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Chapter 23

Osmoregulation and Excretion

What Are Osmoregulation and Excretion?
Organisms must keep bodily fluids at a constant temperature and pH while maintaining specific solute concentrations in order to support life…
Kidney Structure
The kidneys are two large bean-shaped organs located in the upper abdomen. They filter the blood several times a day to remove toxins and rebalance…
Filtration
The function of the kidneys is to filter, reabsorb, secrete, and excrete. Every day the kidneys filter nearly 180 liters of blood, initially removing…
Urea Cycle
The urea cycle describes how liver cells convert ammonia to urea. Ammonia is a toxic waste product of protein catabolism. Land animals must convert…
Hormonal Regulation
The renin-aldosterone system is an endocrine system which guides the renal absorption of water and electrolytes, thus managing blood pressure and…
Comparative Excretory Systems
Animals have evolved different strategies for excretion, the removal of waste from the body. Most waste must be dissolved in water to be excreted, so…
Osmoregulation in Fishes
When cells are placed in a hypotonic (low-salt) fluid, they can swell and burst. Meanwhile, cells in a hypertonic solution—with a higher salt…
Osmoregulation in Insects
Malpighian tubules are specialized structures found in the digestive systems of many arthropods, including most insects, that handle excretion and…
Physiology Lab Demonstration: Glomerular Filtration Rate in a Rat
Measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the fractional excretion of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) are critical in assessing renal…
Non-invasive Imaging of Acute Allograft Rejection after Rat Renal Transplantation Using <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET
The number of patients with end-stage renal disease, and the number of kidney allograft recipients continuously increases. Episodes of acute…
Integration of Miniaturized Solid Phase Extraction and LC-MS/MS Detection of 3-Nitrotyrosine in Human Urine for Clinical Applications
Free 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) has been extensively used as a possible biomarker for oxidative stress. Increased levels of 3-NT have been reported in a…

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