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# Chapter 7 Estimates

## What are Estimates?

It isn't easy to measure a parameter such as the mean height or the mean weight of a population. So, we draw samples from the population and…

## Sample Proportion and Population Proportion

Collecting samples or responses from an entire population takes significant time and effort, so a researcher collects responses from only a sample of…

## Confidence Intervals

An unbiased point estimate is often insufficient to predict a population estimate, such as population mean or population proportion. In this…

## Confidence Coefficient

The confidence coefficient is also known as the confidence level or degree of confidence. It is the percent expression for the probability, 1-α,…

## Interpretation of Confidence Intervals

A confidence interval is a better estimate of the population than a point estimate, as it uses a range of values from a sample instead of a single…

## Critical Values

A critical value is a definite value obtained from a particular probability distribution at a predecided confidence level (or a predecided…

## Margin of Error

The margin of error is also called the maximum error of an estimate. The margin of error is the maximum possible or expected difference between the…

## Sample Size Calculation

Knowledge of the sample size is the first requirement to conduct random sampling or an experiment. The sample size is the total number of units,…

## Estimating Population Mean with Known Standard Deviation

To construct a confidence interval for a single unknown population mean μ, where the population standard deviation is known, we need sample mean…

## Estimating Population Mean with Unknown Standard Deviation

In practice, we rarely know the population standard deviation. In the past, when the sample size was large, this did not present a problem to…

## Confidence Interval for Estimating Population Mean

A point estimate of the population mean is obtained from a single sample. Such a point estimate does not represent a population well because it needs…

## Picometer-Precision Atomic Position Tracking through Electron Microscopy

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The modern aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopes (AC-STEM) have successfully achieved direct visualization of atomic…

## Breakfast Habits among Schoolchildren in the City of Uruguaiana, Brazil

Breakfast is the first and most important meal of the day, and omitting it is associated with a greater probability of overweight and school…

## Single-Cell Quantification of Protein Degradation Rates by Time-Lapse Fluorescence Microscopy in Adherent Cell Culture

Proteins are in a dynamic state of synthesis and degradation and their half-lives can be adjusted under various circumstances. However, most commonly…

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