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# Chapter 13 Fluid Mechanics

## Characteristics of Fluids

When a force is applied parallel to the top surface of a solid, it resists the applied force due to the internal frictional forces between the layers…

## Density

Density is an important characteristic of substances, crucial in determining whether an object sinks or floats in a fluid. Its SI unit is kg/m3, and…

## Pressure of Fluids

There are many examples of pressure in fluids in everyday life, such as in relation to blood (high or low blood pressure) and in relation to weather…

## Variation of Atmospheric Pressure

Change in atmospheric pressure with height is particularly interesting. The decrease in atmospheric pressure with increasing altitude is due to the…

## Pascal's Law

In 1653, the French philosopher and scientist Blaise Pascal published "Treatise on the Equilibrium of Liquids," which discussed the…

## Application of Pascal's Law

Pascal's experimentally proven observations—that a change in pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished throughout…

## Pressure Gauges

Most pressure gauges, like those on scuba tanks, are calibrated to read zero at atmospheric pressure. Readings from such gauges are called the gauge…

## Buoyancy

When an object is placed in a fluid, it either floats or sinks. All objects in a fluid experience a buoyant force. For example, a metal ball sinks,…

## Archimedes' Principle

Archimedes' principle states that an upward buoyant force exerted on a body that is immersed partially or entirely in a fluid is equal to…

## Density and Archimedes' Principle

When a lump of clay is dropped into water, it sinks. But if the same lump of clay is molded into the shape of a boat, it starts to float. Because of…

## Accelerating Fluids

When a fluid is in constant acceleration, the pressure and buoyant force equations are modified. Suppose a beaker is placed in an elevator…

## Surface Tension and Surface Energy

When a paint brush is immersed in water, the bristles wave freely inside the water. When it is taken out, the bristles stick together. The reason…

## Excess Pressure Inside a Drop and a Bubble

The shape of a small drop of liquid can be considered spherical, neglecting the effect of gravity. This drop can further be considered as two equal…

## Contact Angle

When a solid is dipped inside a liquid, the liquid surface becomes curved near the contact. For some solid–liquid interfaces, the liquid is…

## Rise of Liquid in a Capillary Tube

When very thin cylindrical tubes, called capillaries, are dipped in a liquid, the liquid rises or falls in the tube compared to the surrounding…

## Laminar and Turbulent Flow

Fluid dynamics is the study of fluids in motion. Velocity vectors are often used to illustrate fluid motion in applications like meteorology. For…

## Equation of Continuity

Fluid motion is represented by either velocity vectors or streamlines. The volume of a fluid flowing past a given location through an area during a…

## Bernoulli's Equation

In the middle of the nineteenth century, it was observed that two trains passing each other at a high relative speed get pulled towards each other.…

## Bernoulli's Principle

Bernoulli's equation incorporates how fluid pressure changes across a static, incompressible fluid by equating the kinetic energy contribution to…

## Bernoulli's Principle: Applications

There are many devices and situations in which fluid flows at a constant height and so can be analyzed using Bernoulli's principle. These devices…

## Energy Conservation and Bernoulli's Equation

Applying the conservation of energy principle or the work-energy theorem to an incompressible, inviscid fluid in laminar, steady, irrotational flow…

## Viscosity

When water is poured into a glass, it falls freely and quickly, whereas if honey or maple syrup is poured over a pancake, it flows slowly and sticks…

## Poiseuille's Law and Reynolds Number

Any fluid in a horizontal tube can flow due to pressure differences—fluid flows from high to low pressure. The flow rate (Q) is the ratio of…

## Stokes' Law

Viscous forces, like friction, are intermolecular forces that resist the relative motion of molecules over each other. When a solid body moves…

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