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Chapter 11

Correlation and Regression

Correlation
In statistics, two variables are said to be correlated if the values of one variable are associated with the other variable. Depending on the…
Coefficient of Correlation
The correlation coefficient, r, developed by Karl Pearson in the early 1900s, is numerical and provides a measure of strength and direction of the…
Calculating and Interpreting the Linear Correlation Coefficient
The correlation coefficient, r, developed by Karl Pearson in the early 1900s, is numerical and provides a measure of strength and direction of the…
Regression Analysis
Regression analysis is a statistical tool that describes a mathematical relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent…
Outliers and Influential Points
An outlier is an observation of data that does not fit the rest of the data. It is sometimes called an extreme value. When you graph an outlier, it…
Residuals and Least-Squares Property
The vertical distance between the actual value of y and the estimated value of y. In other words, it measures the vertical distance between the…
Residual Plots
A residual plot is a statistical representation of data used to analyze correlation and regression results. It helps verify the requirements for…
Variation
An important characteristic of any set of data is the variation in the data. In some data sets, the data values are concentrated closely near the…
Prediction Intervals
The interval estimate of any variable is known as the prediction interval. It helps decide if a point estimate is dependable. However, the point…
Multiple Regression
Multiple regression assesses a linear relationship between one response or dependent variable and two or more independent variables. It has many…
A Colorimetric Method for Measuring Iron Content in Plants
Iron, one of the most important micronutrients in living organisms, is involved in basic processes, such as respiration and photosynthesis. Iron…
Brain Morphology of Cannabis Users With or Without Psychosis: A Pilot MRI Study
Cannabis is the illicit drug most commonly used worldwide, and its consumption can both induce psychiatric symptoms in otherwise healthy subjects and…
O-cresol Concentration Online Measurement Based On Near Infrared Spectroscopy Via Partial Least Square Regression
Unlike macroscopic process variables, near-infrared spectroscopy provides process information at the molecular level and can significantly improve…

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