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Chapter 3

Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

Structure of Alkanes
The formation of carbon-carbon bonds leading to the creation of the carbon chain is the basis of organic chemistry. August Kekulé and Archibald…
Constitutional Isomers of Alkanes
Organic compounds of the same molecular formula can have different structural formulas called constitutional isomers, and the phenomenon is…
Nomenclature of Alkanes
In the late 19th-century, the number of new chemical compounds discovered increased tremendously. Hence, the necessity arose to develop a naming…
Physical Properties of Alkanes
Alkanes are nonpolar molecules due to the presence of only carbon and hydrogen atoms. The electronegativity difference between carbon and hydrogen is…
Newman Projections
Different notations are used to represent the three-dimensional structure of molecules on two-dimensional surfaces. One of the most commonly used…
Conformations of Ethane and Propane
In an organic molecule, free rotation about the carbon-carbon single bond results in energetically different conformers of the molecule. Due to this…
Conformations of Butane
Unlike ethane and propane that have only two major conformations, butane has more than two conformers. The staggered form of butane in which the…
Cycloalkanes
Cycloalkanes are saturated cyclic hydrocarbons with carbon atoms arranged in the form of rings. They have two fewer hydrogen atoms than the…
Conformations of Cycloalkanes
Adolf von Baeyer attempted to explain the instabilities of small and large cycloalkane rings using the concept of angle strain — the strain…
Conformations of Cyclohexane
Cyclohexane does not exist in a planar form due to the high angle and torsional strain it would experience in the planar structure. Instead, it…
Chair Conformation of Cyclohexane
The chair conformation is the most stable form of cyclohexane due to the absence of angle and torsional strain. The absence of angle strain is a…
Stability of Substituted Cyclohexanes
This lesson discusses the stability of substituted cyclohexanes with a focus on energies of various conformers and the effect of 1,3-diaxial…
Disubstituted Cyclohexanes: <em>cis-trans</em> Isomerism
Depending upon the different spatial orientation of the substituents, the disubstituted cycloalkanes exhibit two types of stereoisomers. The cis…
Combustion Energy: A Measure of Stability in Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
The low reactivity in alkanes can be attributed to the non-polar nature of C–C and C–H σ bonds. Alkanes, therefore, were …
Combustion Characterization and Model Fuel Development for Micro-tubular Flame-assisted Fuel Cells
Combustion based power generation has been accomplished for many years through a number of heat engine systems. Recently, a move towards small scale…
A Toolkit to Enable Hydrocarbon Conversion in Aqueous Environments
This work puts forward a toolkit that enables the conversion of alkanes by Escherichia coli and presents a proof of principle of its applicability.…
Studying Surfactant Effects on Hydrate Crystallization at Oil-Water Interfaces Using a Low-Cost Integrated Modular Peltier Device
We introduce an approach to study the formation and growth of hydrates under the influence of nonionic surfactants. The experimental system includes…

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