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13.6: ATP Driven Pumps II: P-type Pumps

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Cell Biology

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ATP Driven Pumps II: P-type Pumps

13.6: ATP Driven Pumps II: P-type Pumps

The P-type pumps are a large family of integral membrane transporter ATPases. They are divided into five major types based on substrate specificity, from I to V.

A typical P-type pump has three cytosolic domains: nucleotide-binding (N), phosphorylation (P), and activator (A) domains. These domains are connected to the membrane-spanning helices by short amino acid segments. ATP hydrolysis and covalent phosphoenzyme intermediate formation are crucial parts of the catalytic cycle. At the highly conserved cytoplasmic P-domain, the aspartic acid residue is reversibly phosphorylated, which leads to conformational changes in the pumps' transmembrane segments. The A domain allows the association of N and P-domains necessary for the pump's proper functioning, allowing the solute to be translocated across the membrane. This type of structure assembly is seen in Na+/K+-ATPase, gastric H+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase pumps.

One of the most important types is Type II, exemplified by the calcium pump, which is essential for maintaining the cellular homeostasis of calcium ions (Ca2+). The sodium-calcium exchanger and calcium pumps on the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) regulate intracellular calcium concentration in the cells. Calcium pumps account for about 80% of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane protein in skeletal muscles. Two calcium ions are transported into the sarcoplasmic reticulum against their concentration gradient for one ATP molecule hydrolyzed. They play a crucial role in cell signaling by ensuring that the cytoplasmic calcium concentration is roughly 10,000 times lesser than the extracellular concentration. Failure to maintain this concentration is one of the causes of muscle cramps.

The calcium pumps in the endo(Sarco)plasmic reticulum are termed the Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pumps, primarily found on the skeletal and heart muscles. When present on the cell's plasma membrane, they are called Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) pumps. PMCA pumps are expressed in various tissues, including the brain. The  Golgi membrane calcium pumps are termed Secretory Pathway Ca2+-ATPase (SPCA) pumps. All these pumps are P-type ATPase pumps.

Suggested Reading


ATP Driven Pumps P-type Pumps Integral Membrane Transporter ATPases Substrate Specificity Nucleotide-binding Domain Phosphorylation Domain Activator Domain Membrane-spanning Helices ATP Hydrolysis Phosphoenzyme Intermediate Formation Conformational Changes Transmembrane Segments Na+/K+-ATPase Gastric H+-ATPase Ca2+-ATPase Pumps Type II Pumps Calcium Pump Cellular Homeostasis Calcium Ions Sodium-calcium Exchanger Mitochondria Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Intracellular Calcium Concentration Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR) Skeletal Muscles

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