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الفصل 14
What is Cell Signaling?
Despite the protective membrane that separates a cell from the environment, cells need the ability to detect and respond to environmental changes.…
Autocrine Signaling
Secreted signals can act on a variety of target cells. In some cases, the cell that secretes a signal also detects and responds to the signaling…
Paracrine Signaling
Paracrine signaling allows cells to communicate with their immediate neighbors via secretion of signaling molecules. The signal only triggers a…
Endocrine Signaling
Endocrine cells produce hormones to communicate with remote target cells found in other organs. The hormone reaches these distant areas using the…
Intracellular Signaling Cascades
Intracellular signaling cascades amplify a signal originating extracellularly and directs it to its intended intracellular target resulting in…
Notch Signaling Pathway
The Notch signaling pathway is a major intracellular signaling pathway that is highly conserved over a broad spectrum of metazoan species. It stands…
Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway
The gene encoding the main signaling molecules of the Wnt signaling pathways (the Wnt proteins) was discovered almost four decades ago by…
Non-Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathways
Wnt is a zygotic effect gene that is expressed during very early embryonic development. It regulates various processes in animals starting from early…
Hedgehog Signaling Pathway
The Hedgehog gene (Hh) was first discovered due to its control of the growth of disorganized, hair-like bristles phenotype in Drosophila, much like…
NF-κB-dependent Signaling Pathway
The transcription factor NF-κB was discovered in 1986 in the lab of Nobel laureate Professor David Baltimore, for its interaction with the…
Internal Receptors
Many cellular signals are hydrophilic and therefore cannot pass through the plasma membrane. However, small or hydrophobic signaling molecules can…
Circadian Rhythms and Gene Regulation
The biological clock is involved in many aspects of regulating complex physiology in all animals. It was in 1935 when German zoologists, Hans Kalmus…
G-protein Coupled Receptors
G-protein coupled receptors are ligand binding receptors that indirectly affect changes in the cell. The actual receptor is a single polypeptide that…
What are Second Messengers?
Because many receptor binding ligands are hydrophilic, they do not cross the cell membrane and thus their message must be relayed to a second…
Enzyme-linked Receptors
Enzyme-linked receptors are proteins which act as both receptor and enzyme, activating multiple intracellular signals. This is a large group of…
توصيف G مستقبلات البروتين يقترن بها الكالسيوم تعبئة الفحص القائم على الإسفار
For more than 20 years, reverse pharmacology has been the preeminent strategy to discover the activating ligands of orphan G protein-coupled…
في الوقت الحقيقي التصوير الضوئي التلالؤ من الدرجة ديناميات الإشارات اثناء التكوين العصبي Murine
Notch signaling regulates the maintenance of neural stem/progenitor cells by cell-cell interactions. The components of Notch signaling exhibit…
NF-κB-الاعتماد علي التنشيط والتقدير الكمي للتعبير الجيني في خلايا الانسجه المصابة <em>السالمونيلا</em> الثقافة
The dimeric transcription factor NF-κB regulates many cellular response pathways, including inflammatory pathways by inducing the expression of…

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