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Chapter 20
What is Cancer?
Cells and tissues need meticulous coordination amongst them for the normal functioning of the human body. Therefore, they exhibit socially…
Cancers Originate from Somatic Mutations in a Single Cell
Cancer arises from mutations in the critical genes that allow healthy cells to escape cell cycle regulation and acquire the ability to proliferate…
Tumor Progression
Tumor progression is a phenomenon where the pre-formed tumor acquires successive mutations to become clinically more aggressive and malignant. In the…
Adaptive Mechanisms in Cancer Cells
Cancer cells accumulate genetic changes at an abnormally rapid rate due to the defects in DNA repair mechanisms. From an evolutionary perspective,…
The Tumor Microenvironment
Every normal cell or tissue is embedded in a complex local environment called stroma, consisting of different cell types, a basal membrane, and blood…
Metastasis
Metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from the original site to distant locations in the body. Cancer cells can spread via blood vessels…
Cancer-Critical genes: Gain of Function vs loss of Function
Genes usually encode proteins necessary for the proper functioning of a healthy cell. Mutations can often cause changes to the gene expression…
Cancer Causing Viruses
Viruses cause nearly 15% of human cancers throughout the world. These cancer-causing viruses belong to diverse viral families. Some of the DNA…
The Ras Gene
The Ras-gene-encoded proteins are regulators of signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, or cell survival. The Ras-gene…
Tumor Suppressor Genes
Tumor suppressor genes are normal genes that can slow down cell division, repair DNA mistakes, or program the cells for apoptosis in case of…
mTOR Signaling and Cancer Progression
The mammalian target of rapamycin or mTOR protein was discovered in 1994 due to its direct interaction with rapamycin. The protein gets its name from…
Cancer Stem Cells and Tumor Maintenance
Early diagnosis and treatment can often cure cancer. However, even with treatment, residual cells called the cancer stem cells (CSC) might remain,…
Mouse Models of Cancer Study
Mice have long served as models for studying human biology and pathology because of their phylogenetic and physiological similarity with humans. They…
Cancer Prevention
Several factors can increase the risk of cancer in an individual. About 50% of cancer cases can be prevented by adopting a healthy lifestyle, regular…
Cancer Therapies
Cancer therapies are various modes of treatment, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy that are administered to cancer…
Targeting Specific Cancers
The targeted cancer therapies, also known as “molecular targeted therapies,” take advantage of the molecular and genetic differences…
Treatment Resistant Cancers
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. A cancer cell is genetically unstable and hence can mutate faster. They can also…
Combination Therapies and Personalized Medicine
Combining two or more treatment methods increases the life span of cancer patients while reducing damage to vital organs or tissue from the overuse…
A Mimic of the Tumor Microenvironment: A Simple Method for Generating Enriched Cell Populations and Investigating Intercellular Communication
Understanding the early heterotypic interactions between cancer cells and the surrounding non-cancerous stroma is important in elucidating the events…
Testing Targeted Therapies in Cancer using Structural DNA Alteration Analysis and Patient-Derived Xenografts
We present here an integrative approach for testing efficacy of targeted therapies that combines the next generation sequencing technolo-gies,…
<em>In Vivo</em> and <em>Ex Vivo</em> Approaches to Study Ovarian Cancer Metastatic Colonization of Milky Spot Structures in Peritoneal Adipose
High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC), the cause of widespread peritoneal metastases, continues to have an extremely poor prognosis; fewer than 30%…

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