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14.14: Acid Halides to Alcohols: Grignard Reaction

JoVE Core
Organic Chemistry

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Acid Halides to Alcohols: Grignard Reaction

14.14: Acid Halides to Alcohols: Grignard Reaction

Organomagnesium halides, commonly known as Grignard reagents, convert acid halides to tertiary alcohols. The reaction requires two equivalents of the Grignard reagent and proceeds via a ketone intermediate.

Grignard reagents are a source of carbanions and function as nucleophiles. The mechanism begins with the nucleophilic attack by the carbanion at the carbonyl carbon of the acid halide to form a tetrahedral intermediate. Next, the carbonyl group is re-formed, and the halide ion departs, forming a ketone. The addition of another equivalent of the carbanion generates a tertiary alkoxide ion. Protonation of the alkoxide gives a tertiary alcohol as the final product.


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