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Chapter 20

Chloroplasts and Photosynthesis

What is Photosynthesis?
All living organisms on Earth are directly or indirectly dependent on photosynthesis. It is the only biological process that can capture energy from…
The Anatomy of Chloroplasts
Green algae and plants, including green stems and unripe fruit, harbor specialized organelles called chloroplasts to carry out photosynthesis. They…
Photosystems
Photosystems are multiprotein complexes that form the functional units of photosynthesis in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. They are found embedded…
The Photochemical Reaction Center
Reaction centers are pigment-protein complexes that initiate energy conversion from photons to chemical entities. Therefore, photochemical reaction…
The Antenna Complex
Plants and other photosynthetic organisms comprise pigments capable of absorption of direct sunlight. These pigments are present in the reaction…
The Z-Scheme of Electron Transport in Photosynthesis
The light reactions of photosynthesis assume a linear flow of electrons from water to NADP+. During this process, light energy drives the splitting…
The Calvin Benson Cycle
Ribulose 1,5- bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCo) is a critical enzyme that catalyzes carbon dioxide assimilation during photosynthesis.…
Evaluation of Photosynthetic Behaviors by Simultaneous Measurements of Leaf Reflectance and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Analyses
Chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis is widely used to measure photosynthetic behaviors in intact plants, and has resulted in the development of many…
Preparation of Chloroplast Sub-compartments from Arabidopsis for the Analysis of Protein Localization by Immunoblotting or Proteomics
Chloroplasts are major components of plant cells. Such plastids fulfill many crucial functions, such as assimilation of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen…
Isolating and Incorporating Light-Harvesting Antennas from Diatom <em>Cyclotella Meneghiniana</em> in Liposomes with Thylakoid Lipids
The photosynthetic performance of plants, algae and diatoms strongly depends on the fast and efficient regulation of the light harvesting and energy…

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