaling
Contact-dependent signaling uses specialized cytoplasmic channels between cells that allow the flow of small molecules between them. In animal cells,…
Paracrine Signaling
Overview Paracrine signaling allows cells to communicate with their immediate neighbors via secretion of signaling molecules. The signal only…
Synaptic Signaling
Neurons communicate with each other and to other cells mainly through chemical signaling at synapses. These specialized regions are where the axon…
G-protein Coupled Receptors
G-protein coupled receptors are ligand binding receptors that indirectly affect changes in the cell. The actual receptor is a single polypeptide that…
Endocrine Signaling
Endocrine cells produce hormones to communicate with remote target cells found in other organs. The hormone reaches these distant areas using the…
What are Second Messengers?
Because many receptor binding ligands are hydrophilic, they do not cross the cell membrane and thus their message must be relayed to a second…
Intracellular Signaling Cascades
Intracellular signaling cascades amplify a signal originating extracellularly and directs it to its intended intracellular target resulting in…
Ion Channels
Ion channels maintain the membrane potential of a cell. For most cells, especially excitable ones, the inside has a more negative charge than the…
Enzyme-linked Receptors
Enzyme-linked receptors are proteins which act as both receptor and enzyme, activating multiple intracellular signals. This is a large group of…
Screening Bioactive Nanoparticles in Phagocytic Immune Cells for Inhibitors of Toll-like Receptor Signaling
Pharmacological regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) responses holds great promise in the treatment of many inflammatory diseases. However, there…
Real-time Live Imaging of T-cell Signaling Complex Formation
Protection against infectious diseases is mediated by the immune system 1,2. T lymphocytes are the master coordinators of the immune system,…
Identification of Intracellular Signaling Events Induced in Viable Cells by Interaction with Neighboring Cells Undergoing Apoptotic Cell Death
Cells dying by apoptosis, also referred to as regulated cell death, acquire multiple new activities that enable them to influence the function of…

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