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Chapter 8

Cellular Respiration

What is Cellular Respiration?
Organisms harvest energy from food, but this energy cannot be directly used by cells. Cells convert the energy stored in nutrients into a more usable…
What is Glycolysis?
Cells make energy by breaking down macromolecules. Cellular respiration is the biochemical process that converts “food energy” (from…
Energy-requiring Steps of Glycolysis
Glucose is the source of nearly all energy used by organisms. The first step of converting glucose into usable energy is called glycolysis.…
Energy-releasing Steps of Glycolysis
While the first phase of glycolysis consumes energy to convert glucose to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), the second phase produces energy. The…
Outcomes of Glycolysis
Nearly all the energy used by cells comes from the bonds that make up complex, organic compounds. These organic compounds are broken down into…
Pyruvate Oxidation
After glycolysis, the charged pyruvate molecules enter the mitochondria via active transport and undergo three enzymatic reactions. These reactions…
The Citric Acid Cycle
The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or TCA cycle, consists of several energy-generating reactions that yield one ATP molecule, three…
Products of the Citric Acid Cycle
The cells of most organisms—including plants and animals—obtain usable energy through aerobic respiration, the oxygen-requiring version…
Electron Transport Chains
The final stage of cellular respiration is oxidative phosphorylation, which consists of (1) an electron transport chain and (2) chemiosmosis. The…
Chemiosmosis
Oxidative phosphorylation is a highly efficient process that generates large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the basic unit of energy that…
Electron Carriers
Electron carriers can be thought of as electron shuttles. These compounds can easily accept electrons (i.e., be reduced) or lose them (i.e., be…
ATP Yield
Cellular respiration produces 30-32 ATP molecules per glucose molecule. Although most of the ATP results from oxidative phosphorylation and the…
Fermentation
Most eukaryotic organisms require oxygen to survive and function adequately. Such organisms produce large amounts of energy during aerobic…
Dietary Connections
Metabolic pathways are interconnected. The cellular respiration processes that convert glucose to ATP—such as glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and…
High-resolution Respirometry to Assess Mitochondrial Function in Permeabilized and Intact Cells
A high-resolution oxygraph is a device for measuring cellular oxygen consumption in a closed-chamber system with very high resolution and sensitivity…
An Optimized Protocol to Analyze Glycolysis and Mitochondrial Respiration in Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes respond to a variety of stimuli by activating intracellular signaling pathways, which in turn leads to rapid cellular proliferation,…
Treating SCA1 Mice with Water-Soluble Compounds to Non-Specifically Boost Mitochondrial Function
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a significant role in the aging process and in neurodegenerative diseases including several hereditary…
Studying Mitochondrial Structure and Function in <em>Drosophila</em> Ovaries
Analysis of the mitochondrial structure-function relationship is required for a thorough understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of mitochondrial…

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