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Chapter 1

Introduction: Matter and Measurement

Scientific Laws and Theories
In science, a law is defined as a concise, verbal or mathematical, statement that summarizes a vast number of experimental observations. It…
The Scientific Method
Chemistry is an empirical science. Scientists often pose questions to understand the chemistry in everyday life and seek answers to these questions.…
Classifying Matter by State
Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Matter is all around us; the air,…
Classifying Matter by Composition
According to its composition, the matter can be classified into two broad categories — pure substances and mixtures.  A pure substance…
Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter
The characteristics that enable us to distinguish one substance from another are called properties. A physical property is a characteristic of…
What is Energy?
The universe is composed of matter in different forms, and all forms of matter contain energy.  The different forms of energy on Earth originate…
Measurement: Standard Units
Every measurement provides three kinds of information: the size or magnitude of the measurement (a number), a standard of comparison for the…
Measurement: Derived Units
The International System of Units or SI system, by international agreement, has fixed measurement units for seven fundamental properties: length,…
Uncertainty in Measurement: Accuracy and Precision
Scientists typically make repeated measurements of a quantity to ensure the quality of their findings and to evaluate both the precision and the…
Uncertainty in Measurement: Reading Instruments
Counting is the type of measurement that is free from uncertainty, provided the number of objects being counted does not change during the process.…
Uncertainty in Measurement: Significant Figures
All the digits in a measurement, including the uncertain last digit, are called significant figures or significant digits. Note that zero may be a…
Dimensional Analysis
Dimensional analysis, also known as the factor label method, is a versatile approach for mathematical operations. The main principle behind this…
Design and Use of a Full Flow Sampling System (FFS) for the Quantification of Methane Emissions
The use of natural gas continues to grow with increased discovery and production of unconventional shale resources. At the same time, the natural gas…
Calibrated Passive Sampling - Multi-plot Field Measurements of NH<sub>3</sub> Emissions with a Combination of Dynamic Tube Method and Passive Samplers
Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions (90% of total EU emissions) are responsible for about 45% airborne eutrophication, 31% soil acidification and…
Separation of Aldehydes and Reactive Ketones from Mixtures Using a Bisulfite Extraction Protocol
The purification of organic compounds is an essential component of routine synthetic operations. The ability to remove contaminants into an aqueous…

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