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Chapter 8

Cellular Respiration

What is Glycolysis?
Overview Cells make energy by breaking down macromolecules. Cellular respiration is the biochemical process that converts “food energy”…
Energy-requiring Steps of Glycolysis
Glycolysis begins with a single glucose molecule. The Process Using ATP, the enzyme hexokinase transfers a phosphate group to the six-carbon sugar…
Energy-releasing Steps of Glycolysis
In the second half of glycolysis, the two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, G3P, are oxidized with the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme triose…
Pyruvate Oxidation
After glycolysis, the charged pyruvate molecules enter the mitochondria via active transport and undergo three enzymatic reactions. These reactions…
The Citric Acid Cycle
The citric acid cycle is a closed loop of reactions that occur in the mitochondrial matrix, including redox, dehydration, hydration, and…
Electron Transport Chains
Embedded in multiple folds of the inner membrane of mitochondria are numerous copies of the electron transport chain—a series of four protein…
Chemiosmosis
Overview Oxidative phosphorylation is a highly efficient process that generates large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the basic unit of…
Electron Carriers
Electron carriers are compounds that shuttle around high-energy electrons—the cell’s currency of extractable energy—via redox…
Fermentation
Fermentation is an anaerobic process of using sugar, without oxygen. Lactic Acid Fermentation During lactic acid fermentation—when muscles…
Dietary Connections
Organisms also ingest food in the form of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, which also play a role in the glycolysis pathway. Carbohydrates,…
High-resolution Respirometry to Assess Mitochondrial Function in Permeabilized and Intact Cells
A high-resolution oxygraph is a device for measuring cellular oxygen consumption in a closed-chamber system with very high resolution and sensitivity…
An Optimized Protocol to Analyze Glycolysis and Mitochondrial Respiration in Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes respond to a variety of stimuli by activating intracellular signaling pathways, which in turn leads to rapid cellular proliferation,…
Treating SCA1 Mice with Water-Soluble Compounds to Non-Specifically Boost Mitochondrial Function
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a significant role in the aging process and in neurodegenerative diseases including several hereditary…
Studying Mitochondrial Structure and Function in <em>Drosophila</em> Ovaries
Analysis of the mitochondrial structure-function relationship is required for a thorough understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of mitochondrial…

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