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Chapter 9

Photosynthesis

What is Photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is a multipart, biochemical process that occurs in plants as well as in some bacteria. It captures carbon dioxide and solar energy to…
Light as Energy
The energy required to carry out photosynthesis is light—typically radiation from the sun. The electromagnetic particles are called photons…
Anatomy of Chloroplasts
Green algae and plants, including green stems and unripe fruit, harbor chloroplasts—the vital organelles where photosynthesis takes place. In…
Photosystem II
Photosystem II is a multi-protein complex embedded within the thylakoid membrane where it harvests light energy. Chlorophyll molecules transfer…
Photosystem I
Like Photosystem II (PS II), Photosystem I (PS I) captures photons and transports them through chlorophyll molecules into a reaction center. In PS…
The Calvin Cycle
Oxygenic photosynthesis converts approximately 200 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually to organic compounds and produces approximately…
C4 Pathway and CAM
Some plants, like sugar cane and corn, that grow in hot conditions, use an alternative process called the C4 pathway to fix carbon. The cycle…
Water in Oil Emulsions: A New System for Assembling Water-soluble Chlorophyll-binding Proteins with Hydrophobic Pigments
Chlorophylls (Chls) and bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) are the primary cofactors that carry out photosynthetic light harvesting and electron transport.…
Printing Fabrication of Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells and <em>In Situ</em> Morphology Characterization
Polymer-based materials hold promise as low-cost, flexible efficient photovoltaic devices. Most laboratory efforts to achieve high performance…
Studying the Supramolecular Organization of Photosynthetic Membranes within Freeze-fractured Leaf Tissues by Cryo-scanning Electron Microscopy
Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of freeze-fractured samples allows investigation of biological structures at near native conditions. Here, we…

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