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Chapter 10
Cell Specific Gene Expression
Multicellular organisms contain a variety of structurally and functionally distinct cell types, but the DNA in all the cells originated from the same…
Regulation of Expression Occurs at Multiple Steps
Gene expression can be regulated at almost every step from gene to protein. Transcription is the step that is most commonly regulated. This involves…
Cis-regulatory Sequences
Cis-regulatory sequences are short fragments of non-coding DNA that are present on the same chromosomes as the genes that they regulate. These…
Cooperative Binding of Transcription Regulators
Transcriptional regulators bind to specific cis-regulatory sequences in the DNA to regulate gene transcription. These cis-regulatory sequences…
Prokaryotic Transcriptional Activators and Repressors
The organization of prokaryotic genes in their genome is notably different from that of eukaryotes. Prokaryotic genes are organized, such that the…
Operons
Prokaryotes can control gene expression through operons—DNA sequences consisting of regulatory elements and clustered, functionally related…
The Eukaryotic Promoter Region
The eukaryotic promoter region is a segment of DNA located upstream of a gene. It contains an RNA polymerase binding site, a transcription start…
Co-activators and Co-repressors
Gene transcription is regulated by the synergistic action of several proteins that form a complex at a gene regulatory site. This is observed in…
Eukaryotic Transcription Activators
Transcription activators are proteins that promote the transcription of genes from DNA to RNA. In most cases, these proteins contain two separate…
Eukaryotic Transcription Inhibitors
Certain biochemical processes, such as embryonic development and cell growth regulation, depend on the repression of specific genes. DNA binding…
Combinatorial Gene Control
Combinatorial gene control is the synergistic action of several transcriptional factors to regulate the expression of a single gene. The absence of…
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that divide and produce different types of cells. Ordinarily, cells that have differentiated into a specific…
Master Transcription Regulators
Master transcription regulators are regulatory proteins that are predominantly responsible for regulating the expression of multiple genes. Often…
Epigenetic Regulation
Epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role in healthy development. Conversely, precisely regulated epigenetic mechanisms are disrupted in diseases…
Genomic Imprinting and Inheritance
Diploid organisms inherit genetic material through chromosomes from both parents. Copies of the same gene are known as alleles. In most cases, both…
Identifying Transcription Factor Olig2 Genomic Binding Sites in Acutely Purified PDGFRα+ Cells by Low-cell Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing Analysis
In mammalian cells, gene transcription is regulated in a cell type specific manner by the interactions of transcriptional factors with genomic DNA.…
A Rat Methyl-Seq Platform to Identify Epigenetic Changes Associated with Stress Exposure
As genomes of a wider variety of animals become available, there is an increasing need for tools that can capture dynamic epigenetic changes in these…
Cell Type-specific Gene Expression Profiling in the Mouse Liver
Liver repopulation after injury is a crucial feature of mammals which prevents immediate organ failure and death after exposure of environmental…

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